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Vindobonae, Carolus Fromrac, typogr. C. ui K. Aulae. 



IOHANNIS WYCLIF 

TRACTATUS 

DE SIMONIA. 



Now first edited from the Vienna MSS. 4536, 1622, 4504, 4515, 
3927, 3937, and 1343; from the Prague MS. X. E9. and the 
Trinity College (Dublin) MS. C. 1. 24. 



Dr. HERZBERG--FRANKEL 



A N I ) 



MICHAEL HENRY DZIEWICKI. 



LONDON. 

PUBLISHED FOR THE WYCLIF SOCIETV BY TRLIBNER & C" 

PATERNOSTEB HOUSE, CHAKINU CKOSS KOAD. 

1898. 



Contents of Introduction. 

[. Preliminarv p. V. 

II. The Manuscripts and their transmission p. VI. 

III. Authenticity and date of the work p. XIV. 

IV. Its Contents p. XV. 



INTRODUCTION. 



I. Preliminary. 

The trite saying, Habent sua fata libelli, applies also, but only 
unfavourably to this edition of De Simonia, because it has been long 
delayed by a series of untovvard circumstances; so that, since my first 
undertaking the work, a good many years have elapsed. I had ba- 
rely done copying the manuscript text when I was called upon to 
begin the immediate editing of another most important work. I, hovvever, 
succeeded in collating most of the manuscripts of De Simonia, though 
the work went on slowly, and with frequent interruptions; and at last 
the whole of the text was set up, and the proofs were corrected and 
properly supplied vvith the necessary notes, after delays which sorely 
tried the patience of the Founder of the Wyclif Society, Dr. Furnivall, 
of the printer, and of the editor himself. The most important point — 
and here the obstacles were hardest to overcome — was to carry out 
the undertaking thoroughly, in accordance with the recognized principles 
of what a good scholarly edition should be. When at length in spite of 
the numerous interruptions the most essential part of my labours had been 
brought to a close, when the greatest difliculties had been overcome, and 
nothing remained unfinished but the Introduction, tlie Index, and the Addenda, 
I was called away from Vienna to Czernowitz, thus entering a new sphere 
of activity which claimed the whole of my time, and left me no liope of putting 
the last hand to my work. Mr. M. H. Dziewicki then kindly promised to 
undertake what I was obliged to leave undone, and only asked me for the 
necessary description and classification of the manuscripts employed in 
the construction of the text. But when I set myself to tliis task, I found 
that another misfortune had occurred, vvhieh I had not foreseen. All the 
notes taken on the subject had been mislaid in consequence oi my change 



VI 



INTRODUCTION. 



of abode, and thc whole work, both of description and of critical ex- 
inination, had to be done over again. This, however, is now accomplish- 
ed; and I can bring my part in the edition to a close, entreating the 
public to take into account the extenuating circumstances I have men- 
tioned, which have caused so long a delay in the publication of this book. 

I liere very gladly avail myself of the occasion to follow a custom 
which is now becoming quite general, and to mention all those who 
have lent me a belping hand. I wish especially to thank Dr. Furnivall, 
Mr. Matthew — who not only translated the side-notcs, but aided me 
in every way, both by his advice and his active help — the officers of 
the Hofbibliothek, Dr. Goldlin von Tiefenau and Dr. Rudolf Beer; those 
of the Prague University, and Prof. Ingram, the head librarian of Trinity 
College, Dublin, who sent their MSS. to Vienna for me; Prof. Ingram in 
particular showed me much kindness. My best thanks are due to all 
these gentlemen. 

II. The Manuscripts and their transmission. 

The treatise De Sinionia has come down to us in nine manuscripts, 
of which seven belong to the Imperial Library, Vienna, one to the 
Prague University Library, and one to Trinity College, Dublin. I have 
thought it best to letter them, from a to i, in the following order. 

i. Cod. Vindob. 4536 (aj. Fully described by Dr. Ruddensieg, in 
his Introduction to Wyclifs Polemical Works, pp. XLIV — XLVI. AIso 
(very briefly) in the Dialogus by Mr. Pollard, Introduction, p. XXIV. 

De Simonia extends from f. 133 to f. 191'. The Argumentum 
comes before the treatise itself. The chapters are denoted by initials in 
red ink, and by numbers in the margin, which also contains subdivisions 
of the chapters (A, B, and so on), catchwords, and numerous correc- 
tions ; with marks to refer them to their place in the text. Many of the 
mistakes are corrected bv means of erasures and marginal additions; 
many are left uncorrected. The handwriting belongs to tiie first decade 
of the i5 th century. After the closing lines ExpHcit — prelatos, there is 
an index of catchwords: Seqnitur Registrnm. 

Abbas nichil debet sumere vel exigere pro quocunque orna- 
mento. I. A. 



INTRODUCTION. 



VII 



Acceptor et acce.ptus quomodo peccat symonia. 
Accipiens stare sine &c. ; 5 A. 

Actus vel habitus inordinatus dicitur peccatum, 2. P. 
And so on. The numbers indicate the chapters; the letters, their 
subdivisions. 

2. Cod. Vindob. 1622 (b). Size 22 l / 2 by i^/^cm. 188 numbered 
Ieaves, of which several are left blank betvveen the different tractates; 
at the end there are 16 blank leaves. Bound in leather-covered boards. 
On the inside of the first cover there is a summary of contents in two 
difterent hands, both of the XV th century, as follows: 

a) Tractatus magistri Stanislai doctoris theologie de peccato et gracia. 
— Tractatus de symonia. — b) De innocentia W. sine iine. Conclusio 
quod Christi perfectissima est religio. Dyalogus W. — Tractatus 44 
conclusionum contra monachos W. — Responsio 5 conclusionum W. 

Tractatus de ordinibus elericorum. — ■ Item verbum communiter 
dictum clero. Item de quatuor sectis. 

On the inside of the other cover, there is: . . . (an illegible word) 
de peccato et gracia magistri Stanislai, de symonia, dyalogus Wykleff 
(Handwriting of the XVI" 1 century). The contents are inexactly given in 
the Tabulae Manuscriptorum of the Hofbibliothek: ff. 65 — 82' are not 
quite blank. Ff. 73 — 75 contain a fragment of Wyclifs De Statu Inno- 
centice {Incipit: Ut supra dicta magis . . . Explicit: suppleat sic eadem 
natura) already noticed by Shirley in p. 7 of his catalogue (No 340 of 
Denis). Then follows, after De Simonia, the 'Conclusio' of which the 
table on the first cover makes mention (Jncip.: Conclusio pura religio 
Christiana . . . ExpL: subditum perfectos religiosos etc. ff. 127' — 128). 
The three last tracts in this volume are: De Ordine (ff. 180 — 181'). 
Dc Demonio Meridiano (ff. 181' — 183') and De Sectis Monachorum 
(ff. 183' — 188) noticed in the Tabulae under other names, and over- 
looked by Shirley. The writing, which is very good and careful, and 
which seems - — in spite of noticeable differences in certain passages — 
to be the work of a single copyist, belongs to the first half of the XV 1 ' 1 
century. No earlier date can be assigned to it, for we find the following 
words on f. 64': rt P2xplicit hic tractatus de peccato et gracia magistri 
Stanislai labore editus sacre theologie professoris a. d. 14 10. et cetera." 
It is a beautiful MS. with coloured initials and vignettes at the beginning 
of the more important tractates; the parchment is very fine and vvhite. 



VIII 



INTRODUCTION. 



The margins are vvide, with a few words in smaller letters written upon 
them here and there. Only one column to each page. 

De Simonia extends from f. 83 to f. 128, with blank spaces wher- 
ever the copyist could not make out a word. The chapters have no 
subdivisions. The Argitmentum is placed at the beginning; the verses 
'Explicit . . . prelatis', form the conclusion. The 'Conclusio' (ff. 127' - 128) 
does not belong to De Simonia. 

3. Cod. Vindob. 4504 (c). Described by me for Mr. Harris: See 
Jh- Benedicta Incarnatione, Introduction, p. XII. I subjoin a fuller de- 
scription of what especially concerns De Simonia. This tractate extends 
from f. 1 to f. 36. No title. A few corrections, botli on the margin and 
in the text. The remark that De Cotnpositione Hominis is non examinalus 
can by no means be taken as a proof that the other MSS. are examinali. 
De Simonia is also uot properly corrected. Gaps have been left unfilled 
in the places of illegible words, and many absurd blunders have been 
allowed to remain. Writing of the first decade of the XV' 1 century. Spaces 
are left for initial letters to be filled in. The Argumentum is at the 
beginning of the book. No subdivisions of chapters. Instead of the lines: 
"Explicit — prelatos", tliere is "Explicit tractatus de vSymonia". 

4. Cod. Vindob. 4515 (d). Shortly described in the Dialogus, Intro- 
duction, p. XXIII; very fully in Buddensieg's Polemical Works ofWyctif 
pp. XLVI— XLVIII. 

De Simonia (ff. 27—67'). No title. Several hands, all belonging to 
the first decades of the XV" 1 century. Many glaring blunders in the MS. 
as first copied, are corrected by numerous marginal or supralinear notes; 
here and there the original mistake has been erased, and the correct 
text supplied. This of course considerably alters its value; a point 
to which we shall subsequently allude. There are a few catchwords. 
The chapters have no subdivisions, but are indicated by red initials. 

The Argumentunt stands tirst, and the lines "Lxplicit", &c. are 

wanting. 

5. Cod. Vindob. 3927 (e). 

Described by Buddensieg, Pol. Works of W. I. Vol. XLIII. 

De Simonia (ff. 53 — 74') has, besides the pagination that obtains 
all through the work, a special pagination of its own. Each of the two 
pages which face each other in the open book bear the same number, 
and the four columns making up the two pages are lettered a, h, c and d 



INTRODUCTION. 



IX 



respectively. 1 Two hands have worked at this as on the foregoing trac- 
tate; no doubt the same ones. The first is from f. 53 to f. 60'; the 
second, from 61 to 75': both belong to the first decades of the XV U1 
century. With the exception of the first Ietter in the tractate, no initials 
are filled up. There are many marginal corrections, also catchwords; 
some of the gaps are not filled in, others have been filled in at a later 
date with a different ink. A note, "Gertrudis virginis", at the end of 
Ch. III, shows probably that the copyist had reached this point of his work 
on the 17 111 March, St. Gertrude's day. The Argumcntum is at the beginn- 
ing of the book; the final verse, "Explicit," &c. is wanting. After 
"semper regnat", come the words "B. de Symonia", and an index of 
catchwords which differs from tliat in a and g. A few specimens will 
suffice. 

1'trum liceat curiam Romanam adire pro beneficiis, c. 5. C. 
Quare clericis legis civiles et phisice sunt prohibite, d. 9. 
De corpore Christi, c. 13 . . . 

And so on. The numbers refer to the separate pagination; the 
letters, to the columns. 

6. Cod. Vindob. 3937 (/). Size, 29 cm by 21. Paper. 186 leaves, 
many of them blank, but numbered from first to last by a modern hand. 
On the cover and fly-Ieaf the words "Dono habui" are written in a 
hand of the XVI 1 ' 1 century. Inside the cover is an index of contents, in 
XV" 1 century handwriting. The MS. is a collection of tracts by Hus, 
Richard Fitzralph and others, noticed at some length in the Tabulae 
Manuscriptorum : nothing of Wyclif is here, except De Simonia, from 
f. 115 to f. 137'. The writing belongs to the first years of the XV 1 ' 1 cen- 
tury; each page is in tvvo columns, with here and there a catchword and 
explanatory notes on the margin; the word Nota occurs frequently. There is 
no lettered subdivision of the chapters, but the paragraphs are denoted by 
the sign q in red ink. The copy is very incorrect, and full of mistakes, 
which (juite destroy the sense, and show that the scribe did not under- 
stand what he was writing. After the final verses "Explicit" &c. there 
follows: "Amen dicant" ; and then, in a different ink: "Finitus est iste 
tractatus anno 1401." 

1 This confirms what is known from other MSS. that the original 'folio' was 
thc open double page folded in the middle. The word was afterwards used for 
a leaf. (Notc by Dr. F. J. Furnivall.) 



X 



INTRODUCTION. 



7. Cod. Prag. X. E9 (g). Fully described by Dr. Buddensieg, Pol. 
Works of W., Introduction, pp. L, LII. 

De Simonia (ff. 69 — 131') is written in a slovenly hand, belonging 
to the first decade of the XV" 1 century, and the same as in the tractate 
immediately before it, "De Officio PastoralP\ as far as f. 121, where 
the writing abruptly becomes smaller and much more cramped until the 
end, and is apparently the work of another hand. The few corrections 
to be found in the text are for the most part in two hands; one large 
and bold, the other smaller and more delicate. Red catchwords on tbe 
margin are numerous at first, but are afterwards to be met with only 
on separate pages. The Argnmentum, placed at the beginning of the 
treatise, and also the text of the work itself, are adorned with tasteless 
initials; but those which begin the chapters, in red and blue ink, are 
in somewhat less bad taste. The subdivisions of the chapters are indi- 
cated by marginal letters. At the end (ff. 126 — 131') there is an alpha- 
betical indev of catchwords, with the title ''Registrum super De 
Symonia". 

Abbas non debet sumere vel exigere precium pro quocunque orna- 
mento, i° cap°, a. 

Actus vel habitus inordinatus dicitur peccatum, z° cap°, p. 

And so on, giving all the words that begin with A, B . . . &c. 

8. Cod. Uubl. (Trinity College) C. 1, 24 (//). Described in De 
Aposlasia by Mr. Dziewicki. 1 The Argumentum to De Simonia is wanting. 

9. Cod. Vindob. 1343 (/). Described in De Aposiasia, p. IV. 

De Simonia (ff. 1 — 36'). Over the beginning of the text, there are 
the following words in red ink: r Tncipit de Symonia et est liber X in 
ordine summe sue." The MS. of the flrst decade of the XV ,h century, 
though not quite so elegantly adorned as b, is evidently the work of a 
careful penman. The subdivisions of the chapters are indicated by 
letters of the alphabet. Many corrections in the margin; also at the top 
and bottom of the pages, which have each tvvo columns. There are also 
catchwords, which fully indicate the contents. Instead of preceding the 
text, the Argumentum comes afler the closing lines, "Explicit," &c. 

1 I wished to have a copy of the first two pages, on account of the spelling 
of which I make mention further; but as that could not be procured, the first page 
was photographed instead. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XI 



The investigation of the comparative value of these nine MSS. is 
attended with nu slight difficulty. Some of them — I allude especially 
to f and g — must have copied into the text the marginal notes and 
various readings which existed as such in their originals; a circumstance 
\\ hich detracts from the purity of their genetic connection, and renders 
it hard to come to a decision as to their origin. Others, especially a and d, 
are full of corrections vvhich totally change their value, and so much alter their 
value that we must ascribe one source to the corrected ; and another to 
the unaltered texts. We should also remember that the originals (which 
we no longer possess) were written in the highly abbreviated style of 
the XIV th and XV" 1 centuries, in which a single characteristic letter, or 
other sign, is often made to do duty for a whole word. Evidently, a 
scribe ignorant of the sense of what he was copying would be very likely 
rather to guess at the word than to read it; this was very often the 
case. On this account, we find MSS. that are very nearly related — 
such, for instance, as c and e, a and g, differing a good deal at times 
in their respective readings, whilst agreeing with others which are much 
more remotely related. Nevertheless, and taking all this into considera- 
tion, I think I may point to certain fixed and definite conclusions. 

It seems in the first place evident that the common source (X) 
from which all our MSS. have been copied, is not the first copy of all, 
but a text which is in certain places so corrupt as to be quite unintel- 
ligible (see notes to pp. 27, 1. 1 — 5, and 60, 1. 18), whose mistakes 
have been repeated in all the nine MSS. and can be corrected only by 
conjecture. 

The MSS. may be divided into two classes, from the standpoint 
of their agreement with each other and with their common source: the 
IJublin MS. (li) is on one side, and the rest are on the other. This classi- 
fication is based on the critical foot-notes that show how often h gives 
readings that differ from all the others; readings that produce not an 
arbitrary and accidental difference, but a considerable modification of the 
text. Thus, a b c d e f g i must have been copied from a single manu- 
script which we may call Y, and which stands to the original X in 
the same relation as /;. Again, in the Y group, i stands apart, having 
several distinctive peculiarities — one of which is, for instance, that the 
Argumentum is placed at the end — and agreeing with // much oftener 
than any other of its group ; so that it may be considered as a con- 



XII 



INTRODUCTION. 



necting link between them and //. The readings of a b c d e f g very 
often agree in contradicting h and i, and there can be no doubt that 
these seven MSS. were copied from the very same source. There are 
many proofs of this; but it will suflice here to select one of the most 
striking, on p. 8l, 1. 24, 25. The words from fructum to ministerio 
are absent from a b c e f g, and have been supplied by another hand 
in d. This agreement is certainly not accidental, and can be accounted 
for only by the supposition of a common source. This original (Z), there- 
fore, stands in tlie same sisterly relation to i as Y to the source of //. 

Rut a b c d e f g do not all proceed from Z in the same way. 
I think that only b, d (before correction) and f were copied directly 
from Z; and even for these, the hypothesis of intermediate copies might 
be allowed, on account of a nearer relationship between b and f 
and a closer agreement of d with // and i. At all events the resemblanee 
between c and e on the one hand, and a (before correction) and g on 
the other, is strikingly close, and extends even to the spelling. This fol- 
lows from the variants in the foot-notes, and would appear with still 
greater evidence, were it not for the difficulties mentioned at the outset. 
These prevented, not only a careful selection of the variants of c and e 
(partly, too, of f), but also a proper correction of the proof-sheets. 
The relationship of a with g may also be demonstrated by a proof extrinsic 
to the text : the index of catchwords, which (as I have carefully ascer- 
tained) belongs to these MSS. alone. A close examination has shown me the 
impossibility of a and c being copied from g and e; or vice versa. We can 
only frame a third hypothesis, viz., that a and g are copies of anotherMS. 
(A) and that c and e proceed again from another (B). So that A and B, 
which have not come down to us, stand in the same relation to Z as b, 
d, and f The transmission of the nine MSS. may, therefore, be set 
forth in the following diagram : 



lNTROhUCTION. 



XIII 




0 g- • b f 



Subsequently, however, the value of d was modified by a thorough 
correction with a manuscript closely related to //, so that the text be- 
comes almost identical with that of the latter MS. The corrections of a, 
which are perhaps based on an i text, are much less important, and 
do not alter its features to any great extent. Of course, these sub- 
sequent modifications do not change the original relations of the MSS. 
to each other. 

The best text is supplied by //. This is seen, not indeed at first sight, 
but after attentively comparing it with the others; both its pedigree and 
the similarity of the corrections in d tend to confirm this decision. It 
generally gives the best sense of all of them: in most of the places where it 
seriously differs from the others, its readings are usually found preferable. 
Howevcr, to construct a text, we are obliged to avail ourselves both of i 
and of the Z group. In doubtful cases and in the case of indifferent variations, 
so far as I have noted them, I have kept to the readings of h. It 
may often be wrong, I admit; but the principle of following in such 
cases the MS. which is the best in the main, is the only means we have 
of preserving the text from being formed by the editor's own arbitrary 
choice. I ought even to have followed the spelling of // ; but circums- 
stances rendered that impossible. When in Vienna, I was indeed able 
(by Prof. Ingram's courtesy) to collate the Dublin MS. with my copy; 
but I was not certain that it was the best until long after I had returned 
it. In my collation, I had overlooked the spelling, and should have 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



been obliged to ask for the MS. once more, this time on mv own 
responsibility ; for the late Director of the Imperial Library, Vienna, did not 
seem inclined to allow it to be sent there again. This rendered it impossiblc 
for me to do as I intended; and I have been obliged to follow the 
spelling of i, the second best MS. But it matters very little; the copyists, 
as is well known, did not follow their originals in that, but spelt as they 
chose. The modern spelling of Latin might have been adopted just as 
well ; but that would have destroyed the mediaeval character of the work. 1 

Czernowitz, Nov. i8q5. 

III. Authenticity and Date of De Simonia. 

Concerning the authenticity of this work, there is little or nothing 
to be said. No one acquainted with Wyclifs opinions, his methods of 
argumentation, and his style, would for an instant hesitate to ascribe 
De Simonia to him. He himself in his later works (for instance, in De 
Apostasia, p. 90) refers to it without naming the author, according to 
his custom when quoting tractates of his own. It forms a distinct part 
of his great Sitntma Theologiae, and as such, has an authenticity equal 
to any other of those parts. We may besides add that it is uamed in 
all lists of his works, as a part of his Sttnima; to which the note in i also 
bears witness: "Incipit De Symonia, et est liber X in ordine summe sue." 

For a very different reason, we can say but little about the exact 
date of this work. In the astonishing outpour of the last years of our 
author's life, it is very difficult to fix a precisely accurate date for any 
of his works, unless he happens to mention some event which was taking 
place whilst he wrote, and which is besides sufficiently known to his- 
tory. Now there is no such mention in De Simonia. On the other hand, 
we are able to get a sufficient degree of approximation to the date. 
De Blasphemia, as stated in the Introduction to that work, seems to 
have been written in 1381, or at the beginning of 1382, when the 
Peasants' Revolt was quite recent. De Apostasia certainly precedes De 
Blasphemia ; and De Simonia comes just before. We may then with some 
probability place the last treatise at the beginning of 1380 or towards 
the end of 1379, and immediately after De Eucharistia, which it quotes. 

1 Dr. Herzberg-Frankefs part of the Introduction ends here. Mr. Dziewicki 
is responsible for what follows. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XV 



It certainly comes after September 20, 1378 (the date of the election of 
the Antipope Clement VII), for it alludes to the court of Avignon as 
being a nest of simony (p. 9). But the fact is that, until all the works 
of Wyclif are edited, and their texts carefully studied — a labour which 
of course belongs to the future — it is impossible to do more than 
arrive at a conjectural conclusion as to the exact date of most of 
Wyclifs works. The editors of Wyclif have to cope with too many and 
more pressing difficulties, and cannot go into a close examination of 
words and expressions which, with the aid of a perfect knowledge of 
the annals of that time, might possibly enable them to give an exact 
date; though even this is doubtful. At any rate, it would be the labour 
of a lifetime; and future antiquarians will, no doubt, excuse us if we 
leave something for them to do, whilst our present editions will immeasur- 
ably lighten their labours. 

IV. Contents of De Simonia. 

In this short treatise, Wyclif seems less addicted to digression than 
is his wont. He generally keeps strictly to his point; and the division 
of the treatise is clear enough. Simony is committed by the Pope, the 
Bishops, the endowed Orders, and the temporal Lords. After a general 
definition of simony, and answers to objections (pp. 1 — 27) Wyclif attacks 
the Pope (pp. 27 — 70), the Bishops (pp. 70 — 84) and the endowed Orders 
(pp. 84 — 98), and warns the temporal Lords (pp. 98 to end). The only 
real digressions from the main subject — and they are very short — 
are on pp. 39 and 69, in which Wyclif inveighs against the doctrine, 
then generally received, of absolute accidents in the Eucharist. It may 
be as well to examine this point apart, before going into a detailed 
summary of Wyclifs doctrines as regards simony; the more so, as I 
am thereby enabled to supplement some of my remarks on the same 
subject in Dc Aposlasia. 

Christ having, at the Last Supper, said of the sacramental bread 
and wine 'This is My Body, this is My BluoJ,'' whilst no outward change 
of the bread or the wine took place, the question naturally, and from 
the very first, arose in every thinking mind : In what sense are those 
words true, as true they must certainly be? From an examination of 
other passages, especially the well-known words of St. Paul in his 
Epistle to the Corinthians, it became a universal doctrine both in the 



KVJ 



INTRODUCTION. 



Churcfa ot Rome and in the Greek Church, not to speak of other com- 
munities separated from them by still wider differences, that it is impos- 
sible to explain the words by a metaphor, and that Christ's Body and 
Rlood are really present in the Eucharist. Such being the faet, I think 
it may be interesting to enquire i) Whether the doetrine of Transub- 
stantiation was anything more than a denial of any explanation tending 
to deny the reality of Christ's presence in the Sacrament; 2) Whether 
Wyclif went farther than denying the doctrine of 'accidens sine subjecto', 
upheld by the Schoolmen of his day; and 3) How far his explanation 
of Christ's real presence was unjustly, and how far justly, condemned 
by the Church from its onm poinl of vicw. 

1. What is Reality, in the ordinary sense of the term? What is 
the difference between a real orange and a painted one, or a wax 
orange, or the result of mere hallucination? Evidently a painted orange, 
however well painted, only deceives the sight, answering only to one of 
the tests of reality. An artificial orange may deceive the touch too, and 
if suitably perfumed, the sense ofsmell; but the sense of taste will soon 
convince us that the object we see ; touch and smell is not real — as 
an orange. But suppose we are so hallucinated in all our senses, as to 
see, feel, smell and taste an imaginary orange; either we should fittd 
that the hallucination did not last Iong, or if it did, we should no longer 
be in a state to reason about it. It is, therefore, the answer to all the 
sensible tests of reality, given in a permanent and coherent manner, that 
constitutes sensible reality as we conceive it: it is upon the objective 
value of these tests, taken together, that all natural science is founded. 
And in this sense no Roman Catholic can deny — or at least, the doc- 
trine of Transubstantiation does not deny — that the Eucharistic bread 
really remains after consecration, and that Christ's Body is noi really 
present. Every possible test of the sensible reality of bread is ansvvered 
without the slightest ambiguity. St. Thomas, I need not say, admits this 
in his 'Summa Theologica' ; he asserts that the elements nourish, and 
that the sacramental wine, if taken in excess, would intoxicate: which is 
merely a doctrine of common sense. Kolhing of the reality, so far as 
the senses go, is changed by the sacramental words. 

But then, how can this bread bc Christ's Body really, if it is really 
only bread? Bearing in mind the hypothesis which excludes a mere empty 
metaphor, there is but one ansvver. We must believe in another sort of 



INTRODUCTION. 



XVII 



reality, revealed to us by Christ's words; a reality that has nothing to 
do with the senses; a reality that can coexist together with and inde- 
pendently of, those plienomena which we perceive; a reality no less true 
than they are truc, no less real than tliey are real. If we can say after 
consecration, e This is bread', we only mean what we outwardly perceive. 
If we can say, 'Tliis is Christ's Body', we mean what we do not perceive, 
and wliat \ve know by faith alone; but we know that one is as truly 
present as the other. Therein lies the mystery. Transubstantiation, as 
defined by the Council of Trent, does not (unless I greatly mistake) 
pretend either to solve or to explain it. It is a mere assertion that in 
the Host there is nothing present but Christ's real Body, and real phe- 
nomena which are not Christ's Body. It does not assert that anything 
of the bread is annihilated ; and this is very important. St. Thomas ex- 
pressly says the contrary; he says that the bread becomes (iransit in) 
Christ's Body; not by transformation, for then there would be an exter- 
nal and sensible change, which there is not. And yet there is an c other- 
ness\ as modern philosophers would say. This r otherness', which super- 
venes without in the least affecting any of the properties of the thing 
that was, is the Real Presence; and what takes place is called, for want 
of a better term, Transubstantiation. Such is the doctrine of the Church 
of Rome, which leaves the mystery just as it was before. It condemns 
those who say that Christ is present, not really, but in figure, because 
that would be against Scripture. It condemns (or at least, I think, 
disapproves) those who assume that the bread is annihilated, and that 
God creates a fantastic appearanoe, a permanent hallucination; for this 
would attack the evidence of our senses. It condemns those who say that 
the bread, remaining mere bread, becomes Christ's Body (consubstan- 
tiation), for this would be tantamount to saying that a man, remaining 
a pauper, becomes a millionnaire. In short, it condemns all those who 
either assail the sensible reality causing our percepts, and the non-sen- 
sible reality of what faith affirms to be present. And I wish especiallv 
to call attention to the fact that the Council of Trent, in its declaration 
on the subject, nowhere decides that the accidents remain without a 
subject; it merely asserts that all the appearances and properties : — 
which coincide with what I have called sensible reality — remain un- 
changcd: and yet, in a certain mysterious sense, it is no longer bread, 
since it has become the Body of our Lord. 

8 



XVIII 



INTRODUCTION. 



St. Thomas indeed, with the whole School, goes fartlier, and admits 
the theory of an 'accidens sine subjecto'. But this is an attempt at explain- 
ing the mysterv (not indeed a very successful attempt) ; it may be wrong. 
Wyclif calls it a heresy; the Church says nothing; but neither does 
it make that theory a dogma. I have gone into this at some length, 
because I have read that Pusey, with remarkable insight into 
the matter, gave it as his opinion, that the difference between Anglican 
theologians who admit the Keal Presence, and Roman Catholics 
who use the term Transubstantiation, is probably a mere question of 
words. And in fact, Transubstantiation is merely the Real Presence, 
defined in such a manner as to exclude all explanations inconsistent 
therewith. 

2. What struck Wyclif as intolerable in the explanation given by 
the School, was their theory of the annihilation of the bread; which, as 
we have already remarked, is not the exact doctrine of St. Thomas, 
though it seems a logical outcome of his system. If I understand him 
rightly, the 'substance 5 of bread is neither where its appearances are ; 
nor anywhere else, because, this substance having become Christ's Bodv, 
it is no longer bread in the other mysterious sense of reality to which 
I have already referred ; but it is not annihilated. In like manner, when 
the elements undergo a chemical change, v. g. when the sacramental 
wine becomes vinegar, Christ's Body is there no longer, because the 
sensible reality (or appearance) of wine is there no more; but Aquinas 
denies that any new substance is created by God to take the place of 
Christ's Body which becomes absent. He asserts that the new nature of 
real vinegar proceeds from the change in the appearances, in what we 
call sensible reality; — though as, in his doctrine, this reality is a mere 
'accidens sine subjecto', he frankly admits that it is difficult to see how 
they can produce a r subjectum\ "Quomodo autem ex eis aliquid gene- 
rari possit, difficile est videre. (III a Pars, qu. LXXVII, art 5.: Respon- 
deo . . .) But the Nominalists of the following century set St. Thomas' 
cautious doctrine aside, and by their multiplied and arbitrary annihilations 
and re-creations, called forth Wyclifs indignant protest. The fact is, as 
we shall see in our author's philosophical works, that his whole system 
lalls to the ground if we admit the possibility of annihilation, and as, 
St. Thomas himself says, we can hardly escape admitting it as a fact, 
with thc doctrine of 'accidens sine subjecto'. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XIX 



lt is a pitj that Wyclif could not ayoid looking for an explanation 
where there was none to be given. But the excesses of liis adversaries 
urged him onward, and he found a reply to them in his system. Whal 
ivc see, is brcad, he asserted. That is a fact, so far as the remaining of 
the sensible reality is meant. Rut he went on to assert that the whole 
nature of bread remained, transnbstantiated (as lie understands it) by 
the fact that it becomes the figure of Christ's Body, Now, as I observed 
in the Introduction to De Aposlasia, cvery figure is a reality, according 
to Wyclif, It has its own truth, its own real, though at the same time 
ideal, existence. Thus the bread is not purely what it was before con- 
secration. Permeated by the realitv of Christ's figurative presence, it 
becomes and /5 the body of our Lord. This explains all; this does 
away with every mystery, and with the odious doctrine of annihilation, 
wbich the ! Sign-Doctors' were driven to admit. Here, however, we see 
thatWyclif goes beyond the mere doctrine of Transubstantiation. Believing, 
as he did, in the objective reality of Universals, he no doubt believed 
in the Keal Presence; but, driven (perhaps sorely against his will) to explain 
how this presence was real, he made a dogma of the Church subservient 
to the understanding of, and the belief in, his own philosophical system. 

3. Now, if the world had been made up of theologians and philo- 
sophers, it is quite possible that our author's opinion would not have 
been condemned. When his judges found out that he granted the 
existence of Christ in the Host as a real Universal; when they learned 
that, speaking of 'natural bread', he meant the same as those who 
talked of an 'accidens sine subjecto', they might have shrugged their 
shoulders at his philosophical system, but would perhaps have left his 
orthodoxy unquestioned. Unfortunately for Wyclif, the world does not 
contain only philosophers and theologians. His doctrine was spread far 
and wide amongst the common people, and probably few, even of his 
c poor priests', understood it well. The vulgar thought they knew perfectly 
well what 'natural bread' signified; and also that it was the figure of 
Christ, the Bread of Life; but, when they heard that Christ was really 
present, because every figure was a universal, and every universal had 
real existence, they stopped short there. They were no more able to 
understand him than the average man of our days is able to understand 
what is meant by a fourth dimension of space, or the curvature of a 
straight line. 

B* 



INTRODUCTION. 



There were tlnis two parts in Wyclifs doctrine; one seemingly 
quite clear, the other all but unintelligible: and the results may be 
guessed. I happen to have by me a curious instance, which may throw 
some light upon the subject. "Lawrence de Saintmartin," says Berault- 
Belcastel (Histoire de 1'Eglise, livre XLVI, p. 121) "having received com- 
munion at Eastertide, took the Host out of his mouth; and notwithstanding 
the remonstrances of the priest, who followed him for some distance, 
he carried it home in his hand. He then mixed it with other food, and 
ate it, saying that it was no more worthy of respect than any other 
bread." This was in 1387. 

Such a profanation would certainly have horrified Wyclif, who in 
manv and many a passage declares his belief — not feigned, not forced 
from him by the fear of condemnation, but proceeding from hearty 
philosophical conviction — that the Host, though naturally bread, is 
reallv Christ's Body. I quote only one, from De Apostasia, p. 243; but it is 
amply sufficient. "Nos autem usque ad mortem . . . volumus . . . ex fide 
defendere . . . quod panis et vinum . . . sit naturaliter ante consecracionem 
panis et vinum, sed post consecracionem corpus ditfnissimum, quia vere 
et realiter corpus Christi." At the same time, it is quite conceivable that 
Lawrence de Saintmartin would have been much astonished at Wyclifs 
horror. 

As a rule, when the Church of Rome condemns any proposition, 
it condemns it in the ordinary and usual sense of the words, caring little 
enough whether the author meant something orthodox in his own mind, 
but very much whether the effect produced amongst those whom his 
doctrines reach is in favour of orthodoxy. Now orthodoxy, according to 
the Church of Rome, is the truth, to which even the poorest have a 
right. And therefore, answering the question propounded as to the justice 
or injustice of Wyclifs condemnation, we may say that (of course from 
the above standpoint) it may perhaps, from a theological point of view, 
have been unjust towards him, but that it was an act of justice towards 
others who were sure to misunderstand him. It is even possible that his 
judges mistook. his meaning; which, if true, would have been an additional 
proof that it was easily misunderstood. 

Rome is in practice very far from condemning all propositions 
which may be erroneous or true in themselves, and of which the 
obvious and popular meaning is simply erroneous. Should any one, 



INTROIHJCTION. 



XXI 



for instance, attempt to prove that Christ was born ten years before or 
after A. D. i, this vvould certainly be left to be dealt with by chrono- 
logists and historians, because, even if false, even if generally believed, it 
would have no effecl whatever upon the minds of Catholics. And in 
almost every condemnation we find an epithet specifying that effect: 
temerarious, dangerous, scandalous, and lastly heretical. Novv, Wyclifs 
theory of the Eucharist certainly tended (though no doubt nothing was 
further from his intention) to destroy the belief in Christ's Real Presence 
— a dogma of the Church. Those who, like Gallio, ; care for none of 
these things', or vvho are convinced that both Wyclif and the Church 
of Rome were in error in affirming that dogma, will of course consider 
his condemnation unjustifiable from any point of vievv. 

Perhaps I ought here to apologize for having discussed at such 
great length a matter so abstruse, so often dealt vvith elsewhere, and 
forming so verv small a part of the treatise under consideration. My 
only excuse is, that I was anxious to set before the public certain thoughts 
vvhich occured to me after I had w ritten the Introductions to De Apostasia 
and De Blasphemia, and which I shall probably never have an oppor- 
tunity to publish anywhere else. 

We may novv proceed to examine De Simonia itself, chapter by 
chapter. 

Chapter I. Simony is a sin against the Holy Ghost, as apostasy 
is a sin against the Father, and blasphemy, against the Son. This being 
the unpardonable sin, it behoves the Church to guard against it with 
extreme care. It is an inordinate will or desire (volicio) to exchange 
spiritual for temporal things. This will, if not inordinate, is not a sin. 
We may sell ourselves to God for life everlasting; and God sells grace 
to us, if we give ourselves to Him. Hut, in a general sense, every sin, 
being an inordinate act of the will, a preference of temporal pleasure 
to eternal happiness, is a selling of the soul to the devil, and is there- 
fore simonv. In a more restricted signification, it means an unlavvful 
contract to obtain some spiritual oftice. Any contract of the sort is called, in 
theological language, a gift (miutus). II vvhat is promised, is money, it 
is munus a mamt; if services to be rendered, muntts ab obsequio; if influ- 
ence, munus a lingua. Almost all the clergy are infected with this heresy, 
and those highest placed are the vvorst. Christ turned those who sold 
doves out of the temple; the Church is the mystic dove, and its selling 



XXII 



INTROnnCTION. 



is simony. Secular lords ought to put this down, according to Chrysostom 
and Pope Pelagius. We should not wait for a Papal edict to fulfil our 
duty; the Pope mav himself be a simoniac. All illicit means of obtaining 
benefices — whether petitions, services rendered, letters of recommen- 
dation from temporal lords, or the employment of a third person to 
plead in their favour — render those who get the benefices, simoniacs 
and hcretics. Yet these men, thus tainted witli heresy, dare to persecute 
thc faithful! (pp. i — 6.) 

Resides these persons, there are others who fall into the samc 
heresy, though indirectly: Friars, by holding their peace and not pro- 
testing against it; and Kulers who take it under their protection. It is 
our duty to speak out; our silence will not excuse us, any more than 
ignorance will excuse the secular lords. We should speak, they shouhl 
act. If not, both we and they are damned for tacitly consenting to sin. 
Let us do our duty, as we value eternal bliss. If we desirc the realm 
to be at peace, let us purify it from those bad priests who destroy all 
good therein. There is also the temporal advantage to be considered. 
Princes have the right to confiscate all the unjustly acquired possessions 
of these heretics, and to cause things to return to their first state, as 
they were in the primitive Church of Christ. If the right acquired by 
conquest is valid, how much more so would such confiscation be! (pp. 6 — 8.) 

But is impossible to extinguish simony, so long as its baneful 
root — i. e. endowment — is allowed to exist. The Church was 
mighty, whilst unendowed ; with endowment, all things changed ; 
the clergy, from Christian, became 'Cesarean' and worldly, and new 
laws were made to extort money from the faithful. This simony is rightly 
called spiritual sodomy, and because spiritual, is a yet more heinous 
crime. Its source is Avignon. Some think that if the secular arm destroys 
that nest of wickedness, the Church will return to its pristine purity ; but 
Wyclif fears that the evil, like Gehazfs leprosy, will cling to it for ever; 
one source being stopped up, another will spring forth (pp. 8 — 9). 

So long as they last, we may safely predict that wars and tightings 
amongst nations will never cease. War reigns every where, not only in 
the secular sphere, but also amongst friars and monks, and in the Uni- 
versities; poor scholars are forced to pay large sums, and there is 
acception of persons in private colleges. All these things cause discord 
and dissensions. Woe to the nation, the province or the man, that tries 



INTROIHICTION. 



XXIII 



to introduce or defend simony! "Peace on eartli, good-will to men" 
implies that men should have good-will to Christ; and Christ hates simony, 
as is proved by His conduct in the temple. Besicles, simoniacs, worse 
than Iscariot, sell Him again and again, not for the salvation of the 
world, but for the damnation of their own souls; and they devour Christ 
most foully by this their crime (pp. 9 — 12). 

No sin is more directly opposed to God's law: "Freely ye have 
received, freelv give," says Christ. Christ is the mystic Door, which is 
closed against simony, and which it strives to break down ; thieves and 
robbers enter by stealth, Christ tolerating for the present that which He 
will most severely punish one day, and most justly too: for simoniacs 
sacrifice the true God to their idol, money, and commit sacrilege in His 
verv presence, which the devils themselves would fear to do. All this 
springs from the blindness of our rulers, who tolerate such things. 
(pp. 12—14). 

In Chapier II, Wyclif refutes objections against his deiinition and 
theory of simony: l rst Objeclion. It differs from that given in the Decre- 
tals, and approved by St. Thomas. 2 llJ . It denies even to one who is 
fit, the right to ask for promotion, and creates difticulties as to how far 
a man is bound to give up a bcnefice wrongly obtained, and whether 
we may or may not go to Rome for benefices. 3 r J . It is an act, not 
a volition; a heresy, which a mere act of the will cannot be; and be- 
sides, being an act, it is positivc, whilst sin is a mere privation. Wyclif 
defends his position in scholastic form, first pointing out verbal defects 
in the Decretal's "studiosa voluntas emendi vel vendendi aliquid spirituale 
vel spirituali annexum". His own definition is preserved from being too 
wide, by the word 'inordinata'. In a sense, every dealer who buys or 
sells anything fraudulently may be called a simoniac. The Apostles 
received temporal aid, but only according to their needs. By this rule, 
if a priest takes more than he really wants, or accepts a living for 
which he is not fit, he commits simony. Such men are not even priests. 
A man in mortal sin sins mortally in whatever he does; and a simoniacal 
priest brings a curse both on himself and on all those who communicate 
with him. How then can he sanctify others? Accurst himself, how can he 
bless? God curses his blessings. — If we know a man to be fit for a 
benefice, we may labour to have him promoted, for then our desire is 
not inordinate; but it is unhiwful tO thrust oneself into office. It we have 



XXl\ 



INTRODUCTK >N. 



simoniacally obtained any benefice, vve are bound to do penance for the 
past, and striye in the present and for the future to make amends, 
leaving the superfluity of our income to the poor; if unfit for the office, 
we must resign it. We may desire the work of a bishop, but not his 
dignity, nor any sinecures or pluralities; nor may we go to Rome to get 
benefices. — As for simony being an act, not a desire, it is either one 
or both, according to the School; the main point is the inordination of 
the will. And as this will implies wrongmindedness, simony is heresy by 
implication; and it becomes explicitly so, when an unlawful bargain is 
defended. The chapter closes with observations on the difficulty of 
putting down simony (pp. 14 — 27). 

This is perhaps one of the most important chapters in the whole 
work ; for, by Wyclif 's answer to the objections propounded, we clearly 
see how and in what his definition differs from the usual one given by 
theologians. And as it is interesting to learn what the regular doctrine 
is, I may here give a short abstract of it, following St. Thomas (Sum. 
Th. 2 a 2 ac , qu. 100) as the most trustvvorthy of Koman Catholic divines. 
We shall see that botli Aquinas and Wyclif agree as to the heinous 
character of the sin dealt with, and the absolute necessity of putting it 
down, even by the strongest measures. But, when it comes to the 
question: What is simony? Wyclif, by the force of his definition, goes 
a great deal farther than Aquinas or than the Decretals; yet he quotes 
them all along as if they applied to simony understood in his sense, not 
in theirs. As his definition overlaps the other, it very frequently happens 
that his application is right, but not alvvays. By the by, it is curious to 
note witli what evident respect he sets aside the opinion of that Holy 
Doctor (a sancto doctore, p. 14'). Possibly it is because, like himself, 
though not to the same extent, St. Thomas was a Realist; for Wyclii 
was a philosopher above all, and his whole theological system is but 
tlie logical outcome of liis philosophy. But, as a fact, St. Thomas is 
verj often in most decided opposition to him: ior instance, as to Wyclif s 
doctrine that a bad priest is a priest no longer. St. Thomas decides 
that an immoral and heretical priest, even after degradation, has the 
power of saying Mass (pars III a , qu. LXXXlIi; that wicked priests, if 
they possess proper jurisdiction, can give absolutions that are valid, and 
that schismatics and heretics only fail to do so, because deprived of that 
jurisdiction (qu .XIX, Suppl. Sum. Th.). And here I am tempted, by the 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXV 



way, to note duvvn what I have long believed to be true; viz., that 
Wyclif, for some reason pr olher, never made a deep study of the works 
of St. Thomas. He verv seldom alludes to him. at least by name, either 
in his theological or in his philosophical treatises; when he does, it is 
always (as on the present occasion) with much respect, but with no 
evidence that he was well acquainted witli the doctrine and the argu- 
nients of that famous Doctor. To any one vvho knows the unique position 
held by St. Thomas amongst the Uoctors of the Church, both in the 
Middle Ages, and even down to the present day, this will seem more 
than strange ; it is unaccountable. I do not see hovv it was possible for 
such a man either to know little of St. Thomas, or knowing much, to 
refrain from quoting him when in agreement, or from refuting his ar- 
guments when in opposition to his ovvn. 

Simony, according to the c Angelic Doctor', is the deliberate will 
to sell or buy anything spiritual or connected vvitli spiritual things. It 
is called a heresy, because the act implies that such purchase or sale 
is allowed. It is forbidden, for the reason that none may sell what they 
do not really possess as their own : and God's grace is the property 
of God; men are only its channels. Priests have not even the right (of 
their own will) to exchange benefices with one another. As the Pope is 
merely the distributor of Divine grace, not its ovvner, it follou s that hc 
can incur simony. In yiew of vvhat comes in the following chapters, I 
transcribe the whole of this important passage, vvhicli I cannot conceive 
that Wyclif would have left unquoled, if he had known it. "Papa potest 
incurrere vitium simoniae, sicut et quilibet alius homo: peccatum enim 
tanto in aliqua persona est gravius, quanto majorem obtinet locum. 
Quamvis enim res Ecclesiae sint ejus, ut principalis dispensatoris, non 
tamen sunt cjus, ut domini et possessoris. Et ideo, si reciperet pro aliqua 
re spirituali pecuniam de redditibus ecclesiae alicujus, non careret vitio 
simoniae. Et similiter etiam posset simoniam committere recipiendo peccu- 
niam ab aliquo laico, non de bonis Ecclesiae" (2 a 2 ac , qu. C. art. i. 
Ad 7 m ). ■ — It is not allowed to receive any money (or payment of any 
sort) for the administration of the Sacraments, i. e. for the spiritual 
grace which they confer; but only for the bodily sustentation of the 
ministers of grace, and as a remuneration for their trouble. Rather than 
give money for the grace conferred by Raptism, for instance, a man 
ought to dic without baptism, trusting to God's grace, aml desiring tq 



XXVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



receive that sacrament. Money may be given for Masses, but merely 
that the priest may have food to eat. Fines imposed as penance at ab- 
solution from excommunication should be regarded as mere punishments, 
and in no wise as the price of absolution. Custom is here of no value 
against Divine law; if money is given for the consecration of a bishop, 
for an abbot's instalment, &c, it is simony. If only al such ceremonies, 
as a customary fee, it is not indeed simony; but great care sould be 
taken to avoid the very appearance of simony or of greed in such 
cases. A candidate for a bishopric has not the right to appease an 
unjust opponent either by money or by a promise of money; when he 
has become a Bishop, however, he may without sin take steps to get 
rid of persecution. Money may be given for the sustenance of the clergy, 
but there must be no intention either to buy or to sell spiritual services; 
and if money be withheld, the priest must take care to render his ser- 
vices as before. No one is allowed to receive anything (except as a 
free gitt) on the occasion of admission into a monastery. It is forbidden 
to sell the consecrated vessels, so long as they retain their form; in 
cases of necessity, they must first be broken. A Bishop may, without 
simony and for pious uses. take certain lirst-fruits from a benetice before 
it is conferred; but to order the beneficiary to give the first-fruits would 
be simonv. Simoniacs should be deprived of their livings; priests whose 
ordination is infected witli simony receive the sacerdotal powers, but 
not the right nor tlie grace to exercise them. It is not allowed to 
receive Holy Orders frorii a bishop promoted by simony, even if this 
is only known certainlv, without anv legal proof. A simoniacal priest 
must not only give back his living. but all he has got or might have 
got by it ; unless he was unaware of the fact (if. r. g. a third person 
committed simony for bim without his knowledge). Monks received into 
a convent by simony inust leave it; the Pope alone can. in some cases, 
dispense with these penalties; in others, the bishop has tbe power 
to do so. 

This short summary of the more important points in the cjuestion 
De Simonia may be sufticient to show that the Church, iu principle at 
least. and concerning simony in the contracted meaning given to it, is 
hardly less severe than Wyclif. But Wyclif, as already remarked, takes 
the widest possible view of things. According to him, as we may see 
1)\ a comparison with the lirst pages of De Aposlasia and De Blaspliemia, 



INTROnilCTION. 



XXVII 



apostasy, blasphemy, and simony are merely different aspects ot every 
mortal sin. Every mortal sin is a backsliding from God; every mortal 
sin is a blasphemous wish that evil may be good; every mortal sin is 
an inordinate exchange of spiritual grace for some temporal good or 
other; as, v. g. pleasure. Rut this, he admits, is simony only in the 
vvidest possible sense. It is more strictly so called, when external good, 
and justice between man and man, are in question; cheating is therefore 
more properly simony than other sins. But it is committed in the strictest 
sense of all by the clergy, when they possess more than is necessary 
for their maintenance: for this is a weakening of the influence and spi- 
ritual power of the Church, and all the good that would otherwise be 
done is thus bartered for earthly commodities. And as no Catholic can 
deny that voluntary poverty, one of the three counsels of perfection, 
would be a great gain to the clergv from a spiritual point of view, the 
wilful throvving away of this great gain is strictly and logically called 
simony by Wyclif. It is of course a mortal sin; and as such, renders 
the sinner liable to all the anathemas of the Fathers of the Church. But 
here again we must remember that Wyclif, speaking of simony, is speak- 
ing of something which, even in its strictest sense, goes far beyond 
(though it includes) the regular theological definition. We may here 
notice by the way how much the idea of voluntarv povertv amongst the 
clergy had progressed from the dayS of St. Dominic and St. Francis. In 
the first half of the XIII" 1 century, St. Thomas is obliged to defend the 
righl of the Friars to live in absolute poverty (S. Th. 2 a 2 ac , qu. 
CLXXXVTI, art. 4. Utrum religiosis liceat de eleemosynis vivere, and 
art. 5. Utrum liceat eis mendicare); in the latter part of the XIV th , 
Wyclif asserts this to be the duty of the whole clergy. Surelv a great 
change had come over Christendom during that period. 

We may therefore say in general — setting aside all that by which 
our author includes in the sin of simony many actions and states of 
life which other theologians declare at most to fall off from Christ's 
counsels, not His precepts — that we lind a good deal both in the 
foregoing and in the iollowing chapters which is in remarkable agree- 
ment with the rules of the Church. 

Chapter III. The question whether the Pope can commit simony 
is answered by a strong affirmative, which Wyclif proves bv several 
Decretals. Simony is committed bv the Pope through love of pomp and 



XXVIIl 



INTROJMJCTION. 



worldly power. llc invents unchristian traditions for the sake of lucre; 
he prumutes curates for reasons cjuite irrelevant to his spiritual office, 
which indeed debars him from any right tu meddle with tempuralities. 
llis claim tu all patronage is an encroachment on the duties and rights 
uf the King, which the latter ought tu resist. Nun-resident Papal pre- 
sentees, fur instance, should on no accuunt draw any incume. Cure of 
suuls is one thing, endowment is another; and to give any one a bene- 
fice by which he gets an income is tu usurp what rightly belongs to 
the King. Accurding to the Uecretals, the founder of a benefice, not 
the Pope ; has the patronage of it; and, as a fact, all patronage was at 
first in the hands of laymen. If it has passed into tlie Pope's hands, it 
is by illegal acquisition. It is a pure fiction tu claim that temporal 
goods belonging to the clergy are something temporal but connected 
with things spiritual, so that the Pope has right over them. Patronage 
is reallv a spiritual right which justly belungs to laymen, and cannut 
pass frum them withuut simony. In the primitive Church, the clergy were 
always appointed by popular election (pp. 27 — 3 

It is said that, under lay rule, the Church would be robbed. En- 
dowments, at least so far as they imply superfluity, would indeed be 
suppressed; but this would not wrong the Church. It is a crime to take 
anything away from tlic Church wliich belongs to it lawfully; but no 
one doubts that an Antipope or a heretic may be deprived of what be 
wrongfully possesses ; and Wyclifs position is, that all possessiun in 
the Church, beyond the bare necessities of existence, is wrongful, and 
causes the possessor to be a simoniacal heretic. Those who give such 
excessive endowments, rub the Church uf its virtue, and are its real 
spuilers, nu matter what their intention may be. St. Paul, before his 
conversiun, was a persecutur of the Church, though he acted in guud 
faith. The heresies nuw prevalent abuut the Eucharist and sacramental 
cunfession run parallel with the doctrine of enduwments and gifts made 
to tlie Church. Innocent III's decrees would find thousands of prelates 
ready to maintain them, and to say that an endowed clergy is more 
perfect than one disendowed, because of the necessities of our times. 
But these thousands would not make them any the more true; thev 
would only taint themselves with the leprosy of simony (pp. 37 — 40). 

Qhapter IV. Again, there is simony in the Pope's exaggerated 
claims to uniyersal supremacy. He has 110 right to the collation oi 



INTROMJCTI0N. 



XXIX 



benefices; the Apostles did not apply to St. Peter to choose Mathias, but 
drew lots, as should be done when it is not evident who ought to be 
chosen. The flock knows best who can serve its wants. The people, 
according to St. Jerome, ought to be present at the election, and attest 
who is and who is not worthy. In old times, either God appointed by 
direct interposition, or the people elected the candidate; but now we 
appeal to the Pope. The people is so blind that whilst it would defend 
its own temporal rights, even to death, it calmly stands by, while the Pope 
takes away its right to things spiritual. What he wants, is not their good, 
but the increase of his own temporal sway and worldly power (pp. 40 — 44). 

Therefore, Kings, wake up ! shake off the chains of heresy. Allow 
not your liegemen to go the fountain head of simony, that great school 
of the devil, which exhausts the kingdom both of men and money. Were 
there an invasion of foemen or an outbreak of leprosy in the realm, 
your duty would be clear: but we have here to do with far worse. 
Provide good theologians throughout the kingdom; be careful to appoint 
no clerks for secular services rendered to you. The revenues of the 
clergy, taken by the King, would be suflicient to remunerate them 
without any such appointments. Those are traitors who say that this 
taking of the Church possessions would be a greater evil than such 
simony; and as for excommunications, they need not be feared. Curses 
turn to blessings, if given in such a cause (pp. 44 — 45). 

In everv election, the fittest should be chosen; not only any good 
man (as some say), for whoever is not bad is good; but the best. 
And any election in which the best man is not chosen is unjust, dis- 
allowed by God, and null and void. To reject the fittest man is to 
oppose God's will; and if we fall away from His standard, we go lower 
and lower indefinitely. Even a man chosen by God (as in the case of 
Saul) may be bad; what right have we then to say: This man is good 
enough, and ot set aside a better one? It is sheer presumption. Therefore 
an election by majority has no weight at all; neither have bulls of pro- 
vision, given to any one. It is a great sin even to do right against one's 
conscience; much more so to do wrong. And to give spiritual power 
for gain is a worse sin than that of Simon Magus, since what he only 
wanted to do is actually done. Whether the Pope or any one else 
chooses a Bishop otherwise than by the rule here laid down, it is a 
grievous sin (pp. 45 — 49). 



XXX 



I NTRODUGTION. 



To the question whethcr electtons ought in gefieral to be coh- 
demned, Wyclif, after several distinctions bearing on the word, answers 
that no elections that follow mere human traditions, or that go begond 
Scripture, are lawful. But lie abstains from condemning such as are 
implicitly contained in the principles of Holy Writ, and acknowledges 
their utilitv. Should it be asked wliy, if many are fit, we are obliged to 
choosc the fittest, the answer is: Because we ought to choose him whom 
God has chosen; and superiority of fitness (equality being impossible) 
is the sign by which the Divine choice is known; of fitness, be it 
understood, under the circumstances as they are. The Papal election, 
which some compare to God's appointment of Moses, is by no means 
a similar case. Moses was a type of Christ, and the Pope is onlv Christ s 
Vicar in so far as he follows Him. And if he be, let him imitate Moses' 
conduct in choosing the 70 elders; let him be like Moses, and we shall 
obey him (pp. 49 — 54). 

Chapter V. If the Pope has the right to reserve the firstfruits for 
one year, he can do so for two years; and so on, till he takes all for 
himself. He may increase the number of his cardinals at will, and give 
them any number of benefices, obtained in like manner. But, if service 
should be inseparable from payment, when a benefice is vacant, the 
laity ought to pay nothing. And if the Pope can separate these two, 
then it is clear that we can have spiritual service without payment, as 
it was in the times of the early Church, which were far better. This 
is a great and heavy burden laid on the shoulders of seculars, and they 
ought to resist. Pope Gregory X, who, at the Council of Lyons, gave 
the prescriptions concerning tithes. also condemned the holding of many 
benefices; if the latter prescription is now a dead letter, why should the 
former be obeyed? As the giving of firstfruits is simony on the part 
of the giver, so is their acceptance on the part of the Pope: he takes 
them principally from the priests whom he promotes, and because he 
promoted them. Kings take a fifteenth, he takes the whole. He translates 
bishops also, on purpose to get firstfruits from a greater number of 
them. If we say that the Pope's universal power gives him the right to 
act thus, we strike at the root of all temporal government. These 
practices first obtained under John XXII, probably never before. St. 
Louis burned the Papal bulls relative to the promotion of a certain 
priest (probably liim that Clement IV promoted to the archdeaconry 



INTROnUCTION. 



XXXI 



of Reims, unless Wyclif inistook and means Louis VII. See note, p. 58). 
It is pretended that the payment of firstfruits is a free gift, but this is 
a mere pretence; there is a tacit, though not an explicit compact. Let 
the presentee refuse to pay, and he will soon see if it is considered 
as a free gift. As to the payment being made after, not before pro- 
motion, that makes no difference. (See above, p. XXIV; St. Thomas con- 
siders the difference to be great.) Gehazi made no compact with Naaman 
before he was cured of his leprosy; yet his act was simoniacal all the 
same, and leprosy fell upon him; so has spiritual leprosy fallen upon 
the Popes; for leprosy means simony in its mystic sense. Leprosy deforms 
the body, stinks in the nostrils, is most infectious, and causes the leper 
to be separated from other men: all these characteristics are fulfilled in 
simony (pp. 54 — 62). 

Simony as to patronage has long been rampant in England. It is 
defended under the pretext of the Pope's authority; which amounts to 
setting it up against that of Christ. Paul withstood Peter; and we have 
the right to withstand the Pope in this. No man can put him above 
Gospel Law. In so far as he follows it, he should indeed be obeyed; 
but no farther. Any permission given by him to transgress it, is a dead 
letter, and is no more a permission than a dead man is a man. In such 
cases, the Pope himself should make satisfaction, being, in the wrong; 
and all Christendom, being obliged to follow him in this, ought, whether 
he does or not, to reprobate and resist such practices. Failing to do 
so, it is punished, together with the Pope. How glorious it would be 
for the Church, if our Pope Urban VI would return to the ancient state, 
as it was in the days of Urban I! It is a grievous heresy to affirm that 
whatever the Pope allows is allowed; for Peter, whom Paul resisted 
to his face, had no power to allow the commission even of one venial 
sin: no more has any Pope in our times. His dispensations are valid 
only in so far as God grants them with him; and the heresy which 
aflirms the contrary brings many others after it. — Here comes the 
second and the longer of the two digressions relative to the Eucharist 
(pp. 62—70). 

Chapier 17. A Bishop may incur simony, if he takes offlce rather 
for the dignity and profit which will accrue to him, than with a view 
to benefit both his own soul and the Church. AIso during his episco- 
pate, it he neglect his duties, il he lavish on himself and 011 superfluous 



XXXII 



INTROnilCTFON. 



things his temporal posscssions wliich arc thc patrimony of the poor, 
and if he yield to greed in his way of receiving the honours due to 
him, or in the manner <>f eollecting his revenue. As to the latter point, 
there are thousands of diabolical contrivances: heavv fees for the bene- 
diction of churches and churchyards; five marks, and upwards, it is said. 
Thev allege that the spiritual grace is given freelv, and that only the 
Bishop's bodily trouble is paid for; but it is paid for excessively, and 
reminds us of the miser who was told he could have dainties for nothing, 
uhilst common food was very dear; so he fed his servants with the 
dainties, and ate common food himself: but his steward, on giving in 
his account, set the price of the common food so high that it covered 
the price of the dainties too. Besides, this bodily labour or trouble comes 
under the definition of simony; for is it not 'temporale spirituali annexum?' 
A Bishop's corporal labour is worth no more than that of a layman, 
unless we consider it in connexion with his standing as a Bishop. If this 
is a real payment, the Bishop has the right to exact more, according as 
his position is higher and the demand — the necessity of the flock — 
greater. I suppose that Wvclif means that a Bishop's fee, like a phy- 
sician's, might then be fixed according to his celebrity and the want of 
his services. This would open the question as to how far a physician s 
fee is the purchase of his knowledge rather than of his work. — Either 
the Bishop's labour is worth as much as that of a layman, or infinitely 
more ; so he ought either to make a free gift of it, or exact a reason- 
able price. As to the functions themselves, why should not a priest who 
can consecrate Christ's Body, consecrate a church too? There are, by 
the way, too many of these ceremonies, and they are a burden to the 
Church. We should not absolutely reject them, but they must not be 
set above Scripture, and should be carefully kept down to what they 
used to be in early times. A Bishop may even accept money freelv 
given to him, at a ceremony which he performs gratuitously on his 
own part. But all this ■ — as Innocent writes in the Decretals, forbidding 
any exaction whatever — ■ is full of the danger of simony (pp. 70 — 78). 

There ara also fees for benedictions of sacerdotal vestments, of 
the holy oils; fees for confirmation and ordination; fees to clerks and 
to barbers, and so on. It is no matter if the sums are small; so was 
the widow's mite. Whether a Bishop does not or does know of such 
exactions, is quite irrelevant: he ought to know; the poor clerks who 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXIII 



eome tu him ior ordination seldom or never offer presents of their own 
accord; vet free gifts are all that the Decretals allow to be made. If 
these be called free, then we have an ample excuse for the buying 
and selling" ofbenefices; that would imply only the purchase of the tem- 
poral profit attached to them, and the use of the temporalities. But by 
the law of the Church, all such traffic is forbidden. — The Bishop's 
officers, too, are said to buy their offices; confessions and baptisms are 
paid for by a clever evasion of the law; and the Bishop, living in state, 
havitig grooms who tend unnecessary horses, and servants kept with the 
property of the poor, thus makes money for himself with simoniacal 
greed. As a result, he cares very little for the spiritual side of the 
matter. The world, and not God, is the god of such a Bishop! It would 
be far better for him to have nothing but the bare necessaries of life; 
and our rulers, by taking" the means of luxury from him, would be doing 
a good deed. Poverty is inculcated by Canon law: it only allows pre- 
sents freely given, not exacted. We should indeed help those nearest to 
us (and the Bishop, as our pastor, is of such) but only to relieve them 
when they require it. And the episcopal dignity does not stand in need 
of outward pomp, any more than that of Christ and His Apostles 
(pp. 78-84). 

Chapter VII, is aimed at the endowed Orders. Simony reigns 
amongst them at their entrance into the Order, during their stay, and 
at their egress (v. g. to become curates of parishes given to Abbeys 
by appropriation). A richer man is accepted more readily than a poorer 
one, though the latter may be the better of the tvvo. Here Wyclif assails 
the system of corrodies, which (as appears by a notice from Mr. 
Matthew, quoted in the Addenda) was a system of life-annuities, either 
in money or in kind, given in return for a certain sum or possession 
made over to the Order. Wyclif observes that it implies a doubt of 
Christ's words on the part of him who wants to give up his property, 
but is afraid of having no assured means of subsistence. Then, instead 
of the poor getting the surplus of the Abbey's (or monastery's) income, 
it has to be given to the rich. This may (and does) go so far, that the 
whole income is often barely sufficient to pay the corrodies, and the 
monastery itself is ruined. If such bargains be allowed, convents might 
make any other bargains they chose, either with Bishops or other pre- 
lates. As St. Boniface says, no spiritual gift should be bought for 

C 



XXXIV 



INTRODl 'CTION. 



money; ingress intn an Order by pttrchase is therefore illegal, and 
corrodies are. still worse. The money paid is not a purely temporal 
thing. If superfluous, it is taken from the poor; if not, it diminishes, by 
so much as is paid, the number of monks who might live in the mo- 
nastery. If a religious house suffers from want, let it suffer. The system 
of corrodies might soon bring it to such a state that it could no longer 
pay them. And the bargain, such as it is, is founded upon sin, and 
consequently null and void: the patron of the abbey is bound to annul 
it, so that the buyer has no security whatever. Wvclif then points out 
that simony is incurred on entering an Order with ambitious views, or 
for the advantage of a comfortable and quiet life, or anvthing better 
than could be expected in a secular state (pp. 84 — 88). 

Simony is often committed by monks in their daily life, by ob- 
taining funds as perpetual alms from temporal lords, and also by appro- 
priating the incomes of parishes to their ovvn use, promoting members 
of their own orders as parish priests. Ik is robbery of the secular 
clergy. The perfection of the religious state is thus sold for money. It 
is a shameless lie to pretend that the Pope and the clergy are in want 
— calculation of their revenue would give each member a thousand 
marks on an average 1 — or to say that such appropriations are for 
the good of the Church, because the Pope permits them. They pay 
money to the King and others to obtain such appropriations; and thus 
we find a body which has the right of perpetuallv naming one of its 
own members to a spiritual charge. Those who allow this, acquiesce in 
the future nomination of anybody, no matter whom. Christ indeed 
tolerated Iscariot; but that is no reason why we should consent to the 
promotion of possible bad priests. By this system, a considerable sum 
of money is annually given to the Bishop and ( hapter: which is rank 
simony. And where there is no appropriation, the Abbots having re- 
ceived the patronage of churches from the temporal lords, have filled 
them with their creatures, who in gratitude have granted pensions 
to the Abbey (pp. 88 — 93). 

1 I suspect there is a slight mistake in the text here. The mark was worth 
1 3 s. 4 d. which would be not far from £ 700 in our time. The average clergv- 
man would then have been a millionnaire; if we consider the purchasing power of 
the mark in those days. 



INTRODUCTION. 



There are three remedies for this abuse. The Pope, though it 
cannot be expected of him, might effect a thorough reform; the secular 
power might take back the endowments; or the people (which is most 
likely) might withdraw their tithes and offerings. Instead of the Colleges 
being destroyed, they would profit therebv; for the patronage of the 
livings would be sufficient to maintain them. — There are also pay- 
ments made to Jaymen for defending the monasteries, whilst tlie 
prelates live in luxury and extravagance. It is said that, if not thus 
paid, the laymen would despoil the convents of their income. But 
such payments amount to doing evil that good may come, and that 
is forbidden by the Church. We may not commit the slightest sin, 
even to save the whole world; and even if the religious houses were 
dissolved, the only result would be that the monks and their property 
would be spread about everywhere in the world, and do more 
good. If we want to lead a monastic life, let us flee to the desert, 
and not live in towns, ousting laymen from their proper functions 
(PP- 93 — 98)- 

Chapter VIII is levelled at the temporal lords and all other classes 
of men who are tainted with simony. Wyclif begins by positing as a 
principle that any man who consents to simony is responsible for the 
same. Rulers may be ignorant of what simony is, and consent in igno- 
rance; but it is their business to know. Now consent is implied, either 
by contributing actively to any deed, by defending it, by advising it, 
by allowing it, or even by remaining passive. And most Friars consent 
to simony in the last way. We must not await the decision of the courts 
of law to consider any man as a simoniac; court judgments may be 
purchased, and a judge may also be infected with simony, thus becoming 
incompetent to judge. It is essential that a judge should have the requi- 
site qualities: power, conscientiousness, knowledge, and goodness. If 
not, he will only condemn himself whilst he condemns others, as 
did Christ's judges. We are obliged to obey those in authority, but 
only when they are in the right. We have freevvill and reason, 
given us by God. The people ought to rise up against pastors whom 
they know to be idiots set over them for the sake oflucre; they would 
have Canon law in their favour. As things stand, if an incumbent died 
regularly in the course of the tirst \ ear of possession, the Papal collec- 
or would take, not only a part of the benefice, but the whole; and if 

C* 



XXXVI 



INTRODUCTloN. 



the Pojje may abrogate any law, liuw are we to knuw where he will 
stop? These cullecturs ought nut to be tulerated (p\>. 98 — 104;. 

What shuuld be dune tu simuniacs? In the Old Law, they were 
put tu death; in the New, they are tu be shunned by all Cbristians. As 
a fact, they are excommunicated, if known as such. This vice is, huwe- 
ver, su prevalent that we cannut entirely cut ourselves off from the 
society of simoniacs; but it is enough to separate ourselves from aH 
fellowship with simony itself (pj). 104 — 105). Here Wyclif is mure leni- 
ent, as it wuuld seem at first sight, than the Church uf Rume, and even 
than the text uf St. Juhn which he quotes: ' ; Nec ave ei dixeritis." If a 
man is excommunicated, he shuuld be avuided, lest we share in his 
wickedness. But the width of Wyclifs definition prevents his practically 
following up his conclusion to the extent intended by Church law. On 
the uther hand, he was able tu jjoint to the general view of the best 
theologians, that in a case uf simony, every man must fulluw his uwn 
cunscience and certain knowledge, and dues nut require tu await a legal 
decisiun. See abuve, in the exposition of St. Thomas' doctrine. 

We must ubey Gud rather than man. Monks ought to refuse their 
aid in getting appropriations, even though commanded by their Supe- 
riors, and even when it is allowed by the Pupe. It is a false excuse 
for remissness in inveighing against this evil, tu say that a Friar in his 
cunvent has nut tu meddle with such questiuns. When he knuws that 
they are in the wrung, he shuuld repruve them. Sume leave the appru- 
priated churches tu vicars, in urder not to be burdened with secular 
duties ; but a benefice entails duties which may not be set aside. At 
the Day of Judgment, they will be responsible in their own persons for 
souls lost; besides, this would at best be buying the vicar's services; 
and no one has a right to do anything by which the Church may 
suffer detriment. The uftice uf preaching, too, which never was so 
necessary as now, would suffer thereby. This duty falls ujjon all; and 
the higher the rank, the more strict the duty, both fur the Pope and 
for Bishops. Wyclif admits that the superfluity of a parish may be given 
away, but onlv by the free will of the givers (pp. 105 — 109). 

One extreme conclusion of this doctrine is said, to be that it would 
render all Church rites invalid, since all are performed by simoniacs. 
But the fact is that, as they are ipso facto suspended from their office, 
it would be a gain for the Church if they ceased to minister, and it is 



INTROmiCTION. 



XXXVII 



a law of tlie Church that simoniacs have not tlie right to celebrate 
Mass (cantare missam). It is therefore false to say that all Masses have 
equal worth. A simoniacal Bishop blasphemes in every one of the func- 
tions which he seems to perform. Blessings, consecrations, ordinations, 
contirmations, are all equally invalid from their hands. They are ana- 
thema; how can they sanctify others? A Bishop is consecrated with the 
taint of simony: he gives gold and loses his soul. He consecrates others 
simoniacally ; they give gold and receive leprosy. There is therefore no 
essential order of hierarchical subjection between such a Bishop and his 
clergy; but Christ ordains whom, how, and when He chooses, to make 
good what is wanting. We do not know with what rites He consecrated 
His apostles. This teaches us to think little of externals. Wyclif concludes 
by repeating once more his appeal to the secular power (pp. 109 — 113)- 
Such is, in substance, the tractate Dc Simonia. It is the work of 
a powerful and lpgical mind, travelling from certain fixed premises to 
conclusions which necessarilv flow Irom them. If those premises are 
admitted, the inferences must be granted. But, at the same time, there 
is no doubt that many of Wyclifs contemporaries, without following him 
in all his theories, were willing to grant the existence of a multitude 
of abuses in the Church; and for them this book had the advantage of 
drawing their attention to the evil. Still, there is no evidence that any 
lasting reforms sprang up within the Church of England on account of 
Wyclifs tractate. The reason is not difficult to find out. Such as were 
in favour of reforming abuses were no doubt amongst the best of the 
clergy; those that were against all reform were the worst : and the 
latter could always point to what both parties considered as great 
exaggerations, to say the least, and thus to paralyze the efforts (if any 
were indeed made) of the party of reform. Few Catholic Bishops or 
priests cared to be counted, even unjustly, amongst Wyclifs adherents; 
and the majority of moderately-thinking men were naturally unwilling to 
look at any such movement otherwise than with distrust and suspicion. 
As for the influence of Dc Sinwnia (taken of course along with that of 
Wyclifs other works dealing with the same subject) on public opinion 
outside of the ranks of the clergy, it seems no exaggeration to say that 
it prepared and facilitated the great cataclysm which ; two ccnturies later, 
swept away the monastic houses in England, and put such a great part 
of the Church revenues into the hands of the c temporal lords 5 . 



DE SIMONIA. 



CAP. I. 

Post generalem sermonem de heresi restat de eius Three chiet 
partibus pertractandum. Tres autem sunt maneries heresis ,n s S imony^ eS:i 
plus famose: scilicet symonia, apostasia et blasfemia, a §°, s , i phe m ind 
5 nec distinguuntur ista ex opposito, cum tam virtutum connected but 
quam viciorum species sint connexe. Raciones tamen dlst >" ct - 
illorum distinguuntur : cum apostasia sit generaliter se- 
cundum racionem qua homo a religione dei exorbitat; 
blasfemia secundum racionem qua virtuti dei inponit 

10 calumpniam ; sed symonia secundum racionem qua nititur 
ordinacionem dei dirrumpere. Et sic per istam triplici- 
tatem tota trinitas est offensa: per apostasiam Deus 
pater, qui secundum religionem mundam et immaculatam 
potenter religat sponsam sibiChristi; deus tilius, qui cum 

1 5 sit virtus dei et dei sapiencia, per secundam heresim 

cottidie blasfematur; et deus spiritus sanctus, qui cum 

ex summa benignitate sapienter ordinat pacitice domum 

suam, ex pravitate symoniaca ordinacioni sue contraria 

irritatur. Symoniacus enim resistens spiritui sancto nititur The simoniac 

■ . ,• , • iir j- i tries to break 

20 lstum ordinem benignum blasreme dissolvere et sic pacem. down God's 

Unde cum secundum veritatis testimonium peccatum in orcfer. 

spiritum sanctum sit irremissibile tam in hoc seculo 

quam in futuro, ab illo videtur dignum incipere, cum 

symonia sit lepra quam ex natura morbi et induracione 

2 5 eius continua impossibile est nisi per insolitum dei mira- 



4. scilicet om. i. 6. sint deh, sunt celeri. 7. illorum h, istorum 
ceteri. 8. regione dei h solum. a. qua homo abcdefgi. 11, 12. in 
textu destinccionem, alia manu triplicitatem a; triplicem b; in textu tri- 
plicem distinccionem, al. m. triplicitatem d; in textu triplicem, al. m. 
add. divisionem /,■ triplicitatem rasum, al. m. distinccionem g. 14. re- 
ligat //, ligat ceteri, Christi t solum. i5. secundam dictam heresim d. 

iO. qui om. h. 17. pacilice om. i. 24. lepra contracta ex /, contracta 
a in rasura. 25. eius contraria /'. 

21. Cf. Matth. i j, 32. 

1 



2 JOHANNIS WYCLIF [CAP. 1. 

culum quod sanetur; ipsa enim propter contagionem morbi 

caucius ab ecclesia est cavenda. 

Scripture and Tractando autem de symonia, oportet supponere illam 
the public voice j j cj a~oj 

testify to the esse, quod nedum testatur hdes scnpture Act. X, sed 

existence ot f ama publica laborat, post dotacionem ecclesie ipsam 5 
simony. r . . 

magnam partem vocate ecclesie occupasse. Narrat enim 

scriptura quomodo Symon magus voluit ab apostolis 

emisse potestatem, ut cuicunque manus inponeret, spiritum 

sanctum reciperet. Et ab ipso Symone mago dicta pestis 

emendi dicitur symonia, sicut aGesi, de quo 4 Regum cap. 5, 10 

pestis vendendi dicitur Gesia. Et ista duo venena nova 

et vetera correlarie se secuntur ac utrumque amplectitur 

Defmition : nomen alterius. Describunt autem periti symoniam, quod 
Simonv is an „ ,• ,• ,• ,•, 

inordinate wfll est mordinata vobcio spintualia pro temporahbus com- 

to exchange rnutandi ; hoc enim est clarius quam hoc genus "studiosa i5 
spintual tor ,, . .. 7 . . 

temporal things. voluntas , quia nedum hcet omni homini, sed debet emere 

beatitudinem et per consequens debet studiose emere spiri- 

tuale, sicut loquitur dominus in propheta Ys. 55: 'Venite 

et emite absque argento' et docet beatus Gregorius Super 

ewangelia omelia 5 ; et idem dicunt beatus Bernhardus 20 

et alii sancti, cum nemo aliter est beatus, eciam Jesus 

Christus. Item magister debet studiose commutare disci- 

pulis suis scienciam, sicut predicator vel sacramentorum 

ministrator studiose debet commutare pro parco tempo- 

The definition ralium subsidio ofricium spirituale vel meritum. Ideo non 23 

'inordinate' P er se m tan ' commutacione est vicium, dicente apostolo 

since such Cor. q : 'Si nos vobis spiritualia seminamus, non magnum 
exchange may . . , ,. 0 . 

be lawful. est, si carnalia vestra metamus. Item hcet studiose 

commutare vendendo et emendo decimas, oblaciones, et 

alias res sacras, sicut patet in mille casibus, ideo non 3o 

per se in illa commutacione, sed in commutacionis in- 

ordinacione consistit peccatum, quod non per se primo 

est in actu extrinseco, sed radicaliter in actu volendi. 

Et quia aliunde posset esse error in potencia volitiva 

que voluntas dicitur, ideo signanter dicitur symonia 33 

consistere in actu potencie volitive. Et credo quod idem 

intelligitur per hoc genus 'studiosa voluntas', nam sine 

3. ipsam ceteri. 8. in textu emisse, al. m. emere ag. g. mago 
dicta om. ceteri. 14. voluntas /, in textu volicio, al- m. voluntas a. 

18. deus eeteri; ib. prophetia d. 20. ibi pru idem ae, docuit i. 24. parco 
corr. ex parvo d, parvo temporali ceteri. 27. spirit. ministramus h. 

3i. per se h, sequitur ceteri. 32. quod h, quia cetcri ; in textu quia, 

.;/. m. quod d. 



18. Isaias 55, 1. 
27. 1 Cor. 9. 



19. Migne Patres Latini yC>, 1002. 



<;a!\ r.j 



DE SIMONIA. 



3 



illo non est symonia et per illum sine actu extrinseco 
perricitur symonia. Item quia equivocacio et sophisticacio 
consistit in empcione et vendicione, nec permittit ars 
describendi ponere disiunccionem in diffinicione, ideo 
5 loco huius disiuncti 'empcio vel vendicio' accipitur iste 
terminus 'commutacio', qui utrumque amplectitur, sicut 
et contractus privatos eciam subdolos quos nec empcionem 
nec vendicionem nominant. Et per idem non oportet 
ponere in fine illud disiunctum spirituale vel spirituali 

loannexum, sed tota difficultas consistit de communitate de- 
scripcionis, quod est nimis anologa, et de quidditate rei 
spiritualis, cum videtur omnem rem esse secundum raci- 
onem aliquam spiritualem ; sed neutrum istorum repugnat 
predicte sentencie, cum sit communis obieccio contra 

ogrossos philosophos. Nam quicunque peccat mortaliter 

vendit dyabolo animam suam et dignitatem humani generis. 

Sed specialiter et famose dicitur symonia inordinatus con- The most 

tractus hominum circa spirituale officium domus dei, qui, meani^n^of 

dum sit periculosus circa tam nreciosum ministerium, con- simonv is an 
1 1 inordinate 

20 trahitur concomitanter ad quodlibet mortale peccatum contract to 

•ii i i"/^ • T-.4. i «• i « obtain spiritual 

circa lllud omcium. ht hec est racio, quare sancti docuerunt office. 

equivocaciones signorum, ad extrudendum hoc spirituale 

cambium venenosum, ut dicit beatus Gregorius super 

ewangeliaOmelia 4 a : 'Sunt,' inquit, 'nonnulli, qui nummo- 

?5 rum premia ex ordinacione non accipiunt, et tamen sacros 
ordines pro humana gracia largiuntur atque de largitate 
eadem laudis humane solum retribucionem querunt, hoc 
munus quod gratis acceptum est non gratis tribuunt, 
cum de impenso officio sanctitatis nummum favoris ex- 

3o petunt'. Unde bene, cum iustum virum describeret, propheta 
ait: "Qui excutit manus suas ab omni munere." Signanter, 
inquit, dicit ab omni, quia aliud est munus ab obsequio 
et aliud munus a manu, aliudque munus a lingwa. 
Munus quippe ab obsequio est subieccio indebite im- 

35 pensa, munus a manu peccunia est, munus a lingwa 
favor vel paccio inordinata. Qui ergo sacros ordines 

5. illius ceteri. 6. qui /(/', utraque ceteri. 7. vel pro eciam ceteri, non 
emp. vel vend. ceteri. 9. pro ponere in fine: inponere ceteri, pro illud : 
hoc ceteri. 10. in pro de abi ; ib. commun., at. m., in textu commutatione a. 
11. que, analogica t. 17. Et spec. fam. bcdeg, spiritualiter h. 19. pro 
dum : cum ceteri ; ib. tn textu preciosum min., al. m. periculosum <7; 
periculosum f. 20. pro concomitanter communiter ceteri. 22. con- 
cludendum i, excludendum ceteri. 23. ut om. i. 24, 25. nummorum 
dh, munerum ceteri. 25. non in dli solis legitur. 27. requirunt h, 
querunt ccleri. 3o. bene om. i. id est debite t*. 

23. Migne, I. c. jG, ioqi (4), verbis compluribus mutatis. 
3i. Isai. 33j 1 5. 

1 * 



4 



JOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. I. 



tribuit tunc ab omni munere manus excutit, quando in 

divinis rebus non solum nullam peccuniam sed nec eciam 

humanam graciam querit.' Et idem ponitur in canone 

i questione 2, Sunt nonnulli; vult sanctus dicere, quod 

quandocunque quis inordinate spirituale donum dei com- 5 

mutat per se vel alium, tacite vel expresse, commit- 

titur symonia, quia contra preceptum domini Matth. io: 

'Gratis accepistis, gratis date.' Numquid veritas in hoc 

posset decipi quod procuratur per mediam personam 

contractus fieri, qui de facto est illicitus? Secundo ex io 

istis cum facto colligitur: cum omnis symonia sit 

heresis, pauci vel nulli sunt clerici beneficiati, qui non 

utcunque sunt symoniace promoti. 

The preater part Ex quo videtur, quod maior pars et specialiter supe- 

''heretiMllnd 8 riorum ecclesie sit heretica, nec est hercticorum di- i5 

the highest afe versitas quo ad illud, nisi quod superiores ecclesie con- 
the worst. n . \ . r . 

stancius, multiplicius, vel ptnguius retinentes symoniace 

beneficia ecclesie sunt magis heretice. Veritas istius 

sentencie patet i questione ultima ex decreto pape Pas- 

calis, cap. Patet: 'Patet,' inquit, 'symoniacos veluti primos et 20 

precipuos hereticos ab omnibus fidelibus esse respuendos, 

et si comoniti non resipuerint, ab exteris eciam pote- 

statibus opprimendos; omnia enim crimina ad compara- 

cionem symoniace heresis quasi pro nichilo reputantur." 

Et idem testatuf beatus Gregorius Super Ewangelia 25 

Omelia 17: 'Vobis enim,' inquit, 'sacerdotibus lugens 

loquor, quia nonnullos vestrum cum premiis facere ordi- 

naciones agnoscimus, spiritualem graciam vendere, et de 

alienis iniquitatibus cum peccati dampno lucra temporalia 

cumulare. Cur ergo ad memoriam vestram non redit, 3o 

quod vox divina dicit: "Gratis accepistis, gratis date?" 

Cur non ante mentis oculos revocatis, quod ad templum 

redemptor noster ingressus cathedras vendencium columbas 

evertit et numulariorum es effudit? Qui namque sunt 

in templo dei hodie, qui columbas vendunt, nisi qui in 

2. non solum nullam h; idem al. m. add. d; non sol. om. celeri. 
3. illud pro idem h; ib in canone 1 om. ceteri. 5. inordinate om. i. 

6. per alium i. 7. preceptum dh, precepta ceteri ; ib. pro domini : 
Christi ceteri. q. procuraretur /'. 10. sancto /', in textu sancto, al. m. 
tacto bd. r3. utrimque h. 14. quod om. i. 18. Suppositum veritas 
istius abcj;!. 10. huius sent. /'. 20. Pascasii codices cap. Patet om. 
ceteri. 22. resipiscunt ceteri. 2G. enim om. ceteri. 27. pro tacere: 
fere d, ferre g ; super ceteri. 3o. cur /', tunc h, cui ceteri. 32. cur 
autem non h; ib. quia h; ib. ad templum ceteri. evertit es pro es eff. /'. 

3. Corpus iuris canonici ed. Friedberg I, 402 (c. 1 14, C. I, q. 1). 

7. Matth. 10, 8. 19. Corpus iur. can. I, 437 (c. 27, C. I, q. 1). 
2''). Migne, 1. c. 1145 (i3). 32. Cf. Joh. 2, 1, 2. 



CAP. I.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



5 



ecclesia precium de inposicione manus accipiunt, per 
quam videlicet inposicionem spiritus sanctus celitus datur? 
Columba ergo venditur, quando donum spiritus sancti 
ad precium prebetur. Sed redemptor noster kathedras 
5 vendencium columbas evertit, quia talium negociatorum 
sacerdocium destruit. Hinc est quod sacri canones 
symoniacam heresim dampnant, eciam eos sacerdocio 
privari precipiunt.' Et quia sanctus scivit multas sophisti- 
caciones fieri in ista materia statim annectit: 'Veniet 

loprofecto dies illa, nec longe est, in qua pastor pastorum 
appareat et uniuscuiusque facta in publicum deducat, et qui 
modo subditorum culpam per prepositos ulciscitur, tunc 
prepositorum mala per semet ipsum seviens dampnat. 
Unde ingressus in templum per se quasi flagellum de 

i 3 funiculis fecit et de domo dei pravos negociatores eiciens 
kathedras vendencium columbas evertit, quia subditorum 
eulpas percutit per pastores, sed pastorum vicia per semet 
ipsum ferit. Nam ille certe iudex venturus est, cui 
tacendo quisque non potest se celare, quem negando 

20 non potest fallere.' Ubi ille sanctus videtur dicere, cum 

per columbas significatur ecclesia, ut Cant. 5°, vel donum 

spiritus sancti, qui in columba apparuit: illi vendunt 

columbas qui vendunt ecclesias, vel donum aliquod spiri- 

tuale. Et secundum Crisostomum ac illum sanctum illos Secular lords 

....... . . . should put 

25debet Chnstus ut rex, et aln domini seculares m nomine down simony. 

summi regis destruere; et ideo dicit decretum pape 

Pelagii eos esse ab exteris potestatibus opprimendos, 

dicit glosa t a laicis, qui habent potestatem hanc extra 

cleri ecclesiam, ut patet distinccione 17 Nec licuit, et 23 

3o questione 5, Principes. Et hic plene patet, ut sepe dixi, 

quod domini temporales possunt licite auferre temporalia 

ab ecclesia delinquente. Nec valet dicere, quod oportet 

in istis omnino expectare decretum Romani pontificis, 

2. scilicet h. 3. cum pro quando i. 5. negoc. om. i. 6. destruxit i 
9. in ista materia pro: in hac parte ceteri ; ib. annectit agh ; advcrtit cef ; 
adducit d; adiecit i. 11. publico ceteri. 12. nunc 1. 14. tcmplum 
ceteri. 17. met om. i. 18. recte pro certe h. 20. pro ubi: ultra bcg, 
vult defh ; ib. iste ceteri, videtur om. cegh. 27. in tcxtu Pcllagii, al. m. 
Paschasii d. 29. patct h solum ; ib. ut pro nec /' 3o. hinc bdf, om. 
ag; ib. plane ceteri. 3i. temp. om. i. 

4, g et 19. Complura verba omissa vel mutata sunt. 17. Cf. 
Joh. II, 1, 2. 22. Cant. 5, 12. 28. Decretum in Corp. iur. 
can. c. 4. d. 17 sub nomine Gregorii citatum. Cf. Friedberg I, 5i, 
C. IV. Notationes Corr. 29. Corp. iur. can. I, 5i (c. 4. d. 17). 
Glossa legitur in editione Corp, iur. a. i5o6, f. i5 b . 3o, 3i.ibid. I, 
93fi, (c. 20, C. 23, q. 5). Glossa 1. c. in nota pracced. f. 28 i b . 



6 



JOHANNIS WYCF.IF 



[CAP. I. 



quia sepe ipse cum cardinalibus suis fit symoniacus ct 
a brachio seculari depositus virtute primi pape; Ideo 
absit, quod fallacia anticliristi seducat mundi principes 
et claudat tela aranee manus suas, ne ex defectu iuva- 
minissui et matris ecclesie vadant ad infernum precipites. 5 
Impropcr wa\i Residuum autem conclusionis patet notando omnes 

0106131111111" . ,• •„• • • • t* ' 

promotion curatos, qui per media ulicita lmpetrant benehcia a 

papa, notando eciam omnes episcopos vel clericos, qui 

ex ministerio, rogatu, vel litteris dominorum secularium 

indigne ad beneficia ecclesiastica sunt promoti; et no- io 

tando eciam tercio omnes ministros prelatorum, cognatos, 

vel quomodolibet confederatos, qui vel ab ipsis vel 

mediacione eorum illicita sunt promoti. Kt paucos 

vel nullos prelatos ac curatos invenies, qui non sint 

These beretics heretici. Et tamen illi more latronum, more sacerdotum \ b 
prosecute the , , c • «^l ■ «. • 

faithtul. blastemiam Chnsto tnponencium, et generahter more 

antichristi membrorum impetunt fideles citissime super 

heretica pravitate, et dimissa lege Christi statuunt sibi 

unum capitaneum avarum, in cuius iudicio false fingunt, 

quod pendeat totum, quod in illa materia est credendum. 20 

Kt ille communiter est iimarus ac cupidus in eadem 

dampnacione cum hereticis scole sue, et tamen dimisso 

Christo cum suis legibus, eius iudicio et legibus innititur. 

Twootherkinds Et preter istos hereticos sunt duo alia hereticorum genera 
of heretics; , L .i.. ■ , ••• • . 

I. Fnars q ue dampnabihter sunt culpanda, scihcet exproprietane 20 

\i\entes, ut fratres et domini seculares. Primi enim in 

predicacionibus, in privatis exortacionibus, et in consiliis 

vel confessionibus de ista materia obmutescunt. Nec 

dubium, cum isti speculatores debent scire et accute 

suadere oppositum, alioquin ex consensu gravissimo 3o 

II. Rulers who sunt proditorie accusandi. Ultimum vero genus sunt 

seculares domini, quasi heresiarche, qui nedum tacent in 

suis bonis contra iuramentum factum ecclesie atque 

officium limitatum a deo, sed symoniacos hereticos 

faciunt, fovent, et defendunt; et multi tales in casu quo 35 

instructi fuerint et non excecati per hereticos, destruerent 

visibiliter hunc errorem. Sed sicut mutitas non excusat 

nos, quin debemus hec illis dicere, ita eorum ignorancia 

non excusat eos, quin, nisi se correxerint, sint dampnati. 



support 
simoniacs. 



1. pro ipse: ille ceteri. 5. principes precipites II. eciam om. 

ceteri ; ib. quod omnes i. i3. tpsorum illicite i. 14. prelati heretici 
acefgi; prei. cancell. d. li. cum pro tamen abd. 20. ista ceteri. 
23. innituntur ceteri. 25. que, sunt om. adfg. 26. ut dom. fr. sec. 1. 
33. in factum dfg; in ras. a. 37. visib. om. i; in textu visib., al. m. 
vcrisimiliter d. 3o. dampnandi ceteri. 



CAP. I.] DE SIMONIA. 7 

Moverent enim ad hoc beatitudinis premium, pax reg- Reasons why 

norum, et, ut loquar ad hominem, temporale comodum. rU, Vnforce 

Nichil enim nostri ministerii videretur Christo placencius, , amendment: 

r I. The hope of 

quam tam caritativa direccio sponse sue et tanta hono- bliss. II. The 

5 racio matris nostre; et quoad pacem hominum non in.^Temporaf 

dubium, nichil plus perturbat pacem regnorum, quam advantage. 

symoniaca heresis predicta. Ex ea enim deest regnis 

instruccio inimicos diligere, mundana contempnere, et 

verbo ac exemplo bona voluntate secundum legem Chri- 

losti vivere. Nam per heresim symoniacam est omnino 
contrarium introductum. Ideo dicit beatus Gregorius in 
Registro libro 3, capitulo 29 regine Erancie: 'Cum scriptum 
sit: "lusticia elevat gentem, miseros autem facit populos 
peccatum", tunc regnum stahile creditur, cum culpa 

i5que cognoscitur cicius emendatur.' Ideo cum causa ruine 
populi sint sacerdotes mali, ac in nostris partibus sa- 
cerdotes nequiter conversantur, ad hec ulciscenda debemus 
ardenter consurgere, ne paucorum facinus sit multorum 
perdicio. Et sequitur: 'Providete ergo anime vestre, pro- 

?o videte nepotibus vestris, quos cupitis regnare feliciter, 
providete provinciis, et prius quam creator noster manum 
suam ad feriendum excuciat de correccione huius sceleris 
studiosissime cogitate.' (juo ad tercium patet, quod aliqua 
bona hereticorum mobilia confiscarentur principibus, qui 

25 heresim eorum destruerent, et omnia bona eorum im- 
mobilia, ut fedditus et predia quibus dotati sunt, redirent 
ad manus secularium, sicut primo, quia hoc perficeret 
statum ecclesie, sicut ex ordinacione Christi fuit in 
primitiva ecclesia. Et licet progenitores superstitum ex ceca 

io dirrupcione religionis Christi privaverint se vero dominio 
quo ad deum, tamen posteri contriti de sui et proge- 
nitorum stulticia acquirent corrigendo errores titulum 
iusticie quo ad deum et quo ad homines; iste titulus 
foret longe iustior, quam titulus gladii ex conquestu. 

I. moveret i ; moverent autem ceteri, 3. videtur ceteri. 4. dileccio a, 
direccio bcehi, deieccio /. 4,5. sponsc — nostre om. i. 7-pro ca : illa 
ccteri. 8. ministracio pro instruccio h. 9. in bona ceteri; vol. corr. ex 
bonitate a ; bonitate fg. 11. dicit om. i. i3. elevavit i. 14 . credetur acdg. 
ib. miserie pro ruiiic abefg. 17. in tcxtu ministr., al. m. convcrsantur d ; 
ministrantes ceteri. 23. alia pro aliqua codices. 25. hercsim ipsorum 
celeri. 27. hic h. 29. ecclesia primeva ceteri. 3o. Christi om. cetcri, 
Christi al. m. d ; ib. privaverunt af; privarent i. 32. in textu talium, al. m. 
titulum ad; talium beg, talem ef. 33. in tcxtu iustissime, al. m. iusticie d; 
iustissime bgi; ib. dcum in marginc al. m. h. 34. ex conq. aquisitus/. 

12. Epist. Lib. II, ep. 69; Mignc, 1. c. 77, 1209. i3. Cf. 
Prov. 14, 34. 1 5. Cf. Migne, 1. c: 'Nam causa sunt ruinae 
populi sacerdotes mali.' 19. Migne 1. c. 



8 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. L 



Endowment Cum autem sint leges et raciones multiplices ad de- 
andnurseof struendum hanc heresim, nec destrui possit radicitus, 
heresy. antequam mater eius et fotrix destructa fuerit, mani- 
festum est, quod oportet ad eius destruccionem sicut in 
tempore Christi fomentum subtrahi. Nam stante dota- 3 
cione que est fotrix heresis huius ecclesie, miraculum 
foret insolitum quod heresis symoniaca extinguatur. In 
cuius signum a tempore Symonis magi usque ad dota- 
cionem ecclesie hec heresis fuit sopita, nec inter reli- 
giosos non possessionatos nec circa marcida beneficia 10 
crebrescit hec heresis, sed circa beneficia pinguia, ut 
sunt episcopatus et alie cesaree dignitates; cuius racio 
est quia miraculorum operacio, in qua spiritus sanctus 
assumitur, nunc non videtur sicut in ecclesia primitiva, 
cum cuncti fideles cognoscunt, quod est singularis dei i5 
operacio nec dignitas nostrorum prelatorum meretur 
hoc aliis. Ideo ex cautela diaboli eversa est cleri religio 
a christiana in cesaream et, dimisso titulo recipiendi a 
populo edificato elemosinas gratis datas, statuuntur 
quedam leges antichristine ad extorquendum peccunias, 20 
et sic est venalitas heresis symoniace introducta. Et ista 
sunt tempora periculosa que predixerunt Christus et 
suus apostolus. 

Parisicnsis says Unde Parisiensis in tractatu suo De Avaricia nar- 
'j/spiritual rando octo que faciunt ad detestacionem huius peccati, 25 
sodomy. dicit in eius horrorem, quod est spiritualis sodomia. 

Sicut enim in corporali sodomia contra naturam semen 
perditur, ex quo individuum humani generis forma- 
retur, sic in illa sodomia semen verbi dei deicitur, per 
quod in Christo Jesu spiritualis generacio crearetur. Et 3o 
sicut sodomia fuit tempore legis nature contra ipsam 
naturam unum de peccatis gravissimis, sic symonia est 

2. potest bde. 14. primeva ccteri. 17. in aliis eg. 18. recitandi a; 
recipiendum bce. 22. sunt h snlum exhibet. 26. in om. h, errorem h. 
29. lsta symonia ceteri. 3l. ita sicut ceteri. 

24. Parisiensis aWycL Guilelmus cpiscopus Parisiensis appel- 
latur (cf. Poole De Civili Dominio, pag. 3oi, note). Cui Guilelmo 
*■ saepe opera Guilelmi Peraldi episcopi Lugdunensis false attribuuntur ; 
quo errore Wvclif quoque captus esse videtur, cum loci e Pari- 
siensis libris laudati inter Guilelmi Parisiensis opera minime 
repperiantur, in Guilelmi Peraldi vero tractatu De Avaricia legantur 
omnes. Idem tractatus typis expressus est in editione Antwerpiana 
Philippi Nutii 1 5y 1 , cui inscriptum est: Snmmae virtutum ac 
vitiorum Guilielmo Peraldo episcopo Lugdunensi ord. Praedica- 
torum auctore. T. II, pag. 34 b seqq. Locum hic citatum ibidem, 
pag. 74 b invenis. 



CAP. I.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



9 



tempore legis gracie contra ipsam graciam gravissimum 

geccatorum. Et cum gravius peccant membra diaboli 

tempore legis gracie, quam tempore legis nature pec- 

caverant, signanter dicit Christus symoniacis Matth. 10, 

5 quod tollerabilius erit terre Sodomorum in die iudicii 

quam populo eicienti dignos prepositos. Et in signum de- 

testacionis huiusmodi peccati Christus legitur bis intrasse 

templum ut dominus, scilicet Joh. 2 et Matth. 21, et 

mercantes in templo figura notabilissima et iustissima 

10 eiecisse. Et hinc dicit quidam quod iuvante seculari Avignon ihe 
■ i_- r • a • • • i source of 

brachio ions symonie, Avinonicus nidus, ex se quo- simony. 

dammodo dissipatur. Qui enim solebant columbas ven- 

dere quoad pinguiorem mercaturam de suis cathedris 

sunt deiecti, et es quod solebat formari per eos de bonis 

i5pauperum Christus effudit per vias absconditas, ne 
communicent illud in mensis eorum. Sed timeo de illa 
prophecia Elizei 4 Regum 5 'quod lepra Naaman adherebit 
Jesi et semini suo in sempiternum'. Cum enim necesse 
sit lepram symonie spargi in ecclesiam et habere ut 

20 mineram unum capitale cubiculum, enervata in parte 

ista minera, surrepsit alia; et timendum est, quod in 

penam peccati invalescent ambe vel altera, et plus in- 

ficient ecclesiam in penam peccati prioris absconditi. 

Sed unum audeo prophetizare, quod continue durabunt War will 
,• -i conlinue as lonc 

25 prelia, qiubus consurget gens contra gentem et regnum as s i m0 ny lasts 

adversus regnum, quam diu ista pestis symonie duraverit. 

Nam per istam lepram potissime discontinuantur, fedantur, 

et inficiuntur membra ecclesie et per consequens sepa- 

rantur a capite, rege pacifico. Et hec est racio quare 

3o tam crebro vocatur heresis aput doctores et leges ecclesie 

ut patet 1, questione 1, Qui studet, et Quicunque et Cum 

liqueat et cap. Quociens in 5 decretalium De Symonia 

cum multis legibus similibus eis. Et hinc 3, Reg. i3 sic 

5. est h. 7. modi om. ceteri. 8. scil. om. afg. 9. in textu merca- 
tores, al.m. mercantes a; ib. nobilissima i. [o. quidem h. n.Avinoni- 
cus h, armonicus ceteri; ib. nidus hi soli i3. quo 01«. i; ib. mercimoniam ;'. 
14. eiecti ceteri. i5, 16. pro ne communicent: ne contractent d, ne com- 
mitterent h ; qua tractarent i; in textu communic, al. m. contractarent a. 

16. suis pro eorum /'. 17. adherebat /'. 20. mineram eh ; maternam cd, 
matronam ceteri ; ib. enumerata pro enerv. i. 21. minera hi ; minima 
ceteri. 22. peccati h solum. 24. prophetare ceteri. 26. durabit ceteri. 
27. discontinuam i. 20. regno bcdf ; ib. cst om.h. 3i. Quecunque bcg. 

32. 25 pro et 5 ag; ib. et in 5 decret. D. S. Quoc. ceteri. 33. 3 om. 
abcef; ib. Rom. pro Reg. aeg. 

4. Matth. 10, i5. 8. Joh. 2, i3 seqq., Matth. 21, 12. 

17. 4 Reg. 5, 27. 3i. Corp. iur. can. I, 36o> 36 1 c. 11, 
12, i3, C. i, 7, 1). 32. Corp. iur. can. I, 750 (V 3, 5). 

33. 3 Reg. i3, 33, 34. 



IO 



IOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



|CAP. I. 



dicitur: 'Quicunque volebat implere manum Jeroboam 
fiebat sacerdos e.xcelsorum.' Et sequitur: 'Propter hanc 
causam domus Jeroboam eversa est et dcleta de super- 
ficic tcrrc' lllum ergo oportet vendicare vcndicionem 
sacerdoeii Christi, qui sic vcndicavit vcndicioncm saccrdocii 5 
ydolorum. Et cadcm considcracio est de ordinibus rcli- 
giosorum, de univcrsitatibus studiorum, et de inordinatis 
commutacionibus privatorum collegiorum. In omnibus 
cnim istis oportct csse symoniam, cum cxorbitant a lege 
Christi, et sic pravitas symoniaca est in eis kalende 10 
Simoniacal dcbilitacionis vcl ruinc futurc. Namque intcr religiosos 
'rcli^mis^and dicitur dona dei spiritualia illicitc commutari; in uni- 
in universitics. ve rsitatibus dicitur plus dolosos circa graciarum mer- 
caciones, circa aulas et alia mcdia communicari, ut de 
pueris pauperibus pretextu vendicionis peccunia plus i5 
subdole sit exhausta; in privatis vero collegiis dicitur 
pcrsonarum acccpcio et peccatum edificancium Syon in 
sanguinibus laborare. Et cum omnia ista dissolvunt 
ordinem sancti spiritus ct sic pacem, nccesse est ipsa 
iuxta testimonium Christi l.uce i i desolari. 'Omnc,' inquit, 20 
'regnum in sc divisum desolabitur ct domus supra domum 
cadet.' Cum cnim spiritus sanctus discipline effugiet 
ficticias, patet quod oportet regna sic in se divisa ex 
consolantis absencia desolari. Et cum oportet quem- 
cunque, qui discordat a deo, discordare eciam a se ipso, 25 
patet quod una familia super aliam corruet et destruent 
sese reciproce. Et sic nichil plus dcstruit contractus 
et regna, ymmo ipsum Christianismum, quam heresis 
symoniaca, quia tollit graciam spiritus sancti, per quam 
continuarentur mcmbra ad invicem et cum Christo. Ideo 3o 
idem est seminarc heresim in bona communitate et al> 
orto hcrbido humorem subtrahere, et per consequens 
cius vircncia destruerc in radicc; et sic ve genti, ve 
loco et ve homini, qui nittitur in communitatc seminare 
hcresim symoniacam, defendere vcl fovere. 35 
Goodwill Possunt enim fieri raciones ad detestandum hanc hcre- 
omyconic^rom smi P" mo cx noc > q u °d inpossibile est pacem vel salutem 
goodwill to adesse Christiano, nisi ex bona voluntate ad mediatorem 
Christ. 

7. pro de: ct acdfgi; ib. univcrsalibiis g, vTTta bu » corr. ex vlibus a. 
10. catisa tollcndc pro kalcnde d al. m. 11. ruine alias scntcncie b, sen- 
tencie pro ruinc e. 12, i3. univcrsalibus abfg. 22. cffigiet a. 23. ficti- 
ciam i. 27. contratas h, contractas i. 29. et h solum. 32. honorem /'. 
34. in comm. om. h. 36. pro enim autem ceteri; ib. struendum pro 

dctest. 1. 37. ubi pro nisi h. 



20. Luc. II, 17. 



CAP. 1.1 



T)K SIMONIA. 



dei et hominum Christum Jesum, ut patet Luc. 2; sed hoc 
vicium maxime contrariatur bone voluntati ad Jesum, 
ergo ipsum maxime opponitur paci hominum et saluti. 
Minor patet ex factis Christi, qui pati venit humillime 
5 a Judeis et gentibus, et tamen severe exarsit nedum 
contra hoc peccatum, sed contra eius figuram, cum 
flagello de funiculis facto manu propria figurantes 
symoniam fugavit de templo, ut dicitur Joh. 2. Et fia- 
gellum illud figurat, quod committentes hanc heresim 

iopropter funes, quibus innodantur in ea, in secundo ad- 
ventu Christi sunt insolubiliter flagellandi. Item pro- 
porcionaliter ut peccatum plus sonat ad dei contemptum, 
est ipsum amplius puniendum; sed huiusmodi est symonia, 
ergo etc. Namque symoniaci nedum vendunt iusticiam et 

i5 graciam pro vili precio, ac si quis duceret ad forum pro 

vili precio iumentum et servum vendendum, sed Christum 

qui est persona iustissima, quantum in ipsis est, inhonestis- 

sime comedunt et consumunt. Et quantum ad primum Simoniacs are 

. . .. . , r _, worse tnan 

notat Pansiensis, quomodo hn symoniaci exeedunt Sca- iscariot. 

20 rioth, qui in occulto vendidit veritatem personis gravibus 
in corpore mortali, sed symoniaci faciunt in toto con- 
trarium tam quoad filium quam quoad spiritum sanctum. 
Sufficeret autem symoniacis, quod Christus semel venditus 
est pro nobis et ad passionem ductus, sed et ab illis 

ib comeditur, quia Joh. 2 dicitur post hoc factum: 'Tunc 
recordati sunt discipuli illud psalmi 68, quod de Christo 
dicitur: "Zelus domus tue commedit me." Ubi patet quod 
Christus alloquitur deum patrem pro iniquis sacerdotibus 
de sua ecclesia, quorum fervens invidia Christum comedit, 

3o quando eius vitam menciendo corrodit, vel quando 
Christum, qui secundum apostolum 2 Cor. 5 est peccatum, 
id est oblacio pro peccato, comedit in pinguibus 
oblacionibus fidelium et reddit plebi viaticum legis dei. 
Ad quem sensum exponit beatus Gregorius Omelia 1 7 

35super ewangelia illud Osee 4: 'Peccata populi mei co- 
medunt.' Et istud est esus turpissimus, quia primo Christum 

1. ut om i. 4. humiliter ceteri. 5. gentilibus i. 6. figuratum be. 
10. fines h; ib. innod. i; indurantur ceteri. 14. crgo codices, pulo autem 
etc. addendum esse ut p. 12, g; ib. 1 nedum om. adeg. 17. pnma iusticia 
ceteri, persona al. m. corr. ex prima d. 18. Et hoc quantum ceteri. 

22. quoad om. bdeg ; ib. sanctum om. h. 3l. 2 h solum exhibet. 32. hoc 
est ceteri. 33. viaticum i; in textu matrem, al. m. viaticum a; matrem 
dfg; maciem bceh. 34. beatus i solum. 36. iste ceteri. 

1. Luc: 2, 14. 8. 1 ,Ioh. 2, i5, 18. 18. Cf. pag. 8 not. 
De Avaritia, pag. "jV. 25. Joh. 2, 17, 20. Ps. 68, 10. 

3i. 2 Corr. b, 21. 34. Migne, I. c. 76, 1 142 (8). 35. Osee 4, 8. 



12 



JOHANNIS WVCLIF 



[CAP. L 



quasi evomendo eiciunt, et secundo quia membra Christi, 

que medicinaliter acute illos ex caritate arguunt, remor- 

dent in nomine ac corpore et corrodunt, et sic ubique 

remanet populus sic ut ossa arida sine medula et forti- 

tudine spirituali. 5 

Simony mosl Item in quantum peccatum est magis contrarium 
lircctlyonnoscd • • ....... 

to God's law. le g> et ordinacioni divine, per quam conquereret sd)i 
ecclesiam de manu diaboli, de tanto est sceleracius; 
sed huiusmodi est symonia, ergo etc. Deus enim ordi- 
navit legem, per quam pugiles sortis sue, id est clerici, 10 
asimilarent sibi laicos; sed isti est symonia directe con- 
traria; ubi enim deus dicit Math. 10. 'Gratis accepistis, 
gratis date,' symoniacus defendit contrarium: quod non 
debet dare spirituale donum dei, nisi propter retribuci- 
onem temporalem vel comodum; et sic committitur blas- ib 
phemia, apostasia, et omnia genera viciorum, et hec sunt 
directe contrarie radici virtutum ; ideo nimirum symonia 
directe contraria tam virtuoso principio plus perdit de 
membris ecclesie. Ideo signanter dicit PetrusAct.8: 'Pec- 
cunia tua tecum sit in perdicionem.' Ideo dicit Parisiensis, 20 
quod symoniacus nititur super Christum infringere ho- 
stium domus dei, quod figuratum est Genes. 19, quando 
Sodomite voluerunt infringere fores domus Loth. Ilec 
autcm periculosior est sodomia, quia circa rem plus 
sacram callidius comittitur ex sanctitate simulata iniqui- 20 
tas geminata. Et hinc Christus, custos et pastor ecclesie, 
dixit se esse hostium eius, Joh. 10, ad figurandum, quod 
pro pace domus dei servanda debet introitus preposito- 
rum diligencius observari. Et hinc dicitur Joh. 20, in- 
trasse ianuis clausis ad suos discipulos ad denotandum, 3o 
quod contra symoniacos debet introitus prelatorum ser- 
vari clausus. Et hinc Exod. 12 decrevit dominus utrum- 
que postem hostii sangwine agni tingi, quasi diceret: 
Abiuro virtute sangwinis agni dei, qui illo sangwine 

1. eiciunt i; eiciunt al. m. a; obiciunt h; abiciunt celeri. 2. menda- 
citcr celcri : in textu mendaciter, al. m. medicinaliter d. 3. ac corpore 
otn. ceteri; ac corp. al. m. d; ib. utrobique celeri. 4. ut i. 7. pro 
divine: dei adfg. 9. ergo etc. h solum, d al. m.; ib. omnium prn enim 1. 
10. hoc est ccteri. li. commituntur bcd. 16. et alia genera peccatorum 
ceteri; ib. sunt i solum ; hoc est c. 17. contrarium h. 20. dicitur per Ysa. 
afg; dicit Pysa dc ; dicitur per Parisiensem b. 24. Sodoma i. 26. in textu 
gcnitiva, al. m. geminata ag ; geminatur i. 27. eius om i. 29. dicitur 
bch, dicit cd. 3i. contra om. h. 33, 34. tangi fg; ib. in textii abiuro, 
al. m. adiuroa; adiuro i. 

12. Matth. 10, 8. iq. Act. 8, 20. 10. Cf. pag. 8, not. 
De Avaritia, pag. 73. 22. Genes. 19, q. 27. Joh. 10, 7, 9. 
29. Joh. 20, 26. r>2. Exod. 12, 22. 



CAP. I.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



i 3 



redemit ecclesiam, ne quis intret in eam nomine pa- 
storis, nisi sine simulacione in nomine huius agni; quod 
fit quando de carne et sangwine huius agni pascit oves, 
et instar Petri usque ad sangwinem amat eas. Et non 
5 obstante quod Christus nedum exponit se in medio hostii, 
sed ponit se hostium ad excludendum inhabiles, tamen 
subintrant fures et latrones et adulteri, qui furantur et 
spoliant thesaurum ecclesie, et quod pessimum est, pro- 
creant filios cum patrimonio crucifixi tam carnaliter 

loquam spiritualiter, qui nimis perturbant pacem ecclesie, 
quia filios Belial alienos a deo pacis oportet generare 
discordias. Nec moveat, quod Christus est inpotens, quia 
permittit scurras sic intrare et contumeliis sic afficere 
sponsam suam, quia agens nunc secundum legem pa- 

i5ciencie dat legem sapiencie et discipline, ponens in 
hominis libera potestate tam bene quam male facere. 
Sed veniet dies in qua rex furens contra maculantes 
sponsam suam severissime iudicabit. Nam, ut dicit Simoniacal 

P- • i r i » • />t- priests sacrifice 

arisiensis, symoniacus nedum racit deum nutrire rilios fc oc \ to an idol. 

20 adulterinos, et filios diaboli permittere exhereditare filios 
suos de patrimonio crucifixi, sed deum permittit suo 
ydolo ymmolari et sine reverencia persone vel loci 
permittit symoniam committi; quando enim quis pro 
peccunia celebrat vel ministrat in officio, in quo spiri- 

25 tus sanctus datur, nedum facit peccuniam deum suum, 
sed ambas personas ymmolat ydolo quod sic honorat. 
Nec timetur ex presencia Christi vel angeli eciam ad 
altare committere symoniam, quod excedit pravitatem 
dyaboli, et hec minera est originalis causa refrigescencie 

3o caritatis. Quod notat Parisiensis figuratum fuisse per hoc, 
quod ignis sacrificii, qui per 70 annos captivitatis 
Babilonice vixerat sub aquis, extinctus est Anthiocho 
vendente sacerdocium Yasoni (2 Machab. 1 et 2). Nam 
sub aquis pauperiei et tribulacionis martirum latuit 

35 sanctus spiritus et vivificavit ecclesiam; sed postquam 
dotata est ecclesia, dignitas est venalis extinctaque 

5. cxposuit a, host. patrimonio sed i. (5. posuit a. i3. scurras ghi, 
feras ceteri. 18. cum dicit i. 19. Ys(aia)s a; Pysa de ; Parysa g; ib. 
deum om. abfg, al. m. add. de. 19, 20. filios suos adult. i. 21. scilicet 
pro suos bc. 29. refrigencie bc. 3o. pro fuisse: esse ceteri. 3i. 70 h 
solum. 32. Matth. ai; 10 et 20 i. 33. ut dicitur 2 Machab. 1 et 2 htc 
om., ante, v. 26, post Babilonice intercalatum est in ceteris codicibus; ib. 
pauperii h, 35. vivificavit ch, corr. ex univit de; univit ceteri. 36. dotatur 
adfg; ib. est om ch. 

19. Cf. pag. 8, not. De Avaritia, pag. 75\ 3o. Ibid. 

33. Machab. 1, 20. 



'4 



JOIIANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. II. 



Blindness of cst caritas iuxta prophcciam Christi Mattli. 24. Kt 
non obstante quod tam crebro e.x fide scripture di- 
citur doniinis tcmporalibus huiusmodi periculum et tan- 
gitur eis medium facile, salubre, et prosperum, tamen 
deus huius seculi sic cecavit eos in causa dei pulvere 5 
tcmporalium et atfeccione ad lucrum proprium, quod in 
causa dei vecordialiter sunt ligati, sed in causa diaboli 
ad debellandum Christianos gracia questus et fastus 
currunt precipites. Symonia itaque est causa, quare magna 
pars vocate ecclesie frustratim iacet emortua. , 0 

GAP. II. 

Sophistical Sed ut pestis predicta sit nocior, obicitur contra dicta. 

Miilonv." Videtur enim, quod dcscripcio symonie, quam dant leges 

Definition of ecclesie, sit studiosa voluntas cmcndi vel vendendi aliquod 
simony 111 the ........ - 

decrctals. spintuale vel spintuah anncxum. Quod fundatur super i5 

dicto papc 1, questione 1 Qui studet, ubi sic loquitur: 

'Qui studet donum dei precio mercari in sacro ordine 

nulla racione de cetero permanere aut revocari posse, 

dubium non est.' Et quia posset sophisticando dicere, 

quod non emit spirituale sed temporale spirituali 20 

annexum, ideo ad removcndum hunc fucum additur 

ultima particula 'vel spirituali anncxum' iuxta legem 

pape 1 questione 3 Si quis obiecerit. Ex quibus videtur 

presumpcio suspecta descripcionem tam approbatam 

postponere, cum sanctus Thomas 2 a 2" questione 5 et 8 25 

ipsam approbat et declarat; hinc dicitur quod sensus 

descripcionis predicte est catholice deffendendus. Et cum 

hoc licet pro maiori declaracione variari in loyca quia 

sic variatur in logica scripture, nec vidi hanc descripcionem 

in lege ecclesie vel a sancto doctore expressam nisi 3o 

forsitan recitative. Hec autem tota descripcio sonat in 

bonum, cum competit vendicioni et empcioni regni dei, 

licet glosa ordinaria decreti videatur dicere contrarium 

1. que om. abcd ; ib. est om. fh. 6. attencione bcefg ; in textu att. 
<i/. m. att. a. 7. recorditer ch. 8. debellandos i. 12. contra pre- 
dicta i. 14. aliquod om. adg. i5. temporale spirituali ». 16. Qui 
st. h solum e.xhibet. 23. pape eadem causa celeri; 3 qu. 3 bc ; 1, qu. 3 eh ; 
qu. 1 ceteri; ib. obiecerit beh; obicit af, obiecit c. 2t>. illam pro ipsam h ; 
ib. hic ib. quod om. i. 32. et at. m. d, om. ceteri. 33. ordinaria 
decreti om. ceteri, al. m. d; ib. videtur ceteri; videatur al. m. d; ib. contr. 
supcr illo cap. Oidin. questione 1 in causa 1 abi, eodem modo, sed om. 
illo ccf, om. cap. d, om. cap. Ord. g, 

i. Matth. 24, 12. 16. Corp. iur. can. I, 36o (c. 1 1, C. 1, q. 1 ). 
23. ibid. c. 7, C. 1, q. 3. 25. S. Thomas Aquinas, Summa, edit. 
Parmensis i853, t. III, pag. 2.5 ct 3o, ubi vero de aliis tractatur 
rebus. De simonia autem agitur ib. quaestione 100, pag. 362. 



CAP. H.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



i5 



i questione i eap. Ordinaciones. Cum enim regnum 
dei tantum valet quantum habes, absit, quod ipsum 
posset emi pro peccunia, non tamen per se sed bona 
voluntate. Nec videtur aliquid emibile per se pec- 
5 cunia, possunt autem aliqui illicite tam emere quam 
vendere regnum dei, cum Christus, qui est regnum, fuit 
venditus a Scarioth et emptus a sacerdotibus 3o argenteis, 
ut patet Matth. 26; ipse autem est regnum dei, quod 
intra vos est, ut dicitur Luc. 1 7 : ideo videtur, quod reg- 

10 num dei inter illos mercantes symoniace fuit emptum et 
venditum. Nec dubium, quin studiose et valde meritorie 
potest emi ab homine et vendi a deo, sed non civiliter; 
ymmo videtur, quod illi, qui emunt omnia peccata divitis 
in ianuis vendunt symoniace regnum dei, sicut omnis 

nprescitus agens meritorie secundum presentem iusticiam. 
Stat enim hominem vendere et emere illicite quod non 
habet; ymmo videtur, quod omnis peccans mortaliter 
emit ius ad dampnacionem vel penam perpetuam; quod 
cum sit valde spirituale, patet quod valde illicite emit 

20 illud. Ex quo videtur quod omnis symoniacus est hereticus 
et econtra. Si enim licet rapere regnum celorum, evidencius 
potest quis iniuste emere vel vendere regnum celorum. Et 
antecedens patetMatth. 1 1 : 'A tempore baptiste regnum ce- 
lorum vim patitur etviolenti rapiunt illud.' Et in ista symo- 

25 nia videntur esse illi, qui vendunt illicite indulgencias et ab- 
soluciones a pena et culpa cum aliis spiritualibus suffragiis. 

Secundo videtur descripcionem competere omni emp- Tlris definition 
cioni vel vendicioni, quia omnis creatura est spirituale ls 100 wide " 
vel spirituali annexum, et tamen ex fide credimus quod 

3oapostoli, qui ex precepto domini cibos emerant, ut patet 
Joh. 4, non ex hoc commiserunt symoniam. Nam usura 
in deo est licita, sed nec creatori, nec creature licet 
committere symoniam. Ideo cum deus studiosissime 

2. patet pro valet i; ib. quoniam acg ; quin e; in textu quod non, 
al. m. quin a; quod ceteri. 3. possit i; ib. precise h, om. fy ; precise 
al. m. d, per se ceteri. 5. possunt autem eh; poss. tamen c, licet poss. 
ccteri. 9. Et ideo ceteri. 10. dei om. ceteri. 11. Non pro nec h. 
11, i'2. quin — homine al. m a. 14. sibi corr. ex symoniace dh, symoniace 
celcri. i5. agit h. 21. licet om. d, al. m. h, recipere pro rapere c. 
22. evidencius licet iniuste abcg ; ib. evid — celorum om. c. al. m. add. e. 
25, 26. et h solum; et a culpa i. 28. in texlu illa, al. m. creatura d, illa 
pro creatura ceteri. 29. et tamen ce; et cum bdh; cum ceteri ; ib. et 
pro quod g, et in textu, al. m. quod d, quod om.f; quia 3o. emerent /1. 
3l. commiserunt ag ; commiserant ceteri. 

1. Corp. iur. can. I, 402 (c. 11 3, C. I, q. 1). Glossa legitur in 
editionc Corp. iur. i5o6, f. 117. K. Matth. 26, 14, i5. 9. Luc. 
17, 21. 23. Matth. 11, 12. 3i. Joh. 4, 8. 



16 JOHANNIS WYCLIF [CAP. tt 

vendit pro levi precio spiritualissima creaturis, patet 
quod dicta non est bona descripcio symonie; quod 
autem omne corpus sit spirituali annexum, videtur ex 
hoc, quod omne corpus est annexum iusticie que est 
spiritualissimum. Et ex isto videtur quod iudices et ad- 3 
vocati illicite vendentes iusticiam, committunt crebrius 

The word symoniam. Omnes enim tales instancie tolluntur per 
suppMes^what noc - quod symonia est inordinata volicio, nec concedo nec 

is wanting. contradico huic sentencie, que dicit quod omnis iniuste 

mercans quantumcunque seculariter committit symoniam, 10 
in quantum emit vel vendit inordinate iusticiam. Symonia 
enim in sua generalitate ex equo consequitur ad mortale. 

Tercio videtur descripcionem convenisse apostolis et 
cuilibet sacerdoti, cum commutant spirituale suffragium 
propter stipendium temporale, ut docet apostolus i Cor. 9 i5 
de lege dei debere fieri: 'Si, inquit, nos vobis spiritualia 
seminamus, non est magnum si carnalia vestra metamus." 
Nec aliter staret ecclesia. Et idem videtur de sacerdotibus 
qui arte instant ut accipiant copiosum stipendium. Sed 
istud tollitur per hoc, quod symonia est inordinata volicio. 20 
Unde apostoli docuerunt in facto quod in illis fuit ordi- 
nata volicio, quia plus querebant salutem animarum 
populi, quam temporale stipendium, quia laborarerunt 
quandoque manibus et transitorie ac parce susceperunt 
elemosinas temporales a populo precise quantum fuit eis 25 
necessarium et utile populo ad spirituale ministerium 

It is simony rependendum. Unde videtur michi indubie quod quando- 
^rLeive^^more 0 cunque clericus intencione alia vel mensura, quam 
* an really gracia spiritualiter edificandi populum, a populo bene- 

diccionem receperit, symoniacus est censendus, quia 3o 
dignitatem vel ordinem inordinate commutat pro precio 
temporali; nec refert utrum mercacione vulgari vel 
quantumcunque tacite fiat illa commutacio, dum tamen 



[. in texttt creacionis, al. m. creaturis d, creacionis ceteri. 3. tunc 
pro autem h. 5. Et ante cx om. i. 7. enim om. h. 8. contendo pro 
concedo bc 12. et ex abfi. 14. commutant c, committante h, com- 
mutans ceteri. 17. ministramus pro semin. di. 20. illud toll. abcdgi : 
ib. quod — volicio al. m. h. 22. anime ceteri. 23. quod pro quia h : 
laborant h: manibus propriis d. fpropr. al. m. add.) ; in animabus proprie h. 
24.. parte i. 27, 28. quicunque cl. contenciose recipit, sym. elc. a; ut a, 
sed receperit b; intencione alia vel mensura qua gracia spiritualiter editi- 
candi populum ordines reccpcrit, symoniacus etc. c; intencione (vel men- 
sura de temporali plus recipit sive a populo benediccet in marg. al. m.i d; 
ut a, sed in textu intencionem, al. m. contenciose e; in textu cler. inten- 
cionem recipit, sym. etc, al. m. cler. intencionem recipiendi dignitatem 
sacerdocii recipit svra./; ut a, sed cont. plus rec. gi; quam gracia spiri- 
tualiter edificandi populum in marg. al. m. h. 3i. comittat h. 33. illa om h. 



1 5. 1 Cor. (>, 11. 



CAP. II.] 



DK SIMONIA. 



sit dignitas vel inordinata intencio in sacerdote vel or to acccpt an 

clerico; et sicut loquitur decretum Gregofii VII, ^jKjdfh? 

questione Ordinaciones, interveniente quomodocunuue 4 nfit ' ol " whicli 
, . , .. ^ ,? . hc takes from 

prece, precio, obsequio vel aliquo teraporah ahcui wrong motives 

3 persone impenso, ut pcrsona que est inhabilis de facto 

consequatur dignitatem ecclesiasticam, committitur sy- 

monia. Et sic quicunque cpiscopus curatus vel presbiter 

preponderanter accipit illum statum propter honorem 

vel comodum temporale, est symoniacus et hereticus 

10 permanens in illa heresi quamdiu inhabilis ad suum 
oflicium servaverit illum statum. Patet ex descripcione 
symonie, et ista videtur sentencia beati Gregorii in Rc- 
gistro i, questione i, cap. Si qitis, posita sub hiis verbis: 
'Si quis neque sanctis pollens moribus, nec a clero popu- 

1 5 loque est vocatus vel pulsacione coactus, impudenter Christi 
sacerdocium iam quolibet facinore polutus, iniusto cor- 
dis amore, vel sordidis precibus oris, sivc comuttatu, 
sive manuali servicio, sive fraudulento munusculo epi- 
scopalem seu sacerdotalem non lucro animarum sed 

20 inanis glorie avaricia fultus dignitatem acceperit et in 
vita sua sponte non reliquerit eumque in aspera peni- 
tencia mors non invenerit procul dubio in eternum 
peribit.' Ex istis patet ulterius, quod quicunque religiosus 
assumpserit dignitatem vel ordinem abbatis vel prioris, pre- 

2? lacie vel gradus religionis possessionate vel exproprietarie 
plus propter dignitatem aut prosperitatem mundanam, 
quam propter devocionem in paupere vita, ut mundum 
dcserat, est anathema, quia symoniacus et hcreticus in 
ingressu; nam omnis talis facit aliquam commutacionem 

^oillicitam per se vel alium, dando homini cifum, coclear, 
preces, vel spem comodi temporalis pro spirituali gracia 
merendi bcatituJinem, quod est abiectissima symonia. Et 
creditur quod ab episcopo usque ad ruralem presbiterum 

1. sit illa dign. i. 2. Origenis a; Grcg. eeteri, VII om. h. 3. Ordi- 
nacioncs dh ; Ordines ceteri; quacunque i .j. precio om. ag ; pr. vcl obs. i. 
N. preponderaciter i. 12. vid. csse scnt. dgt. i3. c. Si qnis h sotum 
exhibet. 14. pro ncqnc celcri nec. 14., i5. m textu populbque est, al. m. 
P9Piilo estque a; pop. cstquc bceg. i5. pulsative bfg; ib. inprudenter dgi. 
iii. iam /1 solum, in ea e, oni. c, ceteri assumit; qiii libet aceg; qui licet /'. 
17. sordibus. 19. sivc ttfi. 21, 22. eumque mven. in marg. al. m a. 
21. aspcram cef; penitenciam tcef; penitcncia corr. ex penitcnciam g. 
23. lCt ex bce. 24. vel ante prioiis om. celcri. 3o. sc aut per ag ; vel 
cr alium i; ib. homini /",• al. m. a, om. ccteri; ib. cifum al. m ad. 
i. prcccs om. i. 32. emendi i. 

1. Corp. iur. I, 402 (c. 1 13, C. 1, q, 1). i3. Corp. iur. can. I, 
403 (c. 11 5, C. 1, qu. 1); eT. ibidem notam 1696: Haec neque 
in Opp. Gregorii VII, neque apud Creg. Magnum sunt inventa. 

2 



i8 



JOMANNIS WYCI.IF 



[c\I>. II. 



vel mendicum pauci vd nulli sunt prcshiteri, qui non 
sunt symoniaca heresi irretiti; sed super pauperes, qui 
sunt in paucis et parvis heretici, currit hlasfcmia, capi- 
tales autcm et maximi heretici per expensas seculares 
deludunt ecclesiam. Et ista videtur esse sentencia vene- 5 
rahilis Bede i questione 3 cap. Non solum venditores, 
uhi dicit sic: 'Non solum venditorcs sunt columharum 
et domum dei faciunt domum negociacionis, qui sacros 
ordines targiendo precium peccunie vel laudis, vel cciam 
honoris inquirunt, verum hii quoque qui gradum vel m 
graciam in ccclesia spiritualem quam domino largicnte 
pcrccperunt non simplici intencionc sed cuiuslibet humanc 
retrihucionis causa exercent contra illud apostoli: "Si quis 
loquitur quasi sermones dei; qui ministrat tamquam ex 
virtute quam administrat deus; ut in omnihus honori- i5 
ticetur deus." Quicunque ergo tales sunt, si nolunt 
veniente domino de ecclesia auferri, auferrant ista de 
actihus suis, ne faciant domum dei domum negociacionis.' 

F.vil causcd by Et ex istis potest cogittarc cautus, quam intoxicata et 
prtesteand excommunicata sunt rcgna per prelatos hereticos, quia 20 
prclates. symoniacos, et omnia genera sacerdotum. Nam super Ag- 
geum prophetam dicit .leronimus et ponitur 1 questione 1, 
cap. Sic: 'Sic populus iste hereticorum omnium est in 
conspectu meo, dicit dominus, omne quod fecerunt, quod 
michi obtulerunt, vel vota pro salute vel pacifica pro 23 
pcccato vel holocausta sive elemosinas sive ieiunia vel 
corporis castitatem, contaminata erunt in conspectu meo. 
Quamvis enim sancta videantur specie sui, que offeruntur, 
tamen quia tracta sunt ab illo qui pollutus est in anima, 
poluuntur omnia.' Et idem patet in capitulo sequenti, 3o 
Odit deus. Et racio communis docet, quod quicunque 

Simoniacs are pregravatus mortali quicquid fecerit, peccat mortaliter, 
"°pnests y mo videtur, quod tales non sunt sacerdotes nisi 
equivoce, dicentc Gregorio 1 questione 1, Qjticunque: 

34. mendicum dfgh. modicum celeri. G. qu. 4* cap. Non solum 

venditores ut dicit: Non solum etc. h; ut dicit abccfgh ; ubi f. 9. rc- 
quirunt h. 10. in lextu gloriam, al. m. gradum d, glonam ceteri. n. pcr- 
cipiunt /(. 12. cum pro causa abdg. 19. cx al. m. a, nm. cfg: 

tacitus ceh ; cautus al. m. corr. ex cicius d, tacfus ceteri. 20. pcr prel. 
rcgna abfg. 22. dominus pro Jeron. //. 23. cap. sic h solum ; cap. 
al. m. a.; omni h. 24. quod mihi h. 27. in texlu contempta, al. m. 
contam. a; contcmpta fg. 2H. vidcantur eli, videntnr ceteri. 29. ofte- 
nmt i; ib. tracta bch ; tacta ceteri. 3o. idcm dh ; idco cc ; racio ceteri. 
il. pro cap. : lcgc ceteri; in textu lcge, al. m. cap. d. 32. quicunque om. 
ceteri; quicquid prcgrav. ceteri. 34. Crcgorio in pnncipio casue primc ceteri. 

h. Ibid. 417 (c. 11, C. 1, qu. 3). i3. f. Petr. 4, 11. 

23. Corp. iur. I, 38 1 (c. 61, C. 1, qu. 1). 3i. Ibid. 3'n (c. 12, 
C. 1, qu. 1). 34. Ihid. 3Gi (c. 12, C. r, q. 1). 



CAP. II.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



19 



'Quicunque sacros ordines vcndunt aut emunt, sacerdotes 
esse non possunt. Unde scriptum est: "Anathema danti 
et anathema accipienti, hoc est symoniaca heresis." Quo- 
modo ergo, si anathema sunt et sancti non sunt, sancti- 
5 ticarc alios possunt? Quomodo corpus Christi tradcre 
vel accipere possunt? Qui maledictus est, benedicere 
quomodo potcst?' Ymo plus conduceret tales prelatos, 
ne benedicant vel ministrent ecclesiastica sacramenta, 
quia eadcm questione consequcnter sic dicit concilium : 

10'Non oportet hereticorum bcnedicciones accipere, quo- 
niam maledicciones sunt tnagis quam benediccioncs.' 
Quia Malachie 2 promittit dominus: 'Maledicam', inquit, 
'benediccionibus vestris', lioc est, dicit decretum, quic- 
quid a vobis benedicetur, per me erit maledictum. Quod 

i5videtur sic sane posse intelligi, quicunque cognoscit 
vcl debet cognoscere vos essc symoniacos, ct super 
hoc recipit a vobis aplaudenter benediccionem vel quam- 
cunquc aliam ministracionem episcopi, meretur ut sic 
malediccionem domini, quia contra mandatum domini 

20 Matth. 1 8. 'Sit tibi sicut ethnicus et publicanus', fovet et 
ungit talem oleo peccatoris. Quomodo ergo non vergeret 
tali opus tam malum mortaliter in dispendium, po- 
tissime cum aliquo sex generum consensus consentit 
heresi sic prelati? Kt patet quam expers est regnum 

25 nostrum spiritualis suffragii propter symoniacam pravi- 
tatem. 

Secundo principalitcr arguitur contra descripcionem it is lawful in 
. , 1 • • ,, ,• , ask promotion 

predictam per hoc, quod uixta ulam non hccret pre- for one whom 

cari pro quantumcunque habili ut promoveatur ad bene- we to be 

3o ficium ecclesiasticum, et per consequens superfluerct ymmo 

viciaret secularem patronatum acquirere vei habere, 

quod non licerct sibi aliquem presentare eo quod tunc 



r. cunquc otn. ccleri, Qni sacerdotesz. 3. hec h. <\. anatheraatizati 
cnrr. ex anathema a. 5, 6. Quomodo — stint om. i. 7. populus pro 
plus bcdefg; ib. condcceret i. S. bcncdiccrcnl, ministrarem i. 

9. consilium cli. 12. inquit om. ceteri. 17. recipit eli; recipit corr. ex 
requirit d; recipit cetcri. 21. ungel e; ungal 1; vergerel eli; urgctur/; 
urgetur corr. in vcrgeret d; vcrgctur/. 22. tali li so/um, tale ceteri ; 
opus ceh, et d corr. ex onus; onus ceteri, moraliter bce. 22. mortaliter 
et quomodo corpus Cliristi tradcre vel accipere possunt et dispendium 1. 
2S. in textu officii, al. m. suftragii a. 28. hcet d; liceat i. 2K, 29. pre- 
cari h so/um (petere d, om. ceteri) ; qualitcrcunquc bcfg; in textu qualiterc. 
corr. in quantumc. d; qualic. ceteri; ih. humili pro habili a. 3i. ei pro 
ymrao //f, ct ymmo c, vmmo al. m- d. 33. pro quod : quia ceteri; 
aliquid .//:,•. 

9. Concilium Laudicense, ibid. 38 1 (c. (iti, C. 1, qu. 1). 
12. Malach. 2, 2. 20. Matth. i.S, 17. 

2* 



20 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP II. 



homo posset mereri procurando quod presentetur. Hic 

patet quod falsum et contrarium supradictis concluditur, 

cum stat homincm licite prece vel precio amici cum 

sua ignorancia promoveri, cum aliter nemo flecteretur 

accipere ecclesiasticam dignitatem; tunc enim accipcret 3 

prece vel precio donum spirituale, hoc tamen est licitum 

habilitate supposita, cum aliter apostoli suscipientes 

apostolatum ad mandatum domini ut sic symoniace 

peccassent. Sed in isto purgandus est utrimque tam 

intellectus quam affectus: oportet omnino intellectum 10 

informari dono dei, ut superintendens sciat secundum 

legem scripture per Christi pascua ducere oves suas; 

oportet secundo quod evacuetur omne peccatum retardans 

ab isto officio et specialiter fastus, avaricia et peccata 

carnalia. Et oportet tercio quod assit fructuosa voluntas, i5 

que efficaciter et virtuose curatoris officium exequatur, 

sed quis est hic et laudabimus eum. Racio autem quare 

homo non debet in propria persona procurare sibi illud 

ofticium stat in isto: illud officium est infinitum periculo- 

sius anime quam aliquod aliud periculum corporale et sine 20 

tali onere posset magis proficere eciam omnibus quibus 

preest. Ideo invincibilis presumpcio est quod procurando 

A man, sibi illud officium ydolatra percutitur symonia. Unde secun- 

unfitted he" c ' um ie £ es homo qui foret aliunde habilis ad regendum in 

thrusts himsclf quantum sic procurat illud officium inhabilitat se ipsum. 2? 
into ofhce. 2, . . , r _ .. . . r 

Lt tsta vtdetur sentencia Gregorn postta 1 questione (>, 

cap. Sicut : 'Sicut is qui invitatus renuit, quesitus refugit, 

sacris altaribus est admovendus, sic qui ultro ambit 

vel importunum se ingerit, est procul dubio repellendus. 

Nam qui sic nititur ad alciora conscendere, quid aliud 3o 

agit, nisi ut crescendo decrescat, et ascendendo exterius, 

interius in profundo descendat? Itaque, frater carissimc, 

in sacerdotibus ordinandis sinceritas vigeat, sit simplex 



1. Hoc ccteri. 4—6. cum — precio iit marg. al. m. h. 7. humilitatc 
presupposita i. 9. peccasscnt deh, peccavisscnt ccteri; purgandus cdeli ; 
ib. est crror uterqiic c; utriimqiie ceteri. 10. vro omnino: eiiim ceteri. 
11. omnino inf. ceteri; donum n. i5. quod bli, ut ceteri. 18. homo 
o»i. ceteri, propria om. ceteri, pcrsona sua ceteri. 19. stat — off. // 
!.olum exliibet, d in mare add. 20. aliquod om. ceteri. 21. honore prd 
oncrc i; ib. posset eh, potest ccteri; ib. perticere ib. ecclesia pro 
eciam a. 22. in textu inutilis, al. m. invinc. d; ib. pro quod : et ceteri. 
23. ydolatrie d. 26. bcati Grcgorii cetcri. 27. cap. Sicut om. ceteri; 
ib. sicut illc df. 2S. a sacris b; ib. ammovendus bcdefh; admov. corr. 
ex ammov. a; admov. ultimo ag ; ib. ultro cojt. ex ullimo 1. 29. in 
oportunum /'; vel ambigit ultimo vel inport. b. 3i. ut om.fg; decre- 
scit dg ; decrescat corr. ex dccrcscit a; ib. int. et ext li et al. m. d. 
32. descendit d. 33. in textu ut, al. m. sit a. 

27. Corp. iur. I, 41? (c. 3, C. 1, qu. 6). 



CAP. II.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



2 I 



et sine venalitate consensus, proferatur pura eleccio, ut 
ad summum sacerdocium non suffragio venditorum pro- 
vectus, sed dei credatur esse iudicio. Si autem pcccunia 
promissa fuerit vel soluta, electo vel ordinato penitus 
f 1 ignorante, nec eo modo ad eleccionem vel ordinacionem 
pervenerit, ei nullatenus obesse videtur nec ad reatum 
criminis pertinet, cuius conscienciam non habuerit, nec 
ad eleccionis vel ordinacionis cassacionem pertinet, ad 
quam alias non per pravam illorum cupiditatem per- 

m venisse docetur.' Nec valet cuiquam sophisticari cum deo 
prime ordinando vel ordinate volendo effectum consequi, 
quia dampnabiliter, nisi emendando et in complecione 
oflicii satisfaciendo purgaverit quod prius pcccaverat; 
omnes enim sumus in inpetracione, in accepcione et in 

1 5 execucione beneficii ecclesiastici maculati, ideo non 
restarct nisi desperacio, si non posterius sequatur in 
perfeccione curati officii contrita purgacio. 

Sed hic dubitatur, si beneficiatus symoniace teneatur How far a man 
bona pauperum restituere et benelicium illud dimittere. 

10 Et videtur quod sic, quia talis iniuste aufert bona 

pauperum et secundum principium Augustini non siihoniacaTly. 
dimittitur peccatum, nisi restituatur ablatum, ut alias 
diffuse exposui et vallavi. Hic non est dubium, quin 
oportet omnem symoniacum de omnibus et singulis 

25 bonis ecclesie que recepit satisfacere vel dampnari. 
Et tunc videtur michi, quod nunquam satisfaciet 
licet satis pacietur tempore perpetuo et non ante 
eius finem complete. Et sic oportet de omni rege 
vel domino temporali, non oportet tamen quod det 

3o totum abusum clerico vel pauperi cui iniuriatus cst, 
sed satis est quod conteratur de comissis et vivendo ex 
post virtuose satisfaciat domino capitali. Ipse autem 
non querit a nobis temporalia nisi quod restituamus 
suis pauperibus que illis sunt debita et utamur residuo 



is boiind to 
give it p a 
benelice 
obtained 



2, 3. in textu proventus, al. m. provectus cd ; provcctus /( ,• proventus 
ceteri; dei corr. e.x ed a; sed ci fg. 4. vel al. m. a. 5. nec d, ut 
celeri. 8. cessacioncm h, iti texlu ccss. al. m. cassacionem d; ccssio- 
nem ceteri. 9. non al. m. a ; ib. privatam pro pravam deh. 10. cui- 
quam om. ceteri ; ib. primo celeri. 11. inordinante i; inordinate ceteri. 
11, ii! vcl — emendando om. f, consequi quia dampnabiliter nisi h solutn ; 
d al. m. add. 17. purgata contricio b. 19-21. ct — proverbium in 
marg. a. 21. principium cfgh; proverbium ceteri. 23. quoniam pro 
quin abcdg. 25. perceperit a ; ceperit ceteri; ib. dampnarc befg. 
2(i. laciet corr. ex faciat a; faciat tceg, facient d. 27. pacietur cbrr. 
ex paciatur a, paciatur g ; ib. in tempore ceteri; ib. non h solum exhibet. 
2S. patet pro opp. d, apparet h. 29. pro tamen : autcm cetei i. 3o. ad 
tisum df. 

3 — 10. Si autcm — Jocctur Gratiani vetba sunt. 



2 2 



IOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. II 



He must resign in suo servicio. Et patet quod ad satisfaccioncm clcrici 
himself unfii symoniaci, qui scntit se inliabilcm ad occupandum illud 
for thc work. officium, rcquiritur beneficii resignacio, quia alitcr con- 
tinuc pcrscverat symoniacus et pcr conscqucns hereticus 
obstinatus, committit enim continue symoniam ex com- 3 
mutacione rei temporalis et dignitatis prelati, quam 
cum gratis continuat, non satisfacit excucicndo heresim, 
sed in prima inhabilitate contumacitcr perseverat. Si 
autem prius habilis a casu fiat inhabilis, de iure soli 
ecclesia tenetur sibi providere in vite necessariis, proviso 10 
omnino, quod ecclesia de perficiente curati oflicium non 
privetur. Ncc pcnsanda est talis habilitas pencs huma- 
num arbitrium sed penes legem quam spiritus sancuis 
edidit in suo apostolo, ut diffuse patet alibi De Officio 
Episcopi Et Curati. Nec sine hoc cognoscitur symonia. i5 

Secundo dubitatur, si licet prelaciam appetere, et vi- 
detur, quod sic, quia ille est status perfectus quo nemo 
utitur nisi volens, nec licet mentiri propter dcvocionem vel 
VVe may desire mandatum legis aut domini. Et contirmatur ex diffinicione 
bUhop^but not apostoli Thim. 3 dicentis: 'Qui episcopatum desiderat, 20 
the dignityj bonum opus desiderat.' Hic dicendum est secundum 
wc desirc Crisostomum Omelia 18 Operis Inperfecti: In talibus 
S p"uraiities? ! nominibus est duo considerare, scilicet ministerium et 
dignitatem. Primum est desiderandum, ut signanter dicit 
apostolus, sed secundum est fugiendum, at multo magis 25 
sine ofricio dignitas, que est mendacium discipuli anti- 
christi, et omnino duplicata dignitas ex temporalibus 
adunatis, quia hoc foret inordinate gaudere de monstrosi- 
tate ordinacionis domini, quod defleret. Et patet quo- 
modo intelligende sunt leges et dicta sanctorum in ista 3o 
materia. Nam honorem temporalem et specialiter ex 
afridacione copiosa temporalium debet homo nolle sed 
dolere continue. Et patet quante prelati ecclesie pcr 

6. in texlu quando, al. m. quam a. 7. in textu contineat, al. m. con- 
tinuat ad, contineat /f ; ib. satisfaciat cef. 0. iure seculi soli c, soli gh, 
sola ceteri. n. in textu animo, al. m. omnino a; omnino cgk; auimo 
ceteri; ib. proficiente c. 14. pro suo: sancto ceteri. 17. sic quia al. m. h. 
18. nisi volcns al. m. h. 21. dicendum corr. ex dictum a; dicciidum i; 
dictum ceteri. 11. 28 h. 25. hic fugiendum abcdefg. 20. dignitas h 
solum; dignitatis ceteri. 27. omnino in textu ideo, al. m. omnino d, 
pro omnino: ideo ceteri; tb. duplicata al. m. corr. ex duplicatur d. 

32. in textu affidacione, al. m. dotacione c; eodem modo rectincacione d. 

33. quante afg; quanti ceteri. 

14. V. Addenda. 20. I. Tim. 3, 1. 22. Locum hic citatum 
neque in homiliis 18 et 28. Opcris Inpcrfccti (Joannis Chrysostomi 
Opp., t.VI in Mignc, Patrologia, Patrcs Gracci) ncquc in homilia 10 
in Epistolam I ad. Timoth. cap. 3, v. 1 pb. t. XI, pag. 547) invcni. 



C.AI". II. 



DK SIMONIA. 



dotacionem temporalium subvertuntur, quia tam officium 
quam affeccio ab ordinacione quam Cliristus instituit est 
perversum. Nam temporalia annexa et honores mundanos 
studiose appetimus, sed humile et simplex ministerium, 
5 quod Christus instituit, abhorremus; affectare autem 
copiosam adiacenciam temporalium, ut largius ministretur 
egentibus, est studiose appetere officium laicale, nec 
cessabit symonia ecclesie antequam ista fuerit separata. 

Tercio dubitatur, an liceat adire curiam Romanam pro Wc may not 

10 beneticiis ecclesiastieis acquirendis, et videtur quod non, B g\t^ben°f?ces! 
quia quicunque sic ierit habet studiosam et inordinatam 
volucionem bona spiritualia pro temporalibus commutari. 
Quicunque sic fecerit est symoniacus, ut patet ex dictis, 
ergo etc. Quis, inquam, magis studiose vel periculose 

1 5 laborat, quam talis Romipeta, nec potest ulla tergiver- 
sacione celari, quin facit hoc plus propter temporale 
commodum, quam propter meritum, vel ut spiritualiter 
proficiat animabus. Nondubium quin importune se ingerit 
quia ut dicitur non est aliqua sollicitudo hominis plus 

■>ocontinua vel corporaliter aut mentaliter inquieta. Et 
patet quod talis se ingerit, quia sit quantumcunque 
inhabilis et non est beneficium sue contrate proptei' 
magnitudinem cure quod refugit, si sit pingwe. Sed 
cura parvipensa de quanto pinguius, de tanto accepcius. 

2 5 Cum ergo secundum legem predictam beati Gregorii qui- 
libet talis sit procul dubio repellendus, sequitur quod qui- 
libet talis sit inhabilis ad curam vel regimen animarum. 
Dimitto autem alias privatas mercandias illicitas quas facit 
cum cardinalibus et eorum cubiculariis, cum suis com- 

3o plicibus, sed certe scio quod obiciens se dando occasionem 
personis gravioribus, ut maior heresis symoniaca commit- 
tatur, de tanto magis criminose se ingerit. Nec est racio, 
quare lex papalis lucrum sapiens debet credi, doceri, et 
defendi ut ewangelium, quin per idem et maius dictum 

35 sanctorum et specialiter huius pape sanctissimi in materia 

2. ordine quem ceteri. 6. copiosam adiacenciam /;,- copiosam ad ali- 
quam ac ; copiosam bg ; in Itxtu copiam aliquam, al. m. ut h: d: copiosam 
ad aliam ef. 8. cessat h. q. si licet celeri. 12. commutari ej ; com- 
mutandi ai. 14. Gregorii pro crf;o h ; etc. nm. h; ib. aut pro vel bdgi. 
i(i. celari h solum; ccssari ce (e al. m. cassari); cessare dderi 1/; ccssare 
ceteri ; ib. quondam pro quin e, quando g. 17. pro commodum ; lucrum 
ceteri. 18. pro non: nec ceteri ; ib. in texlu oportunc, al. m. inportune a; 
oportunc f; lnoportune i. 20. aut corp. vel ment. abdfg. 21. si sit 
bdei, a al. m. 23. in textu quia, al. m. quod a. 25. bcatus Grcgorius i. 
26. scd pro scquitur i. 20, 27. quclibet h. 28 mercancias abcdei ; 
ib. fccit a. 29. cum corum cetei i. 3o. pro sc : dc ce, ct ceteri. 

3i, 32. committitur ce. 33. capicns d. 34. magis d. 



2 4 



JOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. U. 



de symonia Ln ewangclio fundatum. Ncc est racio, quare 
licct laborem corporalem impendere, dictando pcrsonam 
racionc ccclesie Romam adire, quin coloracius licet pcrsonc 
pkis habiliconferredomi patrono tantum temporalequiecius, 
cum occupaciodomiquieta ad ministcrium dci plus disponit. 5 

In isto videtur, cum nemo sumit sibi honorem sed 
qui vocatur a deo tamquam Aaron, quod sive clericus 
vadat, sive mittat eciam rotulis studiorum ad papam pro 
beneficiis ecclesiasticis, ut sic se ipsum ad ministerium 
dei indisponit. Multi tamcn tam scolastici, quam simplices 10 
prcsbiteri post talem heresim symoniacam pcr viam 
contricionis et ministcrii sui complccionis ex dei gracia 
' Viofdiu''- 1 ' sunt purgati. Sed reddeundo ad dubium principale 
patronage. videtur michi indubie, quod pcriculosum est dominum 

secularem vel quemcunque alium patronatum ecclesiasti- i3 
cum occupare, quia nisi preficiat plus habilcm, vcl 
saltem prudenter illud intenderit, dampnabiliter cadit a 
patronatus dominio; quod si propter peccuniam vel cor- 
porale ministerium, propter humanum favorem ut con- 
sangwineitatem vel affinitatem, adulacionem, vcl rogatum 20 
hominum postponit plus habilcm quo ad deum, ve homini 
patrimonium Christi sic occupanti; unde diflicile et expers 
lucri mundani est tale patrimonium meritorie occuparc. 
Our definition Tercio principaliter arguitur contra predictam descrip- 
"tne^rounds 011 cionem per hoc quod omnis symonia videtur esse opus 20 

a) 1i1.1t simoiiy extrinsecum, non ergo est ecncraliter inordinata volucio. 
ls an act, not a . 

volition; Contirmatur pnmo per hoc quod aliter contingeret 

heresy which hominem inordinate volendo prelaciam ecclesiasticam 

an act of the peccarc tam craviter, sicut addcndo opus symoniacum, 
will cannot be ; 1 . c j > 

c) That as a quod est contra racionem et penas taxatas pro criminc. 3o 

sinitis negative, o i n u i 

but an act of Secundo connrmatur per hoc, quod omms symonia est 

the will is heresis, omnis heresis est docma falsum scripture sacre 
positive. 

contrarium pertinaciter defensatum, crgo omnis symonia 
est huiusmodi, quod non competit actui volcndi. Tercio 
confirmatur per hoc quod nullum peccatum est actus 35 
volendi vel aliquod positivum, omnis symonia est pec- 
catum gravissimum, ergo nulla symonia est volucio. Hic 
dicitur quod scola theologorum equivocat tam in nomine 

I. ex cwangclio cetcri. 2. ditando pcrsonam Romane ecclcsie ad deccm 
quin k. 4. tantum enim temp. t. 8. in rotulis cetcri. 9. ipsum 
om. ceteri. 14, i5. dominum secularem ceh, dominium seculare ceteri. 
17. saltem om. h. 19. in textu dominium, al. m. minist. a; ib. pro ut: 
proptcr ceteri. 20. yel ante alt". om. ceteri. 22. patrimonium Christi sic 
ceteri ; h in ras., patrimonium talitcr ceteri. 24. predictam om. ceteri. 
26. volicio ceteri. 27. enim pr» primo A; ib. contingeret corr. ex con- 
tineret ad, continerct begi. 30. aliquod ch; aliud b; aliquid ceteri. 
3y. volicio ceteri. 



CAI'. II.] 



I)K SIMONIA. 



25 



peccati quam heresis; vocat enim heresim symoniacam 
nunc voluntatem et nunc commercium inordinatum Answcr: 
procedens ab illa. Nec est opus ad extra culpabile vel ^^j^ a J9. 
meritorium, nisi de quanto procedit ah inordinata vel according to 
5 bona voluntatc. Et patct quod falsum assumitur; licct mo lve - 
homo equivocando vocet symoniam opus extrinsecum, ad 
primam confirmacionem dicitur quod vcrum assumitur: 
unde Symon hercsiarcha, de quo Act. 8 non legitur Examplc ot 
illud donum dei de facto emisse, sed inordinate emere Sl111 "" aBUS- 

io voluisse. Verumtamen communiter perpetrando opus ex- 
trinsecum generatur inordinata volucio et additur multi- 
pliciter novum genus peccati, quod quia sensibiliter plus 
nocct ecclcsic, ideo plus apud homines est punitum, sed 
communiter minus quam dchet. De illa materia quomodo 

1 5 extrinsecum aggravat peccatum, dictum est alibi. Ouo ad b) Simony is 
secundum concedi debet conclusio. Nam nichil est mauis heresy and 

~ agatnst (jod s 

contranum sacre scnpture, quam inordinata prefeccio iaw. 
persone inhahilis, ut patet alibi, quia ut sic cassatur dei 
ordinacio in radice, ideo tam active quam passive sy- 

20 moniacus est capitalis hereticus, et specialiter ille, qui 
docmatisat per bullas tali inhabili esse beneficium ec- 
clesiasticum conferendum, ymmo ille qui docmatisando 
illud exequitur, ut communiter sunt notarii et alii 
vocati iuriste, qui inordinate hoc promovent. Cum enim 

25 quelibet res dicit se, habens symoniam eciam abscon- 
sam in anima ut sic false docmatisat scripture sacre 
contrarie et defendit symoniam suam sub aliquo gradu 
pertinacie eciam si precise symoniacus sit per instans. 
Unde nulla conclusio inculcatur crebrius in lege ecclesie 

3ovel sanctis doctoribus quam ista, quod symonia est 

heresis, de quo gaudeo propter alia que secuntur. 

Quo ad tercium dicitur quod katholicus loquitur equi- c ) Thc act is 

voce de peccato vel formaliter vel deformaliter, et sic P°? i,iv , c bul 11 
r ' ts always 

omne peccatum est defectus et non aliqua creatura vel attended by the 
35 materialiter, et sic actus vel habitus inordinatus dicitur pec- d, " kct ot M11, 
catum, ymmo peccatum aliquando accipitur pro subiecto 

i. cnim om. df; ib. symonram h. 2 inordinata corr. ex inordinato J; 
ad inordinatc g; inordinato i. ti. v. licio ceteri. 12. in textu ndmen, 
al. m. novum a; nov. om.f; quod om. bdei. i3. punitttm al. m. cxposi- 
tivnm corr. a. 14. quepro quomodo i; qnom. opus extrins. d. lii. i^itnr 
quia ag. 22. illud //;, idcm ceteri. a5. absconditam i. 27. contra- 
rium i. 28. prccisc ch ; pcr se pro prccisc abfg; precisc corr. e.x pcr sc de; 
in textu prcc, al. m. per se i. 3t. pro gaudco: transco abdfgi. 32. Quo 
om. h; dicitur om cdfg, al. m. a; theologus ai. m. a; theologus /'. 
33. sive pro vel i. 34. ab aliqua causa vel ceteri; d in textu ut cetert, 
al. m. ut h; matcria b. 36. capilur ag, sumitur c. 

8. Act. 8, 18. 



26 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[Cap. II. 



vel hostia pro peceato. Sed quia aninii actus snnt 

nobis notissimi et per consequens necessarium est cc- 

clesie habere noticiam de symoniaca heresi, ideo raciona- 

l>iliter de ipsa loquitur ut est actus, ipsum autem actum 

concommittatur inseparabiliter tam defectUS peccati. 5 

uifficultj ol quam habitus viciosus. Unde, ut narrat Parisiensis, sv- 
iltnii; an end ~ ' . . . ' 

to simony. monia sicut lepra de diflicili curatur; pnmo quia luud 

crimen est profundum, subtiliter vallatum cautelis diaboli, 

pcr hoc enim principaliter seducit populum; secundo 

quia oportet resignare benelicium quod symoniacus ac- io 

quisivit saltem durante inhabilitate persone ad illud 

officium; illud autem est valde difficile, cum maior 

pars cleri possessionati vel omnes dimitterent possessiones 

suas in manus laicas, vivendo secundum statum quem 

Christus instituit in ecclesia primitiva. Sed tantum i3 

invaluit hec lepra in clericis quod pocius perderent 

corpus et animam in Jehennam. Unde symoniacus est 

quasi piscis captus in vasis diaboli, qui propter conti- 

nuam inundacionem peccati non redit per foramen 

quo ingressus est nec sufricit rethe rumpere, vel cap- 20 

turam evadere aliunde; ideo talis habet quasi unum 

pedem positum in inferno. Ideo siimanter dicit sapiens 

Kcclesiastes 4: 'Custodies pedem tuum ingrediens domum 

domini'; et Jerem. 17: 'Peccatum Juda scriptum est stilo 

lerreo et ungue adamantino, exaratum super latitudinem 25 

cordis eorum.' Juda, quod interpretatur confitens, signat 

clerum nostrum qui confitetur se nosse deum pre aliis 

et sequi eum in conficiendo eukaristiam ac in multi- 

plicata oblacione pro elemosinis vivorum et mortuorum, 

quas monstruose receperant; et nunquam est falsior 3o 

confessio, cum mendaciter factis negant; ideo nimirum 

dicitur illud peccatum symoniacum profundum et latum 

quasi indelebiliter esse scriptum. Quis enim potest corda 

tam late cauterisata sanare? Nobis est inpossibile, cum 

elerus sit cor populi, quod non licet nobis attingere, 35 

et ut dicit apostolus, 1 Thym. 4. "cauteriatam habent 

1. liostia om. i; sed al. m. adg, om. bccf; in tcxtn cum, al. m. animi a ; 
cuuj pro animi c. 2. conscqucns a solum. 4. ipso h. n. suas a al m., 
om. cctcri. i5. ut in ceteri, ut deletwn g ; ib. in textu primeva, al. m. 
primitiva g; primitiva ch, primeva ceteri. 23. ingredicndo i. ^ 25. ct 
cum ungiic h. 26. quod corr. ex qui g; qui ceteri. 27. Christum 
dcum /. 3i. cum mend. ch, quam cum mcnd. cetcri. 32. profundc ct 
late cetcri. 36. 1 Thjm. 4 cautcriatum, corr. ex cauterisatam a; cautc- 
risatam bcdgh. 

6. Cf. pag. 8, not. Ibid. jb h . 23. Eccles. 4, 17. 2a. Jc- 
rem. 17, 1. 36. 1 Tim. 4, 2. 



CA.P. III.] 



DK SIMONIA. 



27 



conscienciam", ac si instar unguis secundum mundiciam 
remitteret ita quod ypocriosa cauterisacio stilo ferreo 
in superfluitate digestionis modo ultra debitum ex- 
crescente et longa lataque dilatacio que tantum in- 
5 figitur facit quod pauci simplices sunt in ista materia 
exauditi. Scio tamen quod oportet ad sanacionem symo- 
niacam, quod superfluitas ungwium sit abrasa. 



Cap. III. 

Ulterius restat particularius gradatim descendere ad What parts ot 
. . . . ihc Cluirch are 

topartes ecclesie ut videatur si contranunt symoniam, et infected with 

primo si papa vel sua curia posset symoniam com- ( jjJ""p V opc 

mittere. Et videtur quod non, quia nec papa posset in- and his court. 

tici predicta heresi, nec in presencia sua posset committi. 

quia lieet veris dominis de suis ad votum accipere et 

i. r 'multo evidencius licet sibi parcius ad gubernacionem 
sponse sue de collatis recipere. Sed papa est dominus 
principalis omnium bonorum ecclesie sue, ergo licet sic 
sibi bona sponse sue tractare, nichil ergo de bonis 
sponse sue ad quod ipse licenciat symoniace est muta- 

zotum; hoc enim est causa, quare deus non potest com- 

mittere svmoniam. Hic dicitur primo, quod papa cum Tlic pope can 
.... . . , • commit simonv 

curia sua potest tacihme committere symoniam; conclusio 

patet de facto, quoniam multi pape erant symoniaci et 

exinde depositi, ut recitavi alias ex multis cronicis. Et hic 

20 idem patet per leges papales multiplices ut distinccione 23, 
I11 nomine domini; distinccione 4, Si papa; distinccione 79, 
Si quis peccuniam. Et idem patet 1 9 distinccione, 
Anastasius et 1 7 distinccione, Nunc autem, et distinc- 
cione 47, Non est facile et sequente Nos qui presumus, 

;io distinccione 24, questione 1, Sunt quidam. In omnibus 

i. secundum h, corr. ex scd dg ; scd ceteri. 2. reniteret ghi, rcmittcrct 
ceteri; ib. imprcssa cautcris. i, at. m. adg, om. ceteri. 3. modo h in ras., 
tercio bdef, tcrcic ceteri. 4. lata est cf; que al. m. a, om. defh ; dilla- 
cio cf. 5. facit /1 solum, clcro facit al. m. g; ib. pauci simpl. gh, pauci 
nisi simpl. ceteri; non sunt in illa g. 6, 7. ad om. bcdef, al. m. add. ag ; 
sanari svmoniacum pro sanac. sym. ce. o, 10. ad partcs cccl. al. m. dgi, 
om. abcef; ib. si contr. ch; in textu si, al. m. qui e; qui ceteri. 11. Et 
ante primo ont. h; ib. et sua a; posset h, at. m. g, potcst ceteri. 12. non 
quia 0111. bcdg, al.m.a; ib. potcst ceteri. i3. potcst ceteri. K>. sponsc 
al. m deg. 16. sic om. de, sibi om. acf, al. m. g. 19, 20. mutatum cefh, 
corr. in mutuatum a. mutuatum al. m. d. 20. causa al. m. adg, om.f. 
22. conclusio patct dh ; concl. al. m. g, concl. om. ceteri. 24. hocceteri. 
29. seduci corr. ex sequente d, scquenrtm i. 

1 — 5. Huius loci sensum planc interpretari non possum. 
26. Corp. iur. I, 77 (c. 1, D.23); ibid. 146 (c.6, D.40). 27. lbid.278 
(c.g, D.79). 28. lbid.64(c.9,D. 19), 71(0.7, D. 21). 29.lbid.14? 
(c. 2, D.40). 3o. lbid. 145 (c.3, D.40); ibid. 100X (e.6,C.25,qu. 1). 



28 



JOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[cap, m. 



istis locis et multis eis similihus reperies, quod papa 

potcst cssc symoniacus, hereticus, ct viciatus omni 

genere pcccatorum. Ideo audacter asscro cum apostolo, 

quod papa cst antichristus et extollitur super omne quod 

dicitur dcus, si non potest committere symoniam; quia 5 

tunc non potest peccare, cum ad istud peccatum sit 

pronior, ct sic non potest ah ordinacione divina dis- 

gredi; relinquitur quod extollitur supra deum, nam 

tunc possct inpeccabiliter adversari ordinacioni divinc, 

quod non possct, nisi forct superior deo nostro. Et se- 10 

cundum apostolum Thess. 2, antichristus in istam blas- 

femiam extollitur, ideo dicit quidam, quod ille cst 

summus magister heresis symoniace, et ab eius scola 

et loco ut fonte hereses symoniace latc per orbem 

scaturiunt. i3 

anJ that in Supposito ergo quod ipsc cum collegio suo possct 

1. twloveof esse symoniacus, videndum est quomodo triplici via 

pomp and posset committere svmoniam. Primomodo propter fastum 
worldlydigmty; 1 { 

ct questum ad dignitatem lllam monarchicam aspirando; 

nullus quidcm status ecclcsie est pcriculosior, quia si 20 

non propinquius sequitur Petrum et Christum in vita, 

sed disgreditur, non apostolicus scd apostaticus est 

habcndus. Talis igitur, qui propter honorem vel lucrum 

mundanum aspirat ad illud fastigium, in primis quo 

ad se ipsum blasfema heresi est percussus, sed quia25 

illud possct cssc mundo absconditum, ideo negligencia 

ministrande ccclesie instar Christi et Petri apostoli et 

declinacio ad vitam seculi sunt illius heresis papalis 

manifestum indicium. 

2. by invcnting Secundum genus heresis symoniace ex ista germinans 3o 

tradltions^br cst veu<e multiplicare tradiciones que lucrum sapiunt, 

thesakeof a j orms ecclesie et sunt implicite legi Christi contrarie ; 

qui enim sic facit, inordinatissime committit spiri- 

tualem dignitatem propter appetitum commodi tem- 

poralis. Exemplum istius ponit quidam ex lege Boni- 35 

2. symoniacus i, al. m. a, om. ceteri. 3. audenter ceteri; pro aspiro: 
as-sero df. 4. pro est: dicitur h. 7, X. dcgredi a. 8. supra gh, super 
ceteri. <j. inpeccabiliter egh, corr. ex inpeccanter d, in peccanter ceteri. 
1?. quidem ch, ipse pro ille ceteri, est om. bef. i). in textu loco al. m. 
latc a. i5. scatiirierunt agi. i(3. possit heri d. 18. in textu posset, 
al. m. potest dgh, potest e; ib. modo om. ad. et pro vel ceteri. 20. quo- 
niam b, qua cf. 23. igitur ceteri, al. m. pro ergo g. crgo eeteri, qui om. i. 

27. instruende bcde, instituende afi, in textu instituende, al. m ministrande g. 

28. istius ceteri ; ib. populis corr. ex papalis e, populis ceteri. 33. com- 
mutabilem abfi, in ras. g, correctum in commutat d, commutat ceteri. 
34. apparenciam defgh. ?5. quidem cli. 

11. 2 Thess. 2, 4. 



gain. 



CAP. III.] DE SIMONIA. 

facii VIII, posita in 6. decretalium De Donacionibus, Si 
duobus, ubi videtur statuere quod provisio per papam 
multis personis secundum eandem datam de collacionc, 
eadem persona, que prius presentaverit, prefertur. Ubi 
5 patet, ut sepe deduxi, quod sequitur: si persona in casu 
isto prius presentaverit processum episcopo, debet pre- 
ferri in gracia, sed Petrus aput deum indignus et pre- 
scitus discolus prius presentat processum suum epi- 
scopo, quam Paulus predestinatus et habilis aput deum, 

toergo ipse Petrus debet preferri in gracia. Cum autem 
minor illius argumenti contingit communiter, quia Judas 
non dormit sed dolose laborat et vigilat propter lucrum, 
suppono veritatem minoris. Et tunc patet quod con- 
clusio est heretica et minor supponitur esse vera, forma 

i3quoque bona relinquitur, maiorem que est lex pape esse 
hereticam. Non enim consonat legi beati Gregorii, i que- 
stione 6, cap. Sicut is, sed manifeste dissonat, quod quia 
Petrus inportunius prosequitur quam Paulus pro dignitate 
habenda, ideo preferetur revera. Episcopus, qui eundem 

2oex hinc prefert Petrum, deceptus fallacia, secundum non 
causam ut causam conferendo inhabili, manifestat se 
esse discipulum antichristi: manifeste autem sunt leges 
huiusmodi, quia omnes tradiciones humane que non 
fundantur originaliter in scriptura, nec valent subterfugia 

2? in ista materia, ut hii blasfemant, quod eo ipso quod Petrus 
prius presentaverit virtute legis papalis est magis habilis, 
quia sepe virtute legis dei est minus habilis. Et cum 
lex dei sit in tali casu legi papali contraria, oportet 
illam tanquam hereticam, quia a veritate dimissam, suc- 

3ocumbere; hii autem blasfemant, quod propter plus 
bonum venturum error peccati debet fieri, contra apo- 
stolum Rom. 3, et hii dicunt declaracionem esse paparum 

±. prius al. m. aJefgh, om. c, preferetur /;■ 7. in gracia corr. ex 
magis a. magisjF. 8. presentavil i. 9. habilis ap. deum ceteri. 

11. islius »; contingit corr. ex concludit ag, convenit b, sic contingit d. 

12. ante dolosc: sod corr. ex et gh, et ceteri.. i3. supposita vcritate 
supposita in ras. a; ib. pro tunc: tamen ceteri. i3, 14. consequens est 
liereticum, conclusio in margine i. 18. pro inportunius: impe'ius c; in 
1 xtu in pcius, al. m. impctosius J; iri textu plus, .?/. m. pcius g, in pcius 
ceteri. 19. eundem corr. ex undc a; unde gli. 24. sacra aJ script. 
al. m. add. dg. 25. sed vXabefi; ib. blasfemant, quod co ipso quod bdh. 
quod ipso al. m. g, om. ceteri. 26. prcsentavcrit gh, presentavit ceteri. 
27. lit om. h; cum lcx dci sit al m. h. 29. a ventate dissonat divisam 
abdfx, pro dimissam: divisam ce, dissonat celeri. 3o. plus blasf. h. 
al.m. Jg, pro plus: magis ceteri. 3i, 32. apostolum om., contra Rom. 3 
al. m 111 lacuna a. 32. cssc om i. 

r, Corp. iur. can. II, 943. VI Decrct. I, 3 (De rescriptis), 14 
(Duobus super provisione). 2. 'provisio' pro 'provisione facta' 
dictum esse puto. 17. Ibid. I, 42? (c. 3, C. I,qu.6). 32. Rom.3, 8. 



3o 



.IOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. III. 



sequencium, quod dignior quo ad graduacionem scolasti- 
cam debet preferri. Sed nec hoc evacuat legis blasfemiam, 
nec iustificat declaracioncm papalem, cum sepe non gra- 
duatus sit sanccior et habilior ad regimen animarum. 
3. by presenting Tcrcium vcro genus hercsis symoniace, quod potest 5 
^woridly" papam contingere est inordinata volicio preficicndi cura- 
reasons. tos ccclesie propter comodum temporale et illa sy- 
monia infinitis modis potest nimis late Christianismum 
inliccre. Kt per ista patet solucio ad primam conclu- 
sionem Luciferi negando ipsam ut summe hcreticam. io 
Et quantum ad racionem informem patet, quod solus 
deus est dominus qui peccare non potest, cui competit 
quomodocunque volucrit uti suis. Et quantum ad mi- 
norem patet, quod papa cxistente iusto habet titulum 
ewangelicum ad usum omnium tcmporalium ecclcsie t5 
militantis, ncc cst pompandum de isto quia quilibet 
conversans ipso iustior habet titulum veriorem, sed 
preter hoc titulum serviendi ecclesie ministrandi, guber- 
nandi et dispcnsandi secundum ewangelium bona ec- 
clesic, quod est valde alienum a manerie dominandi. 20 
Kt in isto potest papa errare faciliter quia prcdicare 
sacramenta, ministrare et orarc cst papale officium, 
scd dispensarc vel ministrare temporalia est inferius 
levite ministerium vel officium laicalc, et patet quam 
nudc assumitur qucmlibct Romanum episcopum habcre 2? 
sanctam ecclesiam sponsam suam. Cum enim non sit 
Christus, qui solus est sponsus ecclcsie catholice, pape 
est dubium, ut aliis secum viventibus, nedum si sit 
capitalis, ymmo si sit membrum alicuius ccclesie, quia 
solum predestinatus est membrum ecclesic sancte matris, 3<> 
ut hic supponitur. Videat ergo papa quomodo Christus et 
Petrus eius vicarius intromiserunt se de temporalibus bonis 
ecclcsic, Christus enim dixit Luc. 12: 'Quis mc constituit 
iudiccm aut divisorcm supcr vos?" Kt Act. 3 dicit Petrus: 
'Argentum et aurum non est michi, quod autem habeo 35 
lioc tibi do.' Oportct autcm papam essc dispensatorcm 
celestis thesauri ut gracie et virtutum, non stercorum. 

2. vacuat bc, corr. in evacuat a. 3, 4. graduatai. 4. in tsxtu supc- 
rior. al. m. sanccior dg ; superior cetcri. 7. ista cctcri. s. christia- 
nissimum ac. 17. pro virtuosus: conversans c; in textu convcrsans, 
al. m. virtuosus d. 18. hoc habet ceteri. 25. pro episcoputh; ponii- 
ficem cetcri. 27. ipsi al. m. ante papc dg. 2(). pro corporalis: capi- 
talis i. 3i. V.l videat i. 32. 1'ctrns al. m. g, om. ceteri; ib. se om. /1. 
34. aut gh, ac ccteri. 35. enim corr. cx autcm cg; enini I?. 



33. Luc. 12, 14. 



34. Act. 3, 0. 



CAP. III.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



3i 



Et patct, quod papa contendendo contra collacionem vel 
dominacionem bonorum fortune degenerat, et per con- 
sequens est argumentum topicum quod si papa vendicat 
de bonis ecclesie tale dominium, tunc partitur iniustc 
5 et illicite tanquam eorum inprovidus dispensator. Et si 
sine revelacione vendicat habere dominium omnium 
bonorum ecclesie sponse sue, tunc est meridianum 
dcmonium ct capitalis discipulus antichristi. Quid enim 
tali et sponse Christi, numquid ut sic est inpeccabilis 

msicut dcus? Consideremus, rogo, originem, quomodo 
presbiter contraheret inpeccabilitatem vel auctoritatem tan- 
tam, in quantum Romanus pontifex; certum quidem est, 
quod hoc non habet a deo, et mirum est si hoc habeat 
a cesare. Timeat ergo tanquam servus Christi et sponse 

i5sue humilimus, et solicitet ministrare in spiritualibus. 

dimissis bonis fortune perplexitatibus involutis. 

Sed dubitatur primo, si pape tanquam vero patrono Thc popc in 
. , 1 ~ .' i • *■ A. • claiming all 

pertmeat omnia benehcia ecclesiastica regnorum Christia- pa tronagc is 

nismi, que sunt in manu mortua, dispensare. Et vi- h^tfeliing'' 

2odetur quod non, primo quia commisso regi a deo regni dutics. 

regimine committuntur sibi omnia ad hoc necessaria que 

sue subiacent potestati. Sed pernecessarium est ad regni 

regimen habere circumspectos curatos, qui secundum 

deum regant populum, ut patet hic et De Officio Regis; 

25 cum ergo subiacet potestati regis de isto providere, 

scquitur quod rex habet curam istam sibi commissam 

a deo; et iste videtur sensus ecclesie ex decreto concilii 

Toletani, quod 16 questione 7 cap. ponitur sub hiis ver- 

bis: 'Decrevimus, ut quamdiu fundatores ecclesiarum in hac 

3o vita superstites fuerint, pro eisdem locis curam habeant 

sollicitam atque rectores ydoneos in eisdem basilicis idem 

ipsi offerant episcopo ordinandos. Quod si spretis eis- 

dem fundatoribus, rectores ibidem presumpserit episcopus 

1. pro contra: circa ceteri. 4. iniustc ct om. ch. 7. bonorum tcm- 
poralinm eccl. d. 8. dominium gi. 9. ct cgh, cst ceteri ; ib. cst om. h. 
10. pro rogo: crgo i; ib. in textn potcstatcm, at. m. dignitatcm <; ; pote- 
statcm cef; in textu pot. al. m. inpeccabilitatem d; in tcxtu pot., .;/. m. 
dign., in margine inpeccabilitatem g; dignitatem ceteri. 11. in textu aut, 
<;/. m. vel gh, aut ceteri. i5. solicitet h solum ; in textu solutum sc, 
<t/. m. sollicitum cst 17; soluttim se c; solicitum ;'. 18. bona eccl. a. 
20. primo qnia />/;, primo om. cetcri ; ib. re^ni om. ceteri ; a deo al. m. <;, 
01». c. 11. re£ni dh; rc^is ceteri. 26 — 28. cum — ecclcsie al. m. in 
marg. d; ib. subiaceat corr. ex snbiacet 17; subiaccret i. 26. rcx habct 
0111. Ii ; sibi om. h. ij, 28. pro conc. Toll.: consulto letam befg; consulto 
lctano c. 28. cap. om. ceteri. 29. pro ut: quod ccteri. 3o. in hac 
vita oin. ceteri. 

24. I)c OH". Regis, c. III, p. 62 et ss. 28. Corp. iur. c. 32 
(Decernimus), C. u>, q. 7 (Friedberg) I, 809. 



32 



JOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. III. 



ordinare, ct ordinacionem suam irritam novcrit ct ad 
verecundiam sui alios in eorum loco, quos ipsi fundatorcs 
condignos elegerint, ordinari.' Ex quo decreto sanctissimo 
patct, quod, cum Romanus cpiscopus sit cpiscopus prcci- 
puus, regum contcmptus sit ordinare in rcgnissuis prelatos 5 
inhabilcs, cum ex hinc gignuntur mcmhra diaboli, quod 
Thc king is si Romanus cpiscopus atcmptct preliccre in regnis suis 
such c!aims! St cardinales, vel alios prelatos regno inutilcs, regum cst 
sub pena amissionis regni terreni et sub obtentu regni 
celorum symonias tales dissolverc, et antequam attemptcnt io 
invadcrc regna extera, de regnis propriis quo ad istud 
periculum providc ordinare. Scd hcu ! si regnum nostrum 
inslinctum bonum ad horam cx spiritu sancto quo ad 
illud habuerit, et ordinacioncm ewangelicam ad cassan- 
dam hanc hcresim discrete statuerit, statim inpellit i5 
antichristus per pscudo clericos nostros ut dicitur ct tam 
sanctum propositum dissipat et dissolvit. Quomodo ita- 
que stabit regnum? Revera ad momcntum potest volutari 
prurigine, sed necesse est ex fide scripture quod in brevi 
ut Ninive vel corporaliter vel spiritualiter subvcrtatur. 20 
Wc shouid not Cum crgo provisio ista papalis dc beneficiis regni 
3 pope's e nostri non habct robur nisi ex accepcione nostra ceca 
P ' TuvcTif- 10 at 1 ue iUicita, utamur quo ad minimum cautcla regni 
income if they Scotorum subridendo dicentium nos audissc, quod papa 
do not icsidc. contu jj t su -j s cai -Jinalibus pinguiora beneficia rcgni nostri, 25 
scd fructus beneficiorum nisi voluerint infra regnum ad 
eius utilitatem expendcrc,non habebunt,hoc enim potest rcx 
et regnum faccrc ct dcbet catholicc illud primo intendere, 
sccundum Legem ewangelicam ctrcgalem. Nec timenda est 
cxcommunicacio aut censura vel malediccio propter illud, 3<> 
sed timenda foret regi et regno symoniace hereticorum 
benediccio quos sic foverit. Nam secundum sanctos eorum 
malediccio forct benediccio converso et econtra. Itcm ut 
pollitici grossi pcrcipiunt in bcncficiis ecclesiasticis sunt 
duo, scilicet ut spirituale ministcrium quo ad deum, et 35 
temporalium rcgni adiaccncia quo ad mundum, sed primo 

1. ct ordin. dh, ct om. ceteri. 2. codcm ceteri. 3. elegerunl ag; 
ordinari corr. ex ordinandum a ordinandum cg. 4. quod om. bdefgh; 
ib. ct precipuus bcdepli. i. contemptus c'i. contentns ceteri; ib. suis om. h. 
(i. hinc ch, hiis ceteri. i3. institutum al. m. h. 10. pro pci' pseudo: 
perstrependo ccteri; in textu ul ceteri, al. m. ut h: d; ib. dicitnr sibi ct i. 
17. dcsipit pro dissipat i. ?3. quo om. ceteri. 24. dicentem ceteri. 
2 ~>. fractus /'. 28. debct om. abi; ib. primo om. c, al. m. h. 33. conversi 
ceteri. 35 36. scilicct om. ceteri; ib. qnoad usque. 36. adiaccncia om. b. 
30. in texlu primum al. m.. primo 1? ,■ et primum gi. 

21 — 25. 'Rcgni nostri' lin. 21, 'utamur' lin. 23 ad Anglos, 'nos' 
lin. 24, 'regni nostri' lin. 2 5 ad Scotos referri ex sensu patet. 



CAP. III.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



33 



pertinente quo ad deum et ministratorie ad prosecucio- 
nem episcopi, secundum noscitur principaliter pertinere 
ad regis officium. Sed rex debet specialiter providere de aii 
cunctis spectantibus ad eius officium, de quanto ad cul- come^underllie 
5 tum dei pertinet, ut supra dixi ex testimonio beati Gregorii king's rule. 
in Registro libro 2 ; ergo regum est in nomine domini 
exequi dominanter illud officium. Aliter enim rex Anglie 
non foret nisi regulus partis regni, et Romanus pontifex 
vel evidencius eius archiepiscopus foret superior et 

io fructuosior dominus regni nostri; sed hoc inprobavi 
alias. Ideo suppono quod rex noster donando cuique 
ecclesie sue elemosinas quascunque mobiles sive im- 
mobiles reservat sibi capitale dominium, quia alias ex- 
tingueret regnum suum. Et assumptum ex hoc patet 

1 5 quod spiritualis cura potest stare per se sine dotacione 
temporalium et econtra. Sic enim fuit tempore Christi 
et apostolorum et diu post usque ad Urbanum I. 
ut narrat Cestrensis libro 4 capitulo 48, et ex post stat 
dotacio sine spirituali ministerio tam in prelatis maioribus 

20 quam minoribus, nec dissencient nostri subtiliantes in 
signis, qui dicunt se credere, quod in sacramento altaris 
remanet accidens sine subiecto. Cum ergo non datur tem- 
porale beneficium clericis, nisi propter eorum ministerium 
spirituale, patet quod regum est subtrahere quod suum 

25 est deficiente causa, cum nec deus nec homo posset illud 
nisi subintelligendo condicionem implicitam homini quit- 
quam dare. Patronorum ergo, et omnino regum est con- 
dicionem istam attendere, quia secundum hoc vinculum 
duo brachia ecclesie sunt connexa et aliter indubie 

3o clerus posset ad tantum subverti, quod ad temporalia 
grossa omnino attenderet, et spiritualia vivifica nimis 
vel in toto postponeret. 



There is no 
necessary 
connexion 
between cure 
of souls and 
endowment. 



1. pro pertinente: particularem b, pertinere i, in textu pertinere, al. m. 
pertinente ade ; ib. ministratorie bch, ministracione ceteri. 2. nosci et 
pro noscitur i. 9. archiep. suus ceteri. 11, 12. circumque ecclesie h. 
12. suas fi. i3. ahter fi. i5. quia pro quod ag. 16. et econtra om. bhi. 
18. Cesarensis ag, cap. 68 ceteri. 20. m min. bce; ib. ut pro nec ib. 
dissenc. isto bce. 23. eorum al. m. d, om. g. 25. dominus pro deus h ; 
ib. potest ceteri. 26. nisi om. abcf, al. m. d. 3o. potest ceteri. 

3i. omnino al. m. h; ib. in textu unica, al. m. vincula, in marg. vivificaa,- 
viv. om. b. 



6. Cf. supra pag. 7, v. 12 et notam. 18. Cestrensis Ra- 
nulphus Higden, monachus Cestrensis, appellatur. In cuius 'Poly- 
chronico', libr. 4, cap. 20 (Rerum Britannic. Medii Aevi Script. 
XLI, t. 5, pag. 66) locum hic citatum invenies. 



34 



JOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



|CAI>. III. 



The decretal Et ista videtur sentcncia i 6 questione, 7: 'Monasterium,' 
palromige^to inquit, 'vel oratorium canonice constructum a dominio 
the founder. constructoris eo invito non auferatur, liceatque illi patrono 
presbitero cui voluerit pro sacro oflicio illius diocesis 
episcopi consensu, ne malus existat, commendare.' Ecce 5 
quod domus religiosa stat in iusto arbitrio fundatoris 
et multo magis in iusto iudicio regni et regis; ideo 
dicit decretum Gregorii statim sequens: 'Racionis ordo 
non patitur, ut monasterium contra voluntatem fundatorum 
ab eorum disposicione ad arbitrium suum, quis debeat 10 
vendicare'. Multi sunt canones testantes quod qui- 
cunque licite fundaverit elemosinam ecclesie cor- 
poralem, habebit in se et suis heredibus curam, ut 
condicio illius racionalis compleatur. Ideo dicunt multa 
decreta sequencia quod factum patroni vel heredis suii5 
debet providencia episcopi loci et eius sapiencia 
regulari, quod si desit tam sapiencia quam benivolencia 
cuiuscunque episcopi conversantis, non potest deficere 
auctoritas vel decretum episcopi ecclesie triumphantis. 
Et lex scripture cum lege nature, que est lex trinitatis 20 
et racionis sit nobis pro regula, nec potest contrariari 
isti sentencie lex ecclesie vel lex alia credenda catholice. 
Ali patronage Item totum genus patronatus vel ius suum fuit primo in 
^layXinJs. 1 " manu layca, nec fuit post a manu layca ad Romanum 

episcopum vel suos sathelites licite derivatum, crgoad-2? 
huc remanet in manu layca sicut primo; minor patet 
ex hoc, quod nec a Christo nec a cesare acquisivit 
papa ius tale, cum sit officium laycale. Unde patronus 
dicitur a patre quasi defensor et hinc dicitur habere 
multa officia ut recitat glossa super cap Pie men- 3o 
iis 1 6 questione 7 : 'Patronum faciunt dos, edificacio, 
fundus'; et hinc hec tria: honor, onus, et utilitas. Illud 



2, 3. a dominio constructoris corr. ex a domino constructore a ; a do- 
mino constructore g. 5. ex consensu episcopi h; in textu ne, al. m. 
ut a; ut pro ne di. 7. iusto cegh; isto ceteri. 10. ad om. dfg. 

n. in textu canones, al. m. tales leges nature a; nature om. bcef; tales 
leges at. m. d. 12. ecclesiam ecclesie ag; ecclesie al. m. h. i3. et in 
suis dg ; pro illius: eius celeri ; racionabilis ceteri. 16. debet ch, debeat 
ceteri. 17. regulas bcefg. 23. et ius ceteri. 24. nec — layca al m. a. 
25. pro episcopum : pontificem ceteri ; ib. pro derivatum: donatum g, 
deviatum i. 31. questione be, corr. ex dist. c. 17 quest. 7 h, distinccione 
ceteri. 32. in textu hinc, al. m. inde h, hinc celeri ; ib. pro illud: idem 
ceteri. 



i. Corp. iur. I, 809 (c. 33, C. iG, qu. 7). 8. Ibid. c. 34. 
i5. Ibid. c. 35—41 (I, 810— 811J. 3i. Ibid. c. 26 (I, 807), 
Glossa in ed. Corp. iur. a. i5o6, f. 243 b . 



CAP. III.] 



DR SIMONIA. 



3 5 



officium committitur ct sumitur nunc spiritualiter et 
nunc corporaliter secundumquod quis confert patrocinium, 
ut Christus dicitur patronus tocius ordinis Christiani et 
Augustinus dicitur patronus illorum ordinum qui tenent 
5 suam regulam, alii autem qui ex suis elemosinis tem- 
poralibus fundarunt quadam perpetuitate collegia sacer- 
dotum, dicuntur patroni illorum locorum quorum 
officium est elemosinarios suos secundum regulas primi 
patroni et condiciones privatas licite gubernare et delin- 

ioquentes secundum correpcionem piam corrigere, non 
occidendo, non comburendo, ut fit in conquestibus, sed 
elemosinas medicinaliter subtrahendo et in tempore neces- 
sitatis de elemosinis ad sui usum moderatum recipiendo, 
ut patet 16 questione 7, cap. Filiis et eadem questione 

i5 5, cap. Quicunque, et concordant glose doctorum. 

Unde circa descripcionem etquiditatem patrimonii avari 
nostri cicumpalpitant dicentes, quod est temporale spiri- 
tuali annexum et hii, quod consequitur ad dominium 
sicut passio ad subiectum, et sic parrochiales ecclesie 

20 dicuntur habere fundamentaliter suam glebam ; et fin- 
gunt hii, quod omnis patronatus principaliter spectat ad 
papam iuxta textum in principio 2. decretalium De Judiciis 
cap. Quanto divina etc. : 'Causa', inquit, 'iuris patronatus 
ita coniuncta et connexa est spiritualibus causis, quod 

25 non nisi ecclesiastico iudicio valeat diffiniri,' non quod 
spectat ad papam vel episcopum esse patronum ele- 
mosine corporalis, licet quandoque distribuat egenis ele- 
mosinas quas recipit ut servus cesaris vel alterius domini 
secularis; verumtamen causa finalis talis patrimonii 

3o debet tractari coram iudice ecclesiastico reducendo ipsam 



Fictitious 
claims as to 
endowments. 



In what way 
they come 
under the 

ecclesiastical 
judge. 



1. in textu innuitur, al. m. committ. a, innuitur pro committ. bcdeg ; 
ib. et om. adg. 2. patronum abfg; pro" 1 ce ; in textu constituit patronum, 
al.m. confert patrocinium d. 4. est pro dicitur adg. 6. fundarunt ceh, 
fundaverunt ceteri. 6, 7. quedam collegia sacerdotum quadam perpetui- 
tate dg ; a ut dg, quad. perpet. autem al. m. addit.; quadam perp. e; 

uandam perpetuitatem /. 7. quorum off. ceh, qu. per off. ceteri. 

. est al. m. a, om. cdfg; ib. elemosinarios corr. ex elemosinas a ; elemo- 
sinas g, suos om. ag. 9, 10. lic. est gub. ag, et deliiiqu. deh, et om. 
ceteri. 10. correccionem i. n. questibus ab. 12. in textu mediocriter, 
al. m. medicin. d, mediocriter ceteri. i3. suum ag. 14. cap. om. 
ceteri. 14, i5. 5 cap. Quicunque dh, 5 cap. om. celeri. 15. pro doc- 
torum : decretorum adi. 16. contra pro circa h; ib. pro patrimonii : 

patroni ceteri. 17, iS. spirituali temporafe corr. ex spirituale temporali a ; 
spirituale temporali g. 18. hinc pro hii dfg. 20, 21. fugiunt i. 

22. in principio om. h. 23. cap. 4 De Judiciis om. ceteri ; cap. 5. Div. 
gr. pro Qu. div. etc. ceteri; in textu ut ceteri, al. m. ut h:d. 27. pro 
corporalis: carnalis i; ib. aliquando ceteri. 28. reccpit cdef. 29. pa- 
troni h. 3o. eum ag, ipsam ceh, ipsum ceteri. 

14. Ibid. c. 3i (1,809"). l5 - Ibid - c - io (I, 808). 22. Gre- 
gorii decretales II, 1, 3 Quanto te divina (Friedberg II, 23g). 

3* 



36 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. III. 



ad spirituale patrimonium conformiter legi Christi quod 
si ipse perversus et avarus fuerit, residua pars ec- 
clesie debet ordinare de isto secundum voluntatem ulti- 
mam patroni primi Christi, que patet in testamento suo. 
Unde patronatus est forma qua quis dicitur formaliter 5 
patronus, nec in natura sua est res corporalis, cum nec 
sit obiectum, nec est res illa corporalis, quam patronus 
donat ecclesie, sed quedam spiritualis potestas ad pro- 
videndum de elemosina prius data. Quoddam eciam 
dicitur spirituale patrimonium a termino et aliquod cor- 10 
Abuses ot porale licet utrobique sit in se spirituale. Sed postquam 
pa ronagi.. i nV aluerunt cultores signorum uterque patronatus pcrver- 
titur, nam layci emunt et vendunt patronatus ut boves 
irregulariter propter questum, cum tamen de lege nature 
populus debet digniorem eligere, et episcopi perversi ad i5 
seculum loco patrocinii spoliant subiectos. Ista autem 
est nimis severa patrociniacio sicut false fingitur 
Christum benedicendo panem in sacramento altaris ipsum 
Clergy panem omnino destruere. Non sic preputabant sancti in 
popuYa'" efection primitiva ecclesia, sed ex consensu populi qui debuit mederi 20 
In the h {J r j5? itiye fiebat eleccio, ut patet distinccione 63 cap. Plebs, et 
per multa alia capitula et 1 questione 1 , Ordinaciones 
et 1 questione 1, cap. Si quis, ut patet proximo capitulo. 
Nec subest racio quare ista lex pro iusticia populi 
non debet hodie servari. Necesse est tamen, quod2 5 
quicunque defectus eleccionis prepositi corrigantur per 
superiorem ecclesiam, sed non est correccio sed deter- 
ioracio quod loco defectus communitatis vel populi 
mutatur electi adopcio in fauces diaboli: ad patronum 
itaque pertinet patrimonium suum ad melius gubernare. 3o 



2. avare h; ib. defuerit ceh. 3, 4. istam pro ultimam bcefg, in 
textu istam, al. m. ultimam ad. 4. testimonio h. 6, 7. nec corr. ex 
11 1 h. 7. est om. bc; ib. carnalis i; ib. subiectum ceteri, est res illa 
om. i. 8. pro donat: dedit ceteri. 9. in textu quedam; al. m. quod- 
dam a. 14. irregulariter al. m. ad, om. fg. 16. subditos afg. 

17. in textu mens, al. m. mundi, in marg. nimis a ; mens bcefg ; in textu 
mens. al. m. nimis d. 18. sacro altari h. 19. omnino al. m. d, om. 
ceteri. 20. primeva ceteri, Christi pro populi bcdefg; ib. mederi om. b, 
medium fg, videri »'. 21. cap. om. cefg 22. et — ordin. cancellat. d. 
23. cap. ceteri. 24. per iusticiam ceteri. 25. non om. afg; servari 
ceteri ; ib. ut pro quod a. 26. corrigantur dh, corrigatur celeri. 

27. licet pro sed bce, in textu sed, al. m. licet d. 29. mutatur bcefg; 
mittatur ceteri. 3o. patrocinium ai, al. m. 



2i.Decreti c. 11, D. 63 (Friedberg [, 238). 22. Ibid. c. 11 3, 
C. 1, q. 1 (Friedberg I, 402), q. 4 (ibid. I, 816). 23. Ibid. 

c. 11 5, C. 1, q. 1 (ibid. I, 403). 



CAP. III.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



37 



Sed contra illud arguitur: Videtur quod omnis patro- It is said that 
nus debet post induratam communitatis maliciam patro- {eaVto^obbhig 
natum suum dissolvere, quod est quasi contra legem 1 7 que- the church - 
stione 4, ubi decretum sic loquitur: 'Omnes ecclesie 
5 raptores atque suarum facultatum alienatores a liminibus 
eiusdem sancte matris ecclesie anathematisamus et 
apostolica auctoritate pellimus, dampnamus, atque sacri- 
legos esse iudicamus; et non solum eos, sed omnes eis 
consencientes, quia non solum qui faciunt rei iudican- 

iotur, sed eciam qui consenciunt facientibus; par enim pena 

et agentes et consencientes comprehendit.' Hic dico quod If would be a 
utile foret et honoriricum ecclesie multas eius dota- s^press^many 
ciones dissolvere, nec in hoc destruitur patronatus, sed endowments. 
melioratur ab irreligiosa temporali tradicione ad spiri- 

i5tualem patronatum conversus. Sed felix et meritoria 
patronis foret talis mutacio, quia non dubium, quin 
Christus omnipotens et omnisciens et omnivolens ordi- 
navit et aptavit vitam et statum sponse sue competen- 
ciorem pro beatitudine acquirenda, ipse autem ordinavit 

20 apostolos pauperes exproprietarios dispargi per orbem 
et ewangelium predicare, ergo status talis exproprietarius 
foret apercior et alcior pro beatitudine acquirenda. 
Et istam sentenciam omnes fratres vel sacerdotes scioli con- 
testantur, et dicit decretum Nicolai III in sexto, Exiit qui 

25 seminat. Cum ergo Christus non docuit suos apostolos 
cariores esse sic proprietarios vel claustraliter congregatos, 
videtur quod hoc sit ad onus et dampnum ecclesie. Patronus 
itaque qui dissolveret hanc imperfeccionem, tanquam dei 
adiutor et non nominis sui fallaciter terreni fundator 

3o multum iuvaret sic incarceratos et terrenis oppressos, et per 
consequens totam ecclesiam. Si enim totus clerus viveret 
exproprietarie, sicut vixit ex ordinacione Christi in 
ecclesia primitiva, ipse foret in se ad sanctitatem 



1. obicitur pro arguitur ag. 2. induratam ceh; in textu usitatam, 
al. m. induratam d, poni usitatam f, incusatam ceteri. 3. quasi om. ceteri. 
8. esse om. i, sed eciam om. h. 11. facientes pro agentes 1. i3. de- 
struere alias dissolvere b. 14. corporali tardacione pro temporali tradi- 
cione h; d in textu ut ceteri. al. m. ul h. i5. conversis h. 22. pro 
apercior: accepcior a, pro alcior: eleccior ceteri; d in textu ut ceteri, 
al. m. ul h. 23. fratres ceh, in textu fratres, al. m. scientes d; scientes 
ceteri ; sacerdotes om. ceteri; ib. testantur i. 24. et ceh, ut ceteri : ib. 
exit a. 25. Christus bceh, om ceteri. 26. aggregatos ag. 29. fallacis 
ceteri. 33. ad sanctitatem h solum ; ad sanctit. al.m. d. 



3. Ibid. c. 5, C. 17, q. 17 (I, 84). 24. Sexti decret. 5, 12, 3 
(ibid. II, 1109). 



3S 



JOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



f CAP. in 



disposicior et ad convertcndum populum a seculo 

speculo clarior, cum utrimque ex eius contrario ac- 

cidunt multa mala. Quantum ad decretum dicitur quod 

necesse est legistas et omnes fideles inteligere de ab- 

lacione illicita. Quod bene notat decretum vocans tales 5 

raptores atque sacrilegos, nam auferens temporalia a 

pseudopapa atque heretico propterea a Christo et lege 

ecclesie comendatur, nec video quomodo liceat auferre 

temporalia invite ab homine nisi foret hereticus et tunc 

This would licet; si autem licet et debet de lege veteri auferri sarcina 10 

"souls of a a' V q ua deprimitur iumentum proximi, multo magis in 

burdcn. lege nova non debet onerari animus confratris sarcina 

vocate elemosine qua religio Christi deperditur et 

fune diaboli trahitur ad infernum, nec debet in istis 

credi appetitui inlirmorum, qui propter distrasiam i5 

amplexati sunt stercora sensus scripture. Si ergo ne- 

cessaria sint nobis temporalia, tribuantur nobis secun- 

dum modum et mensuram quam ewangelium limitavit, 

tunc enim spargerentur temporalia in mundo fructi- 

fere tanquam pluvia, et dissensiones et bella et secte 20 

et alii fructus carnis quos recitat apostolus sopi- 

rentur, et sermo dei intraret nutriens taliter irrigata. 

Thosc who Unde credo quod spiritus sanctus intelligit per hanc 
cndow arc the n ... , . a r , 

real spoilers, legem, quod llh qui spohant ecclesiam que est homines 

Churcfi ot' C excellencia status et virtutum, per dotaciones cecas in-2r> 

virtue. stinctu diaboli exortas, ut scilicet perpetuetur dotanti 

celebre nomen in terris, illi inquam, sunt sacrilegi et 

a triumphante ecclesia maledicti. 

Good intentions Diabolus enim est rex supra omnes filios superbie 

a " e^use! 0 " 1 et > ut novit fidelis, tales ut sic infinitum magis bonis 3o 

spoliant matrem suam; nec excusat yppocritica et ceca 

intencio, quia Paulus ex fide scripture fuit percussus 

blasfemia, cecatus ex consimili ypocrisi sacerdotum, 



1. et adeh, om. ceteri; ib. speculo om. ij in textu a solo speculo cf, 
al. m. a seculo c. 2. utique ceteri. 3. infinita pro multa i. 9. ab 
homine bce, om. ceteri. II. pro iumentum: inmeritum b, iniunctum i; 
ib. proximi h solum, Christi ceteri. 12. confratris al m., in textu con- 
ferens ad, conferens /, conferentis alias confratris b; confr. om. c. 
i3. ecclesie pro elemosine abg ; voc. elem. cancell. d. 16. sunt ceteri. 
18. limitat ceteri. 22. curreret pro intraret h, intrinsecus pro nutriens i. 
24. hominis bcdef. 26. scilicet d solum al. m., in textu si qui; si h, 

si que ceteri; ib. dotatim bcfg, dotatim in textu, dotanti al. m. a. 
29. est om. i. 3o. in infinitum bcefg; bonos acfg; bono h; bono corr. 
ex bonos de. 3i. yppocrita aceg. 



1, 2. Cf. Jerem. 3 1, 21. 16. Philipp 3, 8. 21. Gal. 5, 19 
seqq. 



CAP. III.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



39 



nam dictum est ei quod prestaret obsequium deo 
laborando, ut ubicunque inveniret huiusmodi viros, vinc- 
tos perduceret Jerusalem, et illi in ore eorundem sacer- 
dotum vocabantur benefici, quia eius predia et posses- 
5 siones ampliarunt. Recolant itaque seculares domini de 
duplici penali cecacione Pauli et de duplici eius illu- 
minacione, ex quibus sequebatur tam conversacione 
quam predicacione confusio Judeorum et ex doctrina 
sancti spiritus faciant ipsi similiter. Recolant inquam, False doctrines 
ioquomodo cum sacramento eukaristie et penitencie nec " ow preva ent ' 
non et tercio cum elemosina temporalis beneficii 
que de facto est maleficia, dissolvens religionem 
quam Christus instituit, sophisticatur ecclesia. Unde 
multe sunt habitudines rotate hodie speculative in 

i5materia de sacramento altaris, que docent prenostice 
hanc irreligiosam affeccionem circa temporalia inesse 
ecclesie. Docmatisatur, inquam, per cultores signorum, 
quod quicunque negaverit sacramentum altaris esse 
accidens sine subiecto, sit tanquam hereticus iudicandus, 

20 et sic quicunque negaverit adiacenciam temporalium 
cum quibus dotatur ecclesia non esse de perfeccione 
essenciali ecclesie, eciam censetur hereticus. Quicunque 
eciam secundo negaverit cultum divinum, eciam latriam 
non esse exhibendam accidenti sine subiecto, censetur 

25 hereticus; et correspondenter quicunque negaverit meri- 
tum beatitudinis correspondere proporcionabiliter quanti- 
tati boni temporalis ecclesie adiacentis, iudicatur simili 
modo hereticus. Sed tercio, sicut subtiliantes in signis 
relicta scriptura cum priscis doctoribus fundantur super 

3o novis recentibus qui docma suum voluntarium gratis 
docent, sic magnificantes dotacionem cesaris relicta 
doctrina Christi et patrum primitive ecclesie innituntur 
auctoritati humane et pape cesareo. Unde subtiliores illius Innocent 111 is 
sentencie dicunt, quod solum determinaciones Innocencii III "^thority" 12 ' 

35 cum suis complicibus stabiliunt istam fidem. Et revera 



l.m textu deo. al. m. in eo 2. invenerit a; ib. huiusmodi h, 

huius vie ceteri ; ib. in Jerus. a. 3. pro in ore: more h. 4. qui ceteri. 
5. ampliarent ceteri. 6. cccacione cen. cecitate ceteri. 7. conversione i. 
9. faciunt bfg. 11. beneficencie ceteri, maleficencia ceteri. 14. infinite 
pro multe i ; ib. specul. al. m. a, om. fg. 16. religiosam ag, pro 
circa: contra h, medie pro inesse ceteri. 22, 23. eciam quic. ag. 

24. ex h, corr. ex ad d, adhib. ceteri. 26. in textu racionabiliter, 

al. m. proporc. a. 29. pro priscis : perfectis afg, pre sanctis ce; in 
textu perfectis, al. m. priscis d, sanctis ceteri; in priscis h. 3i. et relicta i. 
32. patroni ceteri. 33. istius ceteri. 35. reliquit pro rcvera bcfg, 

corr. in revera ad. 



1. Act. 9, 2. 



40 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. IV. 



dictus Innocencius iam superstcs posset habere hodie 
decem milia prelatorum qui omnes consentirent in istam 
trimembrem blasphemiam, quod religiosius esset ecclesiam 
cleri dotare uberius, quam carendo istis possessionibus 
vivere pure exproprietarie sicut Christus, quia vita ac- 5 
tiva possessionatorum est vita contemplativa exproprieta- 
riorum multo perfeccior, cum tam necessaria sit dotacio 
cesarea hodierna, quam necessaria fuit potestas faciendi 
miracula in ecclesia primitiva. Sed fidelis cognoscit quod 
non sequitur: si papa et cum millesies mille prelatis et 10 
doctoribus eciam sollempniter hoc docmatisat, ergo verum, 
ymmo omnes isti forent tanquam refugi suspecti fidelibus 
de lepra symoniaca et per consequens heretice pravitatis. 



CAP. IV. 



The Pope may Ulterius videtur quod papa in distribuendo beneficia '5 
commit simony. .. .. .. 

ecclesiastica et aha spintuaha cansmata potest comittere 

symoniam. Nam improvide papa propter retribucionem 

temporalem potest hoc facere, sed iuxta dicta eo ipso est 

His exaggerated symoniacus; ergo conclusio. Unde signum symoniace here- 

C ' a sign of 3 s ' s foret in papa ipsum sibi collaciones omnium huiusmodi 20 

simoniacal beneficiorum infundamentaliter et insolite cumulare. Nam 

apostoli sine contencione maioritatis vel recursu ad 

Petrum constituerunt indifferenter presbiteros sive epi- 

scopos, qua ergo evidencia oportet pro isto recurrere 

ad Romam V Mortua quidem est racio, sicut Petrus 25 

obiit Rome. Patet ista sentencia tractatu De Papa. Si 

enim deficit humana regula de statuendo prepositos, 



heresy. 



3. triplicem ag, trimembrem al. m. h. 4. in textu taliter dotatam, 
al. m. cleri dotari, in marg. uberius ad : taliter dotatam bfg; dotari ce ; 
uberius om. b. ?. exproprietarie cefgti, cxproprietate ceteri. 6, 7. ex- 
proprietariorum ag, exproprietatorum ceteri. 7. modo pro multo ceh ; 
in lextu multo, al m. modo d ; m. vel infinite bdi. 7. sit om. i. 8. ces. 
al. m. d; om. ceteri. 9. cognoscat ceteri. 10. et om. ceteri. 12. illi 
celeri ; ib. fidelibus om. i. (5. symoniace bce, svmonie ceteri. 17. pro- 
vide ;'. 18. pro hoc : talia c, talia in ras. e, illicite ceteri; ib. sed om. 
ceteri. 19. hereticus pro symon. in textu sym., al. m. heret. d; ib. 
conclusio vera ag, vcra al. m. df. 20. super ipsum dfg, super can- 
cell. ac ; ib. sibi ont. dfgh. al. m. add. a; ib. tollens pro collaciones fg, 
in textu toll., al. m. coll. d, collaciones in ras. a. 21. infundam. al. m. 
corr. in infundabiliter d. 22. mentis pro maioritatis bcefg; in textu 

mentis, al. m. maior. a; in lextu mai., al. m. mentis d. 25. Romanum ce, 
Romanum episcopum h; in lextu Romam, al. m. ut h: d; Roma pro racio 
bfg ; Roma corr. in racio a ; racio Roma c. 27. autem h, in textu autem, 
al. m. enim d, autem ceteri. 



I 



CAP. IV.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



4i 



ut patet supra de cap. Si duobus superius allegato, 
eque deficeret humana regula de eligendo prepositum; 
quomodo ergo sacerdos Christi postponeret legem dei 
et procederet secundum elecciones legis humane gen- 
5 tilis plene cautelis diaboli, aut quomodo papa cassaret 
elecciones huiusmodi, si sint iuste? Item apostoli ex The a^osties 
communi decreto deficiente revelacione elegerunt per C10se y 
sortem Matthiam apostolum ut patet Act. i. Sed factum 
eorum debet in isto esse exemplar evidencius quam 

losequens dictum vel factum Romani pontificis, ergo adhuc 
ecclesia debet intendere huic forme. Et ista videtur 
sentencia decreti Jeronimi posita 8 questione i. 'Si,' in- 
quit, 'tantus ille ac talis Moyses non permittitur iudicio 
suo de eligendo principe populi vel de constituendo suc- 

iScessore, quis erit qui audeat vel ex plebe que sepe 
clamoribus ad gradum aut precio fortasse excitata moveri 
solet, vel ex ipsis eciam sacerdotibus, quis erit qui se 
ydoneum ad hoc iudicet, nisi hic cui oranti et penitenti a 
domino reveletur? Sicut deus dicit ad Moysen Num. 27: 

2o"Assumme ad temet ipsum Jesum filium Nave, hominem 
qui habet spiritum dei in semet ipso et impones manus 
tuas super eum et statues eum coram Eleasaro sacerdote 
et precepta dato ei in conspectu tocius synagoge et 
precipe de ipso coram eis et dabis claritatem tuam super 

25illum ut audiant eum filii Israel". Audistis evidenter 
ordinacionem principis populi tam manifeste descriptam ut 
pene exposicione non egeat'. Et eodem spiritu dicitur prefe- 
cisse Petrus Clementem, ut patet ante eadem questione 
cap. Symon Petrus, et ita generaliter quando apostoli 

3o prefecerunt presbiteros; quod, si inspiracio que debet 
esse populo nota defuerit, mittant sortem; non enim 
est in potestate pape vel hominis leges scripture destruere. 

1, 2. ut — prepositum om. g, lege pro de cap. abcef, lege corr. in de 
cap. d; Si duobus sup. alleg. om. abcef. 2. illa pro eque h; ib. de- 
ficit abf; ib. declinando cf, corr. in ae eligendo a; ib. propositum a. 
5. cessaret fg, corr. in cassaret a; elleccio fg, corr. in elecciones a. 
11. eciam debet corr. in ecclesia debet ag 12. Jeronimi dh ; poni pro 
Jeronimi bcefg, om. ceteri. i3. ille om. i, actor pro ac talis fg, talis 
in ras a; otficio corr. in iudicio a; off. alias iud. b, iud. corr. iVoff. g. 
16. ad precium c; ib. fortasse al. m. a, om. g. 17. crit tunc i; tunc 
al. m. add a. 18. petenti ceteri. 19. deus ceh, dominus ceteri. 

20. Marie pro Nave ag. 23. precepto t. 24. precipue beg, corr. in 
precipe ac. 26. de scriptura cdfg 27. exponi /'. 28. Petrus al. m. a, 
om. cdefg. 29. cap. om. acdefg. 3o. sacerdotes presb. ceteri praeter ch. 
3l. nota bcefh, non ceteri. 32. a potestate a. 

1. Cf. pag. 29, 1. 8. Act. I, 26. 12. Decr. c. 16, C. 18, q. 1 
(Friedberg I, 5q5). 16. graciam pro gradum in Corp. iur. 

19. Num. 27, 18. 28. Decr. c. 12, C. 18, q. 1 (Friedberg I, 594). 



4 2 



IOHANNIS WYCf.IF 



[CAP. IV. 



The Hock know Item llla pcrsona, que ex evidcnciori noticia, ex speciahon 
bcst who can , . , ... ..... 

scrve their elemosina, et ex sumenda preciosion medicina habct magis 

wants. interesse, debet eleccioni tali approbando assistere; 

huiusmodi non est papa quo ad contractus sibi incognitos, 

sed populus regulandus, ergo eleccio talis pape est in- 5 

pertinens. Quomodo, queso, papa cognoscit de morihus, 

que persona sit habilior. ut tali genti presit episcopus, 

aut quomodo papa coget laycum dare elemosinam suam 

persone, quam credit inhabilem, vel quomodo cogetur 

accipere spiritualem medicinam in qua debet esse salus 10 

perpetua tam corporis quam anime, ab illo ydiota quem 

credit inhabilem ; quod si absens desit in istis quid sibi 

de fructibus? Et ista videtur sentencia beati Jeronimi 

super Leviticum et ponitur 8 questione i: 'Licet,' inquit, 

'dominus deus de constituendo precepisset principem, licet i5 

eciam dominus elegisset eum, convocatur eciam sinagoga. 

Requiritur ergo in ordinando sacerdotem eciam populi pre- 

sencia, ut sciant omnes et certi fiant, quia qui prestancior 

est ex omni populo, qui doccior, qui sanccior, qui eciam 

in omni virtute eminencior, ille eligatur ad sacerdocium, 20 

et hoc attestante populo, ne contra postmodum retractacio 

vel scrupulus resideret. Hoc est autem quod eciam apostolus 

precipit in ordinacione sacerdotis dicens: "Oportet autem 

illum testimonium habere bonum ab hiis quitbris sunt".Ego 

tamen et amplius aliquid video in eo quod dicitur:25 

"quia Moyses convocavit omnem synagogam, ut hoc sit 

coligere omnes animi vires, et in unum congregare 

virtutes, ut cum sermo de sacerdotibus et sacramentis 

habetur, vigilent omnes animi virtutes et intente sint, 

nichil in eis sapiencie, nichil sciencie, nichil industrie 3o 

desit, sed assit omnis multitudo sensuum, assit omnis 

congregacio sacrarum cogitacionum. ut quid sit pontifex, 



1. in textu specialiori, al. m. spiritualiori a ; spiritualiori /'. 3. se- 
cundum pro debet, eleccionem taliter ceteri, elecc. huiusmodi tal. ag, 
appropriando dfg, appropriando alias approbando b, assist. al. m. ad, 
om. cefg. 4. contratas sibi incognitas h. 5. sibi est inp., pape al. 
m. a. sibi est inp. g; pape al. m h. 12. credidit bdf i3. de fruct. 
om. bcefg; et fruct. ceteri. i3. de h solum exhibet ; in lextu sciendo. 
al. m. constituendo ad ; sciendo bcefg. 17. sacerdote bcdef. 18. pro 
fiant: sint ceteri, qui om. bcdefg. 21. attestante bgh, astante ceteri ; 
contra aegh, qua corr. in contra d, qua ceteri; ib. retractacio i, retraccio 
ceteri. 22. quod et ceteri. 23. precepit a. 26. convocat a. 

28. sacerdotibus et sacramentis ceh, sacrandis ceteri. 29. ut nichil ag. 
3o. pro sciencie eccksie ceteri, vel industrie ag. 32. sanctarum ceteri. 



14. Ibid. c 1?. 23. T. Tim. 3, 7. 

26. Tractatus De Papa. Cf. Addenda. 



2 5. Num. 8, 9. 



CAP. IV.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



4 3 



quid unccio, quid indumenta eius, conferens intra sacra- 

rium cordis sui possit advertere.' 

Ex isto dicto morali huius sancti potes advertere, Thc old rule 
, . , ,. .. , . , was that God 

quantum ecclesia perversa est hodie; olim enim tuit lex, s hould appoim 

5 quod vel deus limitaret, vel populus regulandus eligeret °houfd P elect. e 

sibi sacerdotem sive episcopum. Sed modo precluduntur 

manus simplicium et petitur Romanus pontifex, a quo 

emunt mercantes pessimi tam corpus quam animam sim- 

plicium a diabolo perpetuo cruciandum; Judas autem 

iomercatus est de persona Christi signata et precio, isti 
autem mercantur stulcius pro aris signatis de populo et 
precio que ignorant; nec dubium, quin inhnitum minus 
malum foret papam vendere bovem exteri vel iumen- 
tum, quia infinitum magis latet periculum, et cecatus 

i51aycus auferenti bovem vel vaccam resisteret, sed de 
mercacione anime sue per antichristum seducitur quod 
licet sibi de ipsa quomodocunque voluerit commutare. 
Sicut enim Christus commisit Petro animas curandas, 
ita dicunt implicite quod antichristus comisit pseudo- 

20 pape animas captivandas; et totus populus in isto negocio 
est tam inmemor salutis proprie, quod pro iure humano 
temporali staret audacter usque ad mortem, sed pro 
iure divino utriusque nature proprie non auderet caput 
crigere : ad tantum enim excecavit procurator Lucifieri 

25plebem dei. Nam planum est, quod papa tam in- 
ordinate non aspirat ad providendum regnis que nec 
noscit nec diligit, de curatis, propter amorem quem habet 
ad animas, sed propter dominacionem luciferinam qua 
appetit ipsas opprimere et propter lucrum suorum tempo- 

3oralium, quod consideracione salutis postposita summe 
sitit; aliter enim iuxta doctrinam beati Gregorii 1 que- 
stione 6, cap. Sicut is, abiceret eum,qui inportune se ingerit, 

1. in adventu pro indumenta bcfg; in texlu in adventu, al. m. indu- 
menta ad, in adventam e; intra sacrarium in rasura a, necessaria pro 
intra bcefg; corr. in intra d, sanctum pro sacrarium bfg, corr. in sacra- 
riunvrf. 3. Ex — advertere om. bcef, al. m. adg. 5. vel ante deus 
al. m. a, om. bcef. 7. simplicium al. m ad, om. fg; ib. Romanus om. i, 
pontifex alias episcopus b, episcopus ceteri. 9. perpetuo om i; cru- 

ciandum h, corr. ex cruciandas d, cruciandas celeri 10 — 12. significata c, 
in textu signa, al. m. signata isti — precio in marg. addit. b. 
12. magis dfg, minus ceteri. i3. in textu papam, al. m. ipsum a; 
papam bceh, ipsum ceteri; exteri cdh, exi ef, om. g, ;Chri6ti pro exteri 
al. m. a; Christi ceteri. 14. maius ceh, magis ceteri. i5. aufferente i. 
21. est om. i. 22. temporali :'. 23. audet h. 24. excecavit procuravit 




3i. Corp. iur. can. I, 425 (c. 3, C. 1, q. 6). 



44 



.IOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. IV. 



ut supradictum est. Et idem docetur 8 questione i cap. 

In scripturis, ex Registro eiusdem beati Gregorii: 'Sicut,' 

inquit, 'locus regiminis desiderantibus negandus est, ita 

est fugientibus offerendus.' Modo vero contempta hac lege 

sancta quam Christus docet iMath. 20 de filiis Zebedei, 5 

procurator Luciferi expectat et reexpectat, ut detur licet 

magis inhabili illi qui plus et promcius vult offerre. 

Lct kings wakc Eya nunc reges, intelligite expergiscentes de sompno 

trom their , „ . , , . 

slumbers and letargtco quo estis per pseudoclencos soporatt, et ex- 

reprcss simony. cut i te a regnis vestris heresim symoniacam, quia 10 

aliter indubieerit perturbacio vobis undique, non paxvera; 

recognoscite quod commissa est vobis gubernacio regnorum 

a domino, et per consequens regimen populi secundum 

regulas legis sue. Prohibete itaque legios vestros sic petere 

fontem symonie et capitalem scolam diaboli, nedum quia i5 

persone regnorum et specialiter Anglie sunt in hoc precipue 

ab hostibus trucidate, et peccunie regnorum secundum 

prodicionem absconditam sunt exhauste, sed eo potissime 

quod per hanc ruinam lepra symoniaca occupat multi- 

pliciter vestra regna. Si enim paucus cuneus hostium 20 

vel lepra regnum inficiencium ipsum invaserit, quis 

dubitat quin rex segnis in extrudendo huiusmodi hostes 

sit culpandus? Infinitum magis culpatur a deo indubie eo 

quod permittit dictos symoniacos invadere regnum suum. 

Ipsi enim spirituali contagio maculant regnum et speci- 25 

aliter reges et dominos seculares ex consensu, et eo 

gravius quo prospera facilitate negando tales esse legios 

suos rex potest eos excludere, et quoscunque advocatos 

eorum tamquam hostes proditorios regni effectualiter con- 

They must not signare. Sed tunc oportet regem et regnum, ut dictum est in 3o 
promote clerks ^ „ „ - , . . . , . . , 

for secular tractatu De Rege, rovere studium legis dei et providere 

service. theologis curam spiritualis regiminis cavendo tanquam 

venenum ad illud promovere clericos propter hoc quod 

sibi in secularibus negociis famulantur. Nam ut sic sunt 



1. ut supradictum i solum, vel suspectum ceteri. 2. In script. 

nm. ag ; cap. In script. dh soli. 2, 3. Sicut enim locus, inquit ag. 

6. reexspectat om. h. 9. et om. a. 10. de regnis ag, sym. populi 
al. m. d.. 11. ubique ag. 12. quia i; dimissa bcefg; regnorum om. ag. 
14. regulam a. 16. et om. i. 18. perdicionem bc. 20. nostra bcef. 
21. lepre bcdfg. 22. quoniam adfg. 24. dictos al. m. d, om. ceteri. 
28. eo facto' ag, quoscunque corr. ex quo facto d, quo facto f, quoscun- 
que ceteri. 29. proditorios ei, proditores ceteri, regis et regni ceteri. 
3o. in h sotum, de rege om. bcefg, al. m. ad. 32. specialis regiminis ag. 



1. Ibid. 5q2 (c. 9 [In scriptis] C. 8, q. 1. 5. Matth. 20, 20 seqq. 
3o. De Rege. Cf. Addenda. 



CAP. IV.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



45 



magis inhabiles et ea racione promoti altrinsecus magis 
inficiunt sese symonia; et quicunque dixerit quod spectat 
ad regalia regis sic promovere suos domesticos, dicit 
implicite quod rex non est rex sed tirannus atque 
5 hereticus et tiro precipuus antichristi. Nec destitueretur 
rex propter hoc sacerdotali servicio, quia omnes redditus 
regni qui sunt in manu cleri sufficerent exhibere domui 
sue vdoneos sacerdotes, et illos indubie in manus suas 
acciperet, et sacerdotes sibi famulantes sine spe profeccio- 

ionis ad curam spiritualem propter illud officium de illis 
redditibus sustentaret. Llnde proditores sunt regis et 
regni, qui tacent disuadere istam heresim symoniacam 
utriusque brachii, vel defendunt quod minus malum 
est istam symoniam multiplicari in regnis, quam foret 

i5regimen capere in manus laicas omnes reditus regni, 
qui simuiata elemosina mortificati sunt clericis. Hoc 
enim foret restituere clerum ad dignitatem status quem 
Christus instituit; et aliud est heresis nephandissima 
quam Christus in templo ut rex iratus destruxit, dans 

20 exemplum indubie membris suis et specialiter regibus 
faciendi similiter, cum debent in isto specialiter sequi 
Christum. Nec oportet lidejem timere excommunicacionis The faithful 
fulmina in hac parte, quia malediccio propter illud illata "xcommunica 
vertetur in benediccionem, et super vecordes in isto tlon - 

25 malediccio dei descendet, eo quod contemptores legis dei 
timent serviliter rectificare elemosinas suas et predece- 
dencium suorum secundum legis dei regulas. Et ista est 
sentencia sanctorum doctorum et legum ecclesie, et 
specialiter sancti pape Gregorii. 

3o Sed redeundo obicitur per hoc quod glosa ordinaria super 
8 questione 1 et dicto beati Jeronimi in cap. Licet ergo, 
tenet cum glosa Hugonis, quod sufficit in eleccione prelati 



1. alterutrum altrinsecus b, altrinsecus cdeh (d in ras.), alterutrum ceteri. 
3. regaliam aceh ; ib. dicitur codices. 4. aut pro atque ag. 5. de- 
strueretur bcefg, corr. in destitueretur d. G. illud pro hoc ceteri. 

8. illos ceh, istos ceteri. 10. curiam corr. in curam a, curiam g. 
i3. maxime malum t; in textu minus manifestum, al. m maxime malum d; 
minus manifestum fg; malum in ras. a. i5. regis pro regni ceteri. 

17. restitucio //. 19. ut quam i, ut al. m. a. 21. debent bceh, deberent 
ceteri. 2'}. illud idem bdefg. 25. descendit ceh, dei om. i. 26, 27. pre- 
decedencium ag, patrum d (in ras.), h, premium ceteri. 27. secundum 
leges dei afg, sec. leges dei contrarias be, sec. leges dei regulas c, sec. legis 
dei regulas (regulas al. m.) d. 3i. dicto cdeh, dicta ceteri. 



29. Corp. iur. I, 692 (c. 9, C. 8, q. 1). 3i. Ibid. 694 (c. i5). 
Glossa ordinaria in editione Corp. iur. a. i5o6, f. 179"' et 180. 



46 JOHANNIS WYCI.IF |CAP. IV. 

quod sit bonus in casu quo sit de grcmio, scd cum alienus 

That a pricst eligitur, debet esse optimus. Contra istam glosam vene- 

U '('< e the churcf 8 nosam arguitur primo per hoc quod spiritus sanctus dicit 

should not uuod prestancior omni populo eligatur ad sacerdocium, 
preter lum n ' \. * ° . ' 

above a better quod glosat doctor lmplicite quod non prestanctor vel d 

outsidcr. sanctior, sed in casu virtute abieccior eligatur, ut posito 

quod de tota communitate eligatur rcmissior in virtute, 

tunc secundum glosam lit eleccio sicut debet. Ex quo 

sequitur perversa conclusio glosatoris et patet, quod glosa 

inficit regulam eligendi. ltem suppono quod per bonum 10 

intelligatur bonum moraliter, quia aliter sufticeret in 

casu eligere asinum. Sic enim oportet sane intelligere 

glossam cum suis fundacionibus, quando dicit, quod 

eo ipso est aliquis bonus quo non est malus, hoc est: 

tunc est bonus quando est non malus moraliter, quia i5 

ut arguunt loici, aliter omnis bonus necessario foret ab- 

solute bonus. Quo supposito, prehabito dicto apostoli: 

'Divisiones graciarum sunt', suppono tercio, quod simplex 

An unfit canon ydiota ineptus episcopari canonisetur in ecclesia cathe- 

Sh0 bishopr?c. e * ^ ra ^ episcopatu vacante, et quod omnes electores in 20 

ipsum consenciant, qui secundum opinionem legittime 

eligunt. Sed patet ex casu oppositum, cum eligunt 

unum inhabilem qui debet aufugere illud onus, sicut 

simplex laicus coniugatus debet renuere canonicatum, 

non obstante quod sit valde bonus et per papam aut 25 

capitulum eligatur. Ideo omnis elecio quam deus non 

approbat est iniusta, sed omnem eleccionem in qua 

non eligitur habilior ad officium elecionis, deus non 

approbat, ergo omnis talis eleccio est iniusta; maior 

patet ex hoc quod nulla talis eleccio est necessaria, sed 3o 

si sit licita, deus principaliter eligit in electore creato ut 

God gives organo. Sed cum deus non potest peccare, videtur quod eo 

reject^he^fittest ip so °i uo ^ eus quemquam eligit postponendo alios, ipse 

is t0 °w , | OSe h ' S s i m P^ c ' ter est rnagis habilis, quia magis habilis quo ad 

deum. Unde propter talem deformacionem a voluntate 35 

divina videtur decretum Jeronimi dicere ut recitatur 



1. casu quod ceteri. 2, 3. ventosam fg; corr. in venenosam ad. 3. sic 
primo ag. 4. eligitur h. 9. elosa pro conclusio acdfg; ib. glosatorum 
ceteri. 12. in casu om. h. 10. laici i. 17. supposito et supposito h. 
19. episcopaliter 22. Sed patenter constat ex celeri. 24. retinere fg, 
corr. in renuere d. 25. non obstante al. m. h, 26. ltem pro ideo 
ceteri. 3o. pro necessaria: neutra ceteri. 3i. in eleccione a. 
36. dicere beiiL- 



18. I Cor. 12, 4. 



CAP. IV.] 



DR SIMONIA. 



47 



De Consecracione distincione 5 : 'Non mediocriter,' in- 
quit, 'errat, qui magis bono pretert mediocre bonum' ; 
et concordat racio naturalis. Minor autem argumenti 
patet ex hoc quod deus non potest eligere nisi magis 
5 aptum ad officium ad quod ipse eligit, cum sua pre- 
posicio facit magis ydoneum; et aliter deus esset irracio- 
nalis sive stultus. Item modificando habilitatem persone 
ut oportet ad oflicium ad quod eligitur, patet quoJ 
non sufficit electoribus eligere personam bonam post- 

ioponendo aliam magis bonam ad tale ofticium, quia si 
sit alia magis ydonea ad illud officium, deus qui facit 
illum ydoneum, aptat personam illam ad illud officium, 
et per consequens vult linem, gracia cuius sic aptat ; 
ille ergo qui frustrat aptacionem et voluntatem dei, in 

1 5 isto facit indebite. Sic enim posset cetus electorum pre- 

lati una vice paululum variare ab ordinacione et volucione 

divina et alias iterum tantum declinare, et sic paulative, Once leave this 

quousque habuerit indispositissimum in prelatum. Per- standard gets 

sona enim, que nunc est prescita esse membrum diaboli, lower and 
n , . r . . . . lower. 

20 est statim post nephandus yppocnta subvertens ecclesiam ; 

et isto modo creditur de eleccioue pape et aliorum pre- 

latorum ecclesie, que in penam peccati prioris deteriorando 

procedit. Quis, inquam, scit habilitatem et perseveranciam 

prelati in bonum, vel calliditatem eius, qua nocendo 

25 ecclesie correccionem non suscipiet? Item sepe est de 
voluntate divina in penam peccati populi dare eis pre- 
latum prescitum reprobum, ut patet de Saul futuro tali 
electo a domino i Reg. 8, quem deus dixit per prophetam 
Osee 1 3 in furore suo se daturum populo. Cum ergo 

3o electores ignorant voluntatem domini et disposicionem 
populi, videtur temeraria presumpcio ad elecciones tales 
procedere; et per consequens papa accipiens nedum in 
personam suam unicam illud onus arbitrandi prelatos 



I. mediocr. bonum, inquit a, errant celeri. 2. preferunt ceteri. 
6, 7. irracionalis eli, corr. ex irracionabilis d, irracionabilis ceteri. 
y. hominibus pro elect. g, hom. corr. in elect. a. 10. officium nm. h. 
11, 12. deus — officium in marg. d, om. f. 12. gradum ydoneum dh. 

14. optacionem bg, corr. in aptacionem a. i5. si g, corr. in sic a, posset /;,■ 
corr. ex potest d, potest ceteri; ib. cecus a. 16. volicione ceteri. 

17. paulatim c. 18. habeant ag, habtiit b, habuerint e. 19. est bona pre- 
scitaomwes preter i. 22. deteriorandum g\ dum corr. in do a. 23. et h 
solum. 24. illis pro eius h. 28. quo g, corr. in quem a; pro deus: 
dominus ceteri; dixit g, corr. in dedit a, dedit ceteri. 32. uedum om.fg, 
al. m. a, recipiens ceteri. 



1. Corp. inr. can. I, 1418, Decreti III pars (c. 24, D. V, De 
Consecr.). 28. I Reg. 8, v. 6 seqq. 29. Osee i3, 11. 



4^ 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. IV. 



ecclesie, sed statuens leges prefectorum contrarias volun- 
tati divine, stulte agit, cum faciliter posset exonerari per 
elecciones de iure communi validas; nec fingendum est, 
quin homo habens in libertate arbitrii vel viare per istam 
viam ambiguam aut patule malam, vel pergere per 5 
semitam dei securam, eligendo prius electum a deo, sit 
a domino propter stulticiam increpandus. Nec potest 
fundari lex ista, quod eo ipso quod maior pars electo- 
Bulls of rum in irrcprehensibilem personam consenserit, vel eo 

shoukThave no 'P so q u °d prius bullas papales super provisione vel 10 
weight. officio ecclesiastico presentaverit, est legittime preponen- 
dus; stat enim cum tali auctoritate, quod deus ipsum 
reprobet et inhabilitet ad tale ministerium. Ideo si homo 
agit contra conscienciam, licet iustum, peccat graviter, 
ut patet per apostolum Rom. 14, multo magis homo i5 
agens iniustum contra sapienciam et voluntatem divinam; 
sed sic facit omnis eligens contrarie voluntati dei, ergo 
in hoc peccat graviter. Deus enim sapienter ordinat et 
graciose vult quod eligatur generaliter magis aptus, 
elector autem sepe scienter et sepe ex crassa ignorancia 20 
To give est deo contrarius. Quomodo ergo non plus blasfemat 

sp io r U gain°is er quam Petrus vel Paulus? Ymo comutans spiritualem 

worse sin than potestatem pro temporali comodo plus peccat in effectu, 
that ot Simon r r 1 . .... . 

Magus. quam Symon magus, et sic toti tnnttati contrarius pro- 

ditorie negat fidem. Unde decretum Jeronimi positum 8 20 

questione 1 cap. Vos spernit sic loquitur: 'Qui vos 

spernit me spernit.' Ex quo manifestum est, quod qui 

apostoli lege contempta ecclesiasticum gradum non 

meritis voluerit alicuius deferre, sed gracie, contra 

Christum facere videtur, quia qualis in ecclesia presbiter 3o 

constituendus sit, per apostolum suum insequentibus inse- 

cutus est. 

Videtur ex isto textu michi primo, quod sive papa sive 
alius constituat episcopum, et non secundum regulam 



1. prefecturis ce, prefecture h; voluntati legi divine ag. 2. posset eh, 
potest ceteri ; ib. exhonorari i. 3. electos ceteri ; ib. validas ceh, validos 
ceteri ; fingendum abce, fugiendum ceteri. 6. electum om. i. 8. quo 
ceteri. 9. consenserunt ceteri. 10. prius primo ceteri. 11. por- 
taverit g, corr. in presentaverit a. i3. et — ministerium in marg. h; 
ib. ideo h, item ceteri. 17. voluntati divine ceteri. 20. elleccior i. 
23. quomodo i; ib. non plus h. 26. cap. Vos spernit /; solum. 27. me 
spernit om. bcefgh, al. m. a; ib. ex quo ceh, unde ceteri. 3o. qui 
qualis bcdef. 3r, 32. assecutus d. 32. et ex isto textu videtur michi aefg, 
eodem modo, sed om. textu bcd. 



i5. Rom. 14, 22, 23. 18. Corp. iur. I, 594 (c. 14, C. 8,q. 1). 
27. Luc. 10, 16. 



CAP. IV.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



49 



quam dedit apostolus Thymotheo, quam alias exposui. 
peccat graviter contra Christum. Videtur michi secundo 
quod qui dimittit legem et scripta sanctorum apostolorum 
et vel facit vel studet tradiciones novellas, contempnit 
5 apostolos et sic Christum, quia ille plus diligitur cuius 
sciencia ut sua est carior. Et tercio videtur michi quod 
prelatus non vivens vitam apostolorum, sed seculi, spernit 
apostolos et sic Christum, quia preeligit mores ipsis 
contrarios, quod est magnus contemptus. 

10 Sed obicitur per hoc, quod iuxta hanc viam cessarent Two kitids ot 
omnes leges ecclesie de eleccionibus, omnes elecciones 0 nc adhesion to 
civiles, et per consequens cessarent omnes privati "jnftiS/by^ 
ordines et observaciones studiorum, cum non nisi predestinatiori, 
eleccionibus rite starent. Hic dicitur quod duplex est 

i5eleccio ad propositum, scilicet adhesio per se bono 
secundum proheresim, et talis eleccio fuisset in statu 
innocencie et manebit semper in patria, qualiter eli- 
guntur ab homine deus, virtus et gracia. Et ad celebran- 
dufn hanc eleccionem per se valet peroptime lex scripture; 

20 in hac enim eleccione est tanta certitudo, quod inpossibile 

est electorem in isto deficere. Secunda vero eleccio est the other in 
respectu per accidens boni moraliter et est duplex, ± cc i$% £ t r a j l° od 
scilicet provida et inprovida: provida quando homo , and ma ) 

..... . , j. . . be provident or 

respectu medu ad beatidudinem, mtencione qua duceret improvident. 

23 ad illam, secundum deum eligit partem sibi probabilem. 
Sic enim predestinati impeiluntur eciam in neutris 
operibus spiritu dei, tanquam navis in pellago mota 
vento. Unde Rom. 8 dicitur: 'Quicunque enim spiritu 
dei aguntur, hii filii dei sunt', hoc est: qui ducuntur 

3oper viam ad suam beatitudinem. Et in isto in multis 
operibus oportet esse tantum consilium spiritus sancti, 
quod sancti quandoque deficiunt, ut patet de dissensione 
inter Paulum et Barnabam Act. 1 5. Ideo necesse est 
viatorem sepe orare deum pro recto ducatu in talibus, 



i. dicit pro dcdit bc, apostolus om. bqi. 2. enim pro michi abcefg. 
\. ct facit i. 5. sic al. m. a, om. cfg. 6. ut sentencia h. y. vita ceteri. 
t). qui codices; ipsius contrarius i. io. primo pcr e, contra hoc ceteri, 
quia iuxta i, iuxta hanc ceh; istam ceteri. 14. rite ceh, recte cetert. 
i5. hono eli, bona bcfg, bono om. ceteri. 10. proheresim ag, perher. ceteri. 

17, 18. qualiter — hom. al. m. a; ib. iu patria pro ab homine fjgh. 

18. et aa ceh, ct om. ceteri 21. vero h solum. 26. et in bcefg, eciam 
corr. ex et a ; ib. in mcntis e. 27. spiritus corr. ex spiritu a. spiritus dhi. 
28. enim al. m. a., om. g. 3o. pcr viam ad suam cJef, corr. in ad 
v. per s. a, per viam ad sue al. m. suam ceteri. idem al. m. h. 
33. Codices Act. 12. 

1. 1 Thim. 3, 2 seqq., cf. supra. 28. Rom. X, 14. 

33. Act. i5, 36. 



5o 



.IOHANMS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. IV. 



evacuare pcccata ohstancia et inniti racioni scripture; 
unde ut alias dixi, oportet spiritum sanctum tales 
continue inspirare. Eleccio vero inprovida videtur michi 
tn ambiguis inniti eleccioni secundum tradiciones hu- 
manas, ubi pars alia de lege dei patule est secura. Et 5 
sic videtur michi quod omnis eligens quo ad statum 
vel modum vivendi aut operandi in statu secundum 
tradiciones humanas, dimissa via eque facili et patula 
secundum legem dei, peccat graviter, licet ignorancia 
ex peccato priori per graciam dei in pluribus excusatur. m 
No clections by Et sic videtur michi quod nulle eleciones pure secundum 
traclitions^arc tradiciones humanas sunt licite, sed implicans se in istis 
lawful. ubi possct secundum legem dei supersedere a talibus 
peccat graviter, et sic videtur michi quod adinvenciones 
omnes hominum preter fidem scripture sunt secundum ,5 
plus vel minus culpabiles. Et sic videtur michi quod in 
principio argumenti verum concluditur, cum melius foret, 
quod tota natura humana regularetur pure secundum 
regulam ewangelii, subducta omni lege humana adiecta, 
quia ex fide deus prescius omnium futurorum tradidit 2 o 
per Christum et suos apostolos complecioncm lcgis pro 
bcatitudine acquirenda; quomodo ergo non superfluit 
quo ad hunc finem superaddere novam legem < Unde 
videntur esse discipuli antichristi, qui dicunt quod tam 
necessarium est superaddere novam legem legi Christi, 2 s 
quam necessarium fuit legem Christi superaddere legi 
veteri. De isto alibi. Et ita concedo, quod status, 
statuta, et ritus adiecti sccundum tradiciones humanas 



1. racione bce. 5. m texlu paciencie, al. m. patnle a, paciencic bcefg ; 
ib. secula abg. 8. via al. m. a, om. cdefg. 10. priori al. m. a, om. g. 
II. tradite pure ag. i3. in textu preter, al. m. posset d ; posset tli, 
potest ceteri. i5. post fidem /'. 18. quam tota eleccio reguletur 
(eleccio al. nt.) h, rcguletur e. ip. legem (jal. m.), ewangelii h. 20. quia — 
tradidit om. i. 21. pro om. t. 22. In codice i solo post acquirenda 
liaec intercalata sunt verba: quia debet dignior quo ad graduacionem 
scolasticam preferri. Sed nec noc vacuat legis blasfemiam nec iustificat 
dcclaracionem papalem. cum sepe non graduatus sit superior et habilior 
ad regimen animarum. Tercium vero genus heresis symoniace quod potest 
papam contingere, est inordinata volicio preficiendi curatos ecclesie propter 
comodum temporale; et ista symonia infinitis modis potest ius Christia- 
nismum late inficere. Et per ista patet solucio ad primam conclusionem 
Luciferi negando ipsam ut summe hereticam. Et quantum ad racionem 
informem patet quod solus deus est dominus qui peccare non potest, cui 
competit qnomodocunque voluerit uti suis. Et quantum ad minorem patet 
quod papa existente iusto habet titulum ewangelicum ad usum omnium 
tcmporalium ecclesie militantis. nec est pompandum de isto. quia quilibet 
convcrsans ipso iustior habet titulum veriorem: sed preter hoc habet 
titulum serviendi ecclesie, ministrandi. gubernandi et dispensandi secun- 
dum ewangelium bona ecclesie, quod cst valde alienum a manerie domi- 
nandi. In isto papa potest errare faciliter per Christum et suos apostolos 
complecionem legis pro beatitudinc acquirenda. 24. esse al. m. h. 

2ii. 27. legcm vcterem e. ad legem veterem ceteri. 28. statura abg. 



CAP. IV.] DE SIMONIA. 5 i 

omncs inseparabiliter peccatum sapiunt, cum dei legem 
difficultant et impediunt cursum sermonis sui, ut patet 
in De Cessacione Legalium. Et hec racio, quare lex dei 
postposita lege civili et philosophica a clericis debet 
5 disci. Verumtamen contingit leges humanas multum pro- 
ficere, de quanto sunt implicite in scriptura, sed in 
elaboracione et appropriacione istarum iacet periculum. 

Secundo principaliter arguitur per hoc, quod in omni Present practice 
eleccione sufficit quod persona electa sit habilis ad dC g e -ound that 1 " 
loofficium ad quod ellieitur, sed sepe rnulte sunt nersone many may be 
• i- • i_ l * i * capable. and lt 

una plus habuis et aha minus habilis, ergo non oportet is not always 

semper eligere magis aptum. Aliter enim peccaret homo cho^oseThe vcrv 
continue in hoc quod non semper facit sibi optimum; fittest. 
et preiudicaretur persone minus habili electe post- 

i5ponendo ipsam et inducendo aliam magis aptam. Nam 
si Petrus sit habilis ad tale beneficium, tunc deus ipsum 
ad hoc habilitavit, et per consequens repugnat voluntati 
divine, qui habilitatum a deo inhabilitat; quis ergo est 
ille elector, qui vel accusat quem deus approbat, vel 

2odeeligit quem deus eligit? Hic dicitur quod falsum This defcnce is 
assumitur; ymo sepe persona, que est habilior post f ''' sc ' 
maiorem maturitatem ad officium ad quod modo eligitur, 
est modo inhabilis ut nunc ad illud officium eligatur, 
et sic videtur inpossibile quod due persone sint simul 

25 habiles pro simul ad idem incommunicabile officium 
singulare. Et patet sensus minoris in argumento: contingit 
enim unum esse pro tunc plus habilem, et alium esse 
minus habilem non pro nunc occupare officium illud 
sed post, ut contigit de Petro et Clemente. Unde sicut 

3o deus nichil potest agere ex indifferencia, sic non est 
possibile quod sint due persone ad idem officium in- 
communicabile pro eodem tempore eque habiles, quia 
tunc deus acceptor personarum esset, unum sine causa 
postponcret. Et patet repugnancia glosatorum decreti, dum 

35dicitur quod sufficit eligere habilem intrinsecum, sed 



3. hec cst racio abg. 5. Verumptamen contra explicaciones huma- 
nas h. 7. latet ceteri. 11. plus habilior i; et om. agi ; ib. crgo h, 
ideo ceteri. 12. semper bcegh. in texlu semper, al. m. sepe a; sepc 
eorr.in semper d, sepe bf. 16. ofticium a; ib. deus 01». i. 17. huc ap. 
habilitat ceteri. 22. maiorem dh, minorcm ceteri. 22 et 23. modo 
corr. ex non d, non eligitur, non inhab. ceteri. 27. primum csse om. h, 
nunc/», corr. ex tunc a. 29. contingit ceteri. 34. preponeret efh. 

25. Sanctus Clemens, qui in summorum pontificum catalogo 
quartus habetur. 



52 



IOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. IV. 



oportet quod electus extrinsecus sit maxime habilis. 

The fittcst Nam sive intrinsecus, sive extrinsecus, maxime habilis 
sliould always , , . ,• . ... , ...... 

be chosen sincc debet ehgi, quia lllum deus magis habihtat et nullum 

proof that S (lod a * mm habilitat pro tunc ad illud ofhcium; quanta ergo 
has appointed foret presumpcio ex accepcione persone de gremio eligere 5 
him. ■ ....... 

personam pro mcnsura temporis, pro qua est inhabllis! 

Et si replicetur, quod iuxta hanc sentenciam tardaretur 
eleccio ad destruccionem ecclesie, dicitur quod non, 
sed bene concluditur quod cassarentur elecciones humane 
subdole, cum nemo eligeret, nisi haberet ad hoc in- 10 
spiracionem dei, certilicatus quod deus eundem eligit 
et movet electorem quod ipsum eligat. Quod si defuerit, 
consulerem quod elector supersedeat occupans se in 
ccrto meritorio, dimittens periculosum ambiguum, quod 
si sit necessarium ad regimen ecclesie, sicut sunt pauce i5 
vel nulle dignitates institute humanitus, pulsent deum pro 
inspiracione, vel certiticati de multis personis mittant 
sortem de persona eis ambigua sicut fecerunt apostoli. 
Et patet quod peccamus continue, quia quamdiu di- 
mittimus nobis utilius. Ideo dicit beatus Johannes quod 20 
si dixerimus quod peccata non habemus, nos ipsos 
seducimus, et veritas in nobis non est. Sed gravis est 
eulpa adoptata in cecis eleccionibus preter necessariis. 
Nemo enim debet eligere minus habilem ad ofhcium 
pro tempore pro quo est minus habilis, quia hoc 25 
Rmcss tor the foret eligere inhabilem. Et patet quod aliud est 
"rtfinglo^be * ' lom ' nem facere sibi optimum pro tunc et aliud est 
regardcd. facere sibi optimum simpliciter. Verumtamen conceden- 
dum est, predestinatum, sicut omnis homo debet esse, 
continue facere suam beatitudinem, et sic qui ad oflicium 3o 
ecclesiasticum postponit personam minus habilem et pro 
tunc inhabilem facit sibi bonum exoneracionis et iusticie 
complementum. Nec sunt tales gradus in bene et melius 
eligere idem in numero pro eodcm instanti, et patet quod 



1. cxtrinsccus bcfh, corr. in intrins. a, intrins. cetcri. 3. ipsum 
ceteri. 7. istam scnt. ceteri, traderetur celeri. 9. ccssarcntur eh, 
humane al. m. h. 12. clectorem fh, clcccionem g, corr. in electorem a, 
eleeciorem ceteri ; ut ipsum ceteri; defuerit ceh, corr. ex deficcret d, 
dcliccret ceteri. i3, 14. in certc h. 1 |. mcritorie gh, corr. in meri- 
torio a; ib. peric. vel amb. bei, vel al. m. a. i5. sunt om. ceteri. 

20. Ideo ceh, et ideo celeri; dicit om. i; quod om. ceteri. 21. dicimus 
ceteri; ib. peccatum ceteri. 23. culpa ad min. hab. apost. i, a al. m.; 
ib. adaptata ceteri. 29. essc al. m. h. 3o. cont. tac. s. beat. cdeh, 
fac. alias ferre b, om. celeri. 32. exhonoracioms h. 3|. idem nm. i. 



:o. I Joh. 1, 8. 



CAP. IV.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



53 



consonat in casu voluntati divine iudieare viruni inhabilem 

pro una mensura temporis ad officium ad quod deus 

habilitat ipsum pro alio, et sic necesse est cognoscere 

logicam in ista materia Nam nunc inhabilis ad nunc oc- 

5 cupandum istud officium pro nunc, est habilis ut alias 

occupet idem officium; ideo oportet attendere ad tem- 

pus et officium ut supra eciam coaptata. Sunt ergo 

gradus in eleccione rei pro eodem instanti secundum 

gradus caritatis et non secundum numerum personarum 

iopro tunc eligibilium ad illud ofticium. 

Tercio arguitur principaliter per hoc, quod deus in n is argued 

lege veteri prefecit Moysen populo in iudiciis vulgo ab- appointed 

sconditis, ut patet Exod. 4. Sed idem deus non est Moses tor 
' t 1 ~ ( t rcasons 

minus providus in lege nova, ergo per idem providebit sibi unknown to thc 

i5 in lege nova de tali vicario. Sed quis foret huiusmodi nisi feTppofnts^tlie 

papa? Hic dicitur quod verum concluditur, cum Christus, pope. 

. , . . . . Answer: 

cuius caput est deus, sit papa et episcopus tott populo Moses was not 

Christiano; licet enim Christus figuratus sit per Moysen, *J^£ e b „, 

est tamen infinitum ipso prestancior presens sue ecclesie Chnst, who is 

2ousque ad diem iudicii. Nichil itaque Romano pontifiqi Head^ofliis" 
et Christi vicario, nisi forte racione amplioris meriti church. 
habeat a deo ampliora karismata ad virtuosius prodesen- 
dum ecclesie; quod si habet, humiliter continet se a 
pompa, latenter proficiens sine retribucione honoris vel 

25 comodi temporalis. Nam dotacio vel dignitas data a 
cesare hoc non facit, nec aliunde ex fide scripture 
patebit quod Romanus pontifex debet generaliter domi- 
nari urbi et orbi ; titulum itaque ad talem preeminenciam 
haberet a cesare quem destruxit. Insuper respiciendo 

3o ad fidem legis veteris, si Romanus pontifex vult esse 
Christi vicarius instar Moysi, videat quod faciat vivendo 
conformiter. De Moyse, inquam, legitur Exod 14: 
'Stulto labore consumeris et tu et populus iste qui 
tecum est, et ultra vires tuas est negocium, onus illud 



[. virum cefh, corr. cx utrum d, utrum cctcri. 5. ilhid celeri; alias 
om. g, al m. a. 6. idem om. ag, al. m. d, illud afg, illud idcm di. 
7. ut supra cciam om. bcefgh, al. m. a. 11. Sccundo ceteri; ib. princip. 
sic: per hoc h. i3, 14. non e. min. prov. minus corr. ex nunc d, 

deus nunc providus cfg, deus nunc providet ceteri. 14. nova de tali 
vicario ergo bdi. 15. d. t. v. al. m. a. 14, i5. ergo — nova al. m. d, 
crgo — vicario om. b. 18. enim autcm cetcri, factus pro figuratiis 
bcdcfg. 19. cum est ag, ipso al. m. h. 22. ad virt. h, al. m. d, ad 
virtutum bc, advertencius ceteri. 27. patcbit h in rasura, patescit ceteri. 
28. primiciam h. 3o. vult ceh, velit ceteri. 33. Stulto om. bcefg. 
al. m. ad. 34. et ante ultra om. abcefg, illud cdefh, istud ceteri. 



Exod. 3 et 4. 32. Exod. 18, 18. 



54 



.JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. V. 



non potes sustinere. Sed audi vcrba mea et consilia 
et crit deus tecum, esto tu populo in hiis quc ad dcum 
pcrtincnt ut rcferas que dicuntur ad eum, ostendasque 
populo cerimonias et ritum colendi viamque per quam 
debent ingredi opusque quod debent facerc' Si ergo 5 
in lege veteri sanctus Moyses ita vitam pauperem 
vixit ex consilio gentilis philosophi, qui in hoc fuit 
organum spiritus sancti, particularia iudicia de quibus 
habuit supereminentem scienciam dereliquit, quanto magis 
vicarius Christi in lege gracie debet esse exemplum pau- 10 
peris et humilis ministerii et non ultra datam scienciam 
prepositos sibi incognitos assignare. Nam iudices in lege 
Moysi debent esse viri potentes et timentes deum, in 
quibus sit veritas et qui oderit avariciam, multo magis 
in lege Christi, in qua sunt prepositi animarum. Summus i5 
itaque vicarius Christi in terris debet spiritualiter vivere 
instar Christi, universalem statum christianismi con- 
tempto bono proprio respicere et esse exemplum virtutis 
et contemptus seculi toti populo. Et aliter dissipat se et 
totum christianismum in sectas propter venenosum exem- 20 
plum et lucrum proprium quod intendit; propter ista qui- 
dem debet esse legis dei sedulus speculator et in arduis 
ad propiciatorium et alia signa templi secundum legem 
Christi respicere; et tunc et non aliter estvicarius Christi; 
et de tanto precipiente domino debemus ad ipsum 25 
respicere, sibi credere vel suis monitis obedire. 



CAP. V. 

Tlic pope Sed dubitatur ulterius, si licet pape sibi reservando 
S genera"°ights e P r ' mos fructus distribuere generaliter beneficia regnorum. 

of patronage Et videtur quod non, quia ut loqici arguunt, per idem 3o 
and of reserving .. . . r , 

tirst fruits. posset stbt reservare primos iructus duorum annorum 

et quotquot voluerit et sic omnia beneficia regnorum 

posset quo ad temporalia sibi inperpetuum reservare. 



1. et dh, atque ceteri. 2. pro populo bcef. 3. ad deum ceteri. 
4. terminos pro cerim. acfg. 5. debcat iiigr. i, corr. in debent a, 
debeant f; ib. dcbent ante fae. om. bcdefg. 7. duxit cx gi. 8. parti- 
cularia iudicia h, corr. ex media d, media ceteri. 9. supereminentem /1. 
-tem corr. ex -tcr c, -ter ceteri. 11. scicnciam om. bcdefg, al. m. a. 
14. odiunt ceteri. 22. continuus pro sedulus ag. 23. sed lcfjcm i. 
29. gradualiter bfg, corr. in gcneraliter a. 3o. legiste arguunt abfg. 
logici al. m. h. 33. potest abcefg, eorr. in posset d. 



CAP. V.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



55 



quod esset magnum inconveniens; nec sufficiens racio 
diversitatis dicetur. Item, per idem posset conferre car- 
dinalibus et collegio suo ad votum omnia beneficia 
regnorum et sic subvertere elemosinas regum et domi- 
5 norum secularium mortuorum. 

Prima consequencia patet ex hoc quod papa potest ad 
votum augere numerum sui collegii et numerum bene- 
ticiorum sine mcnsura eis assignare, cum aliter foret 
potestas sua in hoc restricta, et dubium foret ac con- 

iosciencie morsivum si racionis terminus sit diruptus; et 
inconveniens patet fidelibus. Item nullus laicus tenetur 
dare elemosinas suo curato nisi quantum est necessarium 
ad eius officium, et per consequens papa sic signante 
vel defalcante fructus talis beneiicii, laicus non tenetur 

i5ultra necessaria ad suum spirituale officium ministrare. 
Ex quo videtur quod laicus potest licite cassare reservacio- 
nes et peregrinas procuraciones ac provisiones huius- 
modi; quod nonf oret, nisi ipse forent illicite, ergo 
conclusio. Et per idem sequitur quod vacante bene- 

20 ficio a debito ministerio vacare debet instrumentalis 
ministracio. Item, cum in tali prefectura sint duo, 
scilicet fructus temporalis percepcio et spiritualis mini- 
stracio: si papa potest separare unum a reliquo, tunc 
potest secundum dignius esse sine primo sicut fuit 

j5 olim, cum primum accidentale sine secundo poterit per 
se esse. Ex quo videtur pape licere ad votum assignare 
layco huiusmodi porcionem et per consequens dissolvere 
omnem dotacionem ecclesie. Et ultra sequitur quod 
tardando ab isto dampnificat sanctam ecclesiam, quia 

3o spiritualis minister foret tunc purior et elemosina ec- 
clesie foret tunc fertilior; sed ista sentencia foret 
gravis prepositis. 

Item ante dotacionem et assignacionem partis decime 
brachium seculare ecclesie fuit liberum a tali exaccione 

35 ecclesiastica, sed non licet illibertare ecclesiam in tali 



Danger involve 
in liis claim. 



Pavmcnt 
ought to he 
inseparablc 
from service 



Tlie pope's 
claims intringe 
the primitive 
freedom of tho 
Church. 



1. esset cefh, est ceteri. 2. diceretur ag, potcst acefg. 4. regum 
et principum et dom. ag. 6. cx hoc om. bfg, al. m. ad ; quod ceh, 
cnrr. ex quia d, quia ceteri. 6, 7. ad votum alias ad nutum b. 

8. assignare fi, signare ceteri. 9. sua om. fi. 10. cum pro si bcdeg, 
in textu eurri, al. m. si a. 12'. suas /1, de quanto ceteri. 14. et 
defalc. ceteri. 16, 17. reserv. huiusm. ;'. 17. procur. ac om. ceteri ; 
ac prov. al. m. h. 20. a om. i, vac. deb. instr. min. al. m. a. 22. spiri- 
tualisquc z. 24, 25. sint olim i. 26. votum alias ad nutum b, advocatum i. 
27. procuracionem ceteri. 3o. pronior g, corr. in purior a. 3i. tunc 
nm. ft, ista scnt. agh, om. ceteri. 33. cui omnc pro decime fa. corr. in 
dec. d. 34. cccl. om. ag. 35. illicitare cfg, illegitimare ceteri (a in 
ras.j, inpensione ceteri. 



56 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



fCAP. V. 



pensione servili, ergo non debet propter Statuta 

Laymen should papalia a tali libertate excidere; eo ergo vendicante 

themsefves hv sibi vel suo complici primos fructus, laycus debet 

withdrawing elemosinas suas subtrahere. Et illud confirmavi diffuse 
tneir alms. . ... 

alias; nec occurnt apcius remedium, quod brachium 5 

seculare tenetur exequi contra extorsiones symoniacas 

antichristi. Unde Cestrensis libro VII, capitulo 3^ 

narrat de Gregorio X, quod tertio papatus sui anno 

celebravit concilium in quo fuerunt 600 episcopi et 

1000 prelati aput Lugdunum Gallie ibique statuit illud 10 

insigne et a retro seculis insolitum, quod omnes rectores 

curati deinceps forent sacerdotes. Statuit eciam quod 

nulli hominum de cetero liceret decimas suas ad libi- 

tum suum sicut antea assignare, sed matrici ecclesie 

decimas omnimodas persolvere; aliquos ordines vagos i5 

cassavit, pluritatem beneficiorum dampnavit. Hoc, in- 

quam, factum legitur anno domini 1272. Sicut ergo 

ordinacio huius pape cassatur in multis, sic cassari 

potest in distribucionibus decimarum, et per consequens 

non licet pape cogere generaliter seculares ut dent sibi 20 

regulariter primos fructus. Sic enim cassaretur tam 

sollempnis ordinacio, qua generaliter darentur decime 

matrici ecclesie; et perinde posset papa statuere ad 

votum, quod layci dent sibi decimam vel quotam partem 

voluerit de omnibus bonis suis, et per consequens spoliare 25 

cunctos subditos suos ad votum et regna destrvrere; nec 

dicetur racio quare tantum extraneare potest elemosinas 

ab ordinacione quam Christus instituit, quin per idem et 

quantumcunque libuerit, et patet fundamentum iuris quo 

Acceptance of decimas vendicamus. Item cum pana potest comittere 3o 
lirst Iruits a . .. , . . . , . 

form of symoniam, ut dicunt doctores concorditer, videtur quod 

simony. generaliter accipiendo primos fructus curati quem pro- 

movet, fit symoniacus, quia inordinate dat curam spi- 

ritualem propter comodum temporale, et hec est de- 

scripcio symonie. 35 



2. ipso ereo ceteri. 4. et idem ceteri. 5. apcrcius corr. ex 
apcius a, remedium h, re al. m. d, medium ceteri. 7. Cum Cestr. abcefg, 
Ostiensis a. 11. a om. i. 14. viatrici f, victrici g, corr. in matrici a. 
lti. pluralitatem adefg. 17. anno dco h. 20, 21. ut — fructus al. m. h. 
23 = 14. 23. provide cefi. 23. 24. quoad vot. I. i, debent sibi ah. 
26. suos bh, om. ceteri; totum ceteri. 27. diceret a, dicctur cefg, 
dicere ceter. 34. hoc celeri. 34, 35. descriptive symonia befdg, 
descripcione symonia c. 



7. Cestrensis loco pag. 33, 18 citato, t. 8, 256. (Lib. VII, 
cap. 37.J 17. 1272 errate pro 1274. 



CAP. V.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



57 



Aliqua enim est causa, quarc pocius recipit ab illo 

quem promovet primos fructus, quam ab alio prius 

promoto a domino seculari. Et non est fingenda racio 

nisi quia illum sic promovet; ergo vendit vel comutat 

5 spirituale beneficium propter comodum temporale; 

nec dubium quin sit inordinata mutacio, quia sepe 

propter defectum instrumenti spiritualiter ministrandi 

pereunt multe anime que sunt preciosiores quam totus 

iste mundus sensibilis. Item domini temporales, eciam Kings are 

contcnt witli a 

10 reges, qutetantur tn magna necessitate accipere quin- fifteenth by 
decimam petito consensu taxandorum, sed in talibus ^es^thewhole. 
primis fructibus papa sepe accipit sibi totum, quia 
valorem beneficii vel taxam que sepe superat valorem 
tocius. Similiter quantumcunque habilis nolens solvere 

i5primos fructus expellitur, et quantumcunque inhabilis 

volens solvere quiete inducitur, cuius non est fingenda 

racio, nisi lucrum quod papa inde reportet. Et illud Translation of 
, . ,. bishop tor llic 

patet patule ex hoc quod vacante uno episcopatu medi- sake of gain. 

ocri in Anglia papa variat tres vel quatuor episcopatus, 

20 sic quod singulus ipsorum episcoporum, quia ulterius 

est promotus, consentit eleccioni et spoliacioni regnt, 

sic quod papa habet de singulis primos fructus, et nec 

fidelis nec infidelis scit fingere, quin multiplicatur tanta 

variacio ut papa colligat multiplicius primos fructus; 

2? non enim pensatur habilitas persone, ut proporcionaliter 

pinguius sit promota. 

Nec valent in isto licticie simulate. Prima dicit quod F T al SS, defcnces : 
,. . . . . ... I. Tnc pope s 

papa ex universalitate sui supereminentis dominn universal 

potest capere de bonis ecclesie et specialiter in manu suprcmc powcI ' 

3o mortua quomodocunque et quandocunque voluerit. Sed Tllis hction 
,.'.»11 c j 11 stnkes at the 

tsta domtnacto blaspheme ticta de papa tolleret a root of lay 

rege et a seculari brachio totum civile dominium, S°vemment. 

quia ablato a rege capitali dominio, rex et omnes 

tenentes sui forent nudi vasalli, clientes et ballivi. 

35 Quare ergo non prosecuntur clerici omnes actus civiles, 



1. recipit /1, accipit abceg, accipiat dfi. 2. illo bcf, corr. in alio d. 
prius al. m. h. 4. quia om. i. 6. mutacio cdcfh, commutacio ceteri. 
7. ministri pro instrumenti /(. 8. totus om. ag. 9. Iterum ceteri. 
9, 10. et reges ceteri. 10. quin om. g, al. m. a. 12. qui vel pro quia 
ceteri (vcl om. df, al. m. a). 14, i5. nolens — inhabilis om. c. 
l5, 16. expell. — sblvere om. h. 16. fugienda i. 17. reportat ceteri. 
20. singulis istorum ceteri. 22. et sic nec ag. 23. quoniam ch, quin 
ceteri. 2\. multiplices a, om. g. 25. proporcionabili ag. 27. Pretcrca 
codiccs, prima e, prima al. m. a. 28. universitate h. 3o. quantum- 
cunque bi. 3i. blasphema a, blasfemie bcfg. 34. fierenta/r,- ib. clerici 
pro clientesA,- ib. et ball. ch, vel ball. ceteri. 35. pcrsequentur bc ; ib. 
tales pro civiles h (ta in ras.). 



58 



IOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. V. 



ut blasfemant Christum et apostolos exemplasse. Nichil 
itaque blasfemius ista ficticia, ut alias diffuse exposui. 
Unde signum sue falsitatis est, quod primos fructus 
vendicant de illis quos recenter promovent, et nec de 
promotis a seculari brachio, nec de promotis a papis 3 
aliis, nec de promotis ab illis, postquam semel reddi- 
derunt symoniace comparata; et tamen utrobique foret 
tanta licencia subtrahendi, sed timent sibi de percepcione 

To pay first symoniace sacrile^e et de resistencia aliorum. Unde 
shnony v 'idetur evidenter quod consencientes propter acquisi- 10 
cionem beneficii sic symoniace sacrilegi sunt eciam 
symoniaci ex consensu; ministrant enim pecuniam eis 
sacrilege subtractam. et sic dant eis munus ab obsequio 
turpissimum propter ecclesiasticam dignitatem. Si enim 
omnes promoti illud omitterent. suspensa foret in eis c5 
heresis symoniaca tante fetens; illud autem paulative 
invaluit, quia tempore Johannis XXII primo inventa est ista 
cautela dyaboli, ut narrat Cestrcnsis libro VII, cap. 40. 

Growth of the 'Johannes', inquit, 'XXII post Clementem sedit annis 
abuse. eirciter 19; hic septimum librum decretalium innovavit. 20 
Ac dum in primis accepciones nimirum abhorrere vide- 
retur. dampnavit primo pluralitatem beneliciorum, ita ut 
unico beneticio per rectorem accepto, ipse papa reliquorum 
fructus vacancium per aliquot annos optinuerit. Insuper 
et aliorum beneficiorum per mortem seu resignacionem 25 
vacancium sibi primos fructus reservavit, ita quod rector 
institutus taxacionem beneficii sui ac residuum accep- 
taret. Ex quo negocio innumerum thezauri ad pape 
cameram devenerunt'. Et credo quod non ante fuit illud 
ab aliquo papa practisatum. Sed per ante cap. 5 3o 
eiusdem libri legitur, quomodo sanctus Lodwicus com- 



4. et non h. 5, 6. populis aliis b, personis aliis cd. app ,e aliis f. 
6. simul pro semel bcefg; redderint ceteri 7. comparatum ceteri ; ib. 
uterque n. H. timens i. precepcione h. g. symoniace bce soli, symo- 
nie ceteri; sacrilega adi ifega tn ras. a), sacrilegia fg. 10. prbptcr 
al. m. h. 11. sue svmonie dh, site svmonie i; ib. et pro eciam abcefg. 
12. ministrante bdfg, "corr. in ministrant a. i5. ammitterent c. obmittc- 
rent ceteri. ut suspensa ai. 17. ista om. i. 20. 19 h. (9 in ras.). 12 ce- 
teri. 20. alium librum fg, corr. in 6" m d, 6 in ras. e; ib. innovavit h. 
corr. in innotuit d, innotutt ceteri . 21. n i mi um bcefg, minimum corr. in 
nimirum a. 22. pluralitatem dfh, pluritatem ceteri 2?. unico corr. ex 
cuncto a, cuncto bcfg. unico al. m. e. 24. aliquos ceteri. obtinuit ceteri. 
2^. affliccionem pro res. bdfg. corr. in res. a, per incertam sedis assigna- 
cionem vacancium ce. 27. aut res. ceteri. 

18. Cf. de Cestrensis Polvchronico, pag. 33, 18; loco ibidem 
citato t. 8, 3o6. (Lib. VII, cap. 42) haec invenies verba. 
3o. Cf. pag. 33, 18. 1. c. t. 8, 6. (Lib. VII, cap. 19.) Ibi vero 
de Ludovico VII agitur. 



CA!'. V.] 



DE SI.MONIA. 



59 



bussit bullas papales, in quibus continebatur promocio 
cuiusdam clerici que fuit ab eo irracionabilis iudicata, 
asserens se malle tales comburere quam animam suam 
in inferno torqueri. Vecordia itaque regum originat illud 
5 malum, quondam quidem pape pecierunt relevamen a 
regno nostro per modum subsidii, ut patet in tractatu 
De Papa, sed modo dicit pro lege statui, quod papa de 
promotis per eum habeat primos fructus. Nec dubium, nisi 
regna restiterint istis antichristi principiis, parient illis 

lomagis facinus; nedum quia reges vecorditer et stulte con- 
senciunt in depopulacionem bonorum quorum regimen a 
deo sibi capitaliter est comissum, verum quia tante heresi 
symoniace contra factum Christi consenciunt, et necesse 
est, quod per pseudoclericos inimicos domesticos quos 

i5exaltant symoniace sint decepti. 

Secunda ficticia dicit, quod cum papa sine inter- II. Pretence thal 
veniente pacto condignos promovet, non comittit sy- a ^ree^gift. " 
moniam, licet de propriis post gratis accipiat. Sic enim 
concedit episcopis et archidiaconis in Anglia primos 

20 fructus de tota sua dyocesi; quare ergo non posset papa 
capitalis dominus eadem auctoritate sibi assumere primos 
fructus? Hic dicitur quod non refert quo ad deum, sive A compact 
interveniat condicio tacita sivc expressa innuitiva vel expressecHt 
insumativa, quia deus qui intuetur corda hominum non ma . v be tac,t - 

25 potest decipi; papa autem potest palliare condicionem 
quam habet in animo, ut promotus suus sibi conferat primos 
fructus, quia potestper excommunicaciones, perprivaciones 
et per spoliativas collaciones secundum mentales reser- 
vaciones et infinitas alias cautelas dyaboli pecuniam 

3o negatam exigere, ideo ad paliandum suum dominium 
atque ippocrisim non expresse paciscitur ante datam. 
Sed neget provisus collectori suo primos fructus, et 



i. litteras pape ceteri. 2. intcr ista pro iudicata bcefg, corr. cx 
iud. d, iudic. 111 ras. a. 3. talcs al. m. h, suam h solitm, d al. m. 

5. quondam quippe ceteri. rcvclamcn g, corr. in relev. ai. G. ut patet 
om. i. 7. dicit /, statutum bce ; statim fg. corr. in statui d. 10. magis celi. 
maius ceteri. 11, 12. ad cos i. 12. sibi dfh. om, ceteri. 14. proptcr 
pscudocl. i, proptcr corr. in per d. 17. non al. m. h. 19. archid. h. 
corr. cx archicpiscopis d, archicpiscopis ccteri. 23. invitativa abcfg, 

d in textu invitativa, al. m. ut h; invita r, sivc pro vel i, insinuativa a. 
inconsumativa i. 25. palliari g, corr. in palliare a. 27 punit pro 
potcst bg, posuit cef, posuit corr. in potcst d, per (ante exc ) om. a<ji. 
ct pcr priv. ag. 28. per om. dfi, al. m. g; spoliativas di, spoliacioncs 
ceteri. 3i. et ipp. ag, panciscitur ccteri. 32. si nequc pro sed ncget 
ceteri, si nequc corr. in sed nepet d. 



7. Tractatus De Fapa. Cf. Addenda. 



6o 



IOHANNIS WYCI.If 



[CAP 



II tlie presentee raptus sui 

docs not pav, lle , ■ 

will soon learn condicio 
liow far the 
payment is 
voluntan ■ 



beneticii collati alteri ostendit quod mentalis 
est adiecta: et sic multiplicatur peccatum ex 
gravitate persone, ex simulata iusticia et ex blasfema vendi- 
cacione potestatis concesse Petri vicario. Nec obest 
quod succedit pacti reddicio. Nam Gesi, qui fuit pre- 5 
cipuus symoniacus in veteri testamento, non pepigit 
expresse vel tacite cum Naaman ante donum dei spiri- 
tuale datum per Klizeum ut, patet 4, Reg. 5, sed post 
dixit: 'Pepercit dominus meus Naaman Siro isti, ut non 
acciperet ab eo quod attulit: vivit dominus, quia curram 10 
post eum et accipiam ab eo aliquid.' Ecce quod oblacio 
fuit causa, quare Gesi habuit symoniacam voluntatem. 
Sed papa antequam conferat beneficium, taxat quid 
promotus reddit taltem indistincte condicionaliter, si ex 
una collacione tantum habeat. Secundo, licet Gesi iura- i3 
mento priori adiunxit mendacium, tamen peciit sub 
quadam modestia, quantum Naaman titulo elemosine 
voluit sibi dare. 'Dominus meus, inquit, misit me ad te 
dicens: Modo venerunt ad me duo adolescentes de 
monte EfFraim ex filiis prophetarum; da illis talentum 20 
argenti et vestes mutatorias duplices.' Dixitque Naaman: 
'Melius est ut accipias duo talenta : et coegit eum.' 
Papaautem, si quis fuerit talis, dicitur nedum superaddere 
iuramento suo de regendo ecclesiam conformiter legi 
Christi simplex mendacium, sed blasfemum : de papatu 25 
et excellencia dignitatis capiendi temporalia virtute 
generacionis Christi et Petri, qualiter Christus non 
potest accipere, et non tamquam Gesi plus quam petit 
est coactus recipere, sed tamquam demonium meridia- 
num cogit miseros promotos plus quam vellent inviti 3o 
reddere. 



I. d ed it pro ostendit bcf, corr. in ost. d; dicit d; dederit g, corr. in 
ost. a. 3. persone /( solum, om. ceteri, al. m. ex ostendit corr. d, osten- 
dit pro persone /'. 3, 4. ex blasf. vendicacionis potestate abfiz; con- 
cessa abg. 4. Petro a. 7. ante donum dei dh, ante om. cetcri, don. 
spir. dat. /, donura dedit ceteri. o. Ciro h. 11. illo h, eo ceteri. 
i5. una h, sua ceteri. 21. argenti ceh, auri ceteri. 24. ad regendo/, 
derogando i, eccl. suam di. 25. blasfemia acg, blasfemium /; de papatti 
acefg, esse primatum essc papatum bi, de primatu corr. ex de papaiu d. 
2(). excellencia /;, corr. ex excellentissima d, cxcellentissima, dignitatis dh, 
dignitate ceteri. 28. peciit ceteri. 29. recipere ceh, accipere ceteri. 
3o invite acfg. 



8. 4 Reg. 5, 20. 18. Ib. 5, 22. Cuius loci, ut videtur, 
corrupti, sensum hunc esse puto: Papa . . . dicitur . . . superaddere 
nedum mendacium simplex, sed hoc mendaeium blasfemum de 
papatu: esse excellcntiac capere temporalia etc. 



CAP. V.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



61 



Nec dubium quin ex istis sequitur tercio proporcionalis As leprosy fell 
conclusio Elizei. 'Nunc', inquit 'accepisti argentum l t£e n ieprosy'o S f 0 

et vestes, ut emas oliveta et vineas et oves et . *««nony has 

' tallen upon tlie 

boves, servos et ancillas; sed et lepra Naaman ad- popes. 

5 herebit tibi et semini tuo in sempiternum. Et egressus 

est ab eo leprosus quasi nix'. Et proporcionabiliter 

videtur esse de primo papa symoniaco quo ad deum. 

Lepra, inquam, secundum sanctos signat mistice symo- 

niam, quia sicut nullus morbus est isto infectivior, ad 

losolvendum continuitatem et formam deformancior, 
vel ad cohabitandum ex fetore vel voce horribilior, 
sic est heresis symoniaca. Nam nullum peccatum 
est isto infectivius, cum symoniacus inlicit primo se 
ipsum, secundo conferentem supra se et tercio popu- 

i5lum sub se, cui ministrat ecclesiastica sacramenta, 
vmmo populum undique inlicit ex consensu. Et quan- 
tum ad secundum patet quod nimis solvit continuitatem 
membrorum ecclesie, cum quos debuit continuare cum 
Christo secundum formam ewangelii discontinuat et 

20 deformat secundum legem dyaboli. Et hec racio 
quare vocatur heresis, quod interpretatur divisio. Unde 
nullum monstrum aput deum deformius, licet videatur 
esse caput ecclesie. Unde signanter Aaron reprobatur 
et Maria soror sua percussa est lepra ut patet 

25 Num. 12; 'Ecce', inquit Maria, "apparuit candens 
lepra quasi nix'. Et consequenter orat Aaron Moysen 
pro ea ; quod non fiat hec quasi mortua et abortivum 
quod proicitur a wuhva matris sue. Nam tales aput 
deum proiciuntur extra matrem ecclesiam, licet vide- 

3o antur ipsam regere. Et quo ad tercium patet quod omnis 
lidelis horreret hanc lepram magis quam ipsum 
dyabolum; ymo fama ipsorum multos inlicit, emittunt 
vocem aspidis et non tube; et ideo ordinati sunt in 
lege veteri, ut patet Num. 5, manere tanquam intollerabiles 

35 extra castra. 



3. alimcntum pro oliveta a, alimenta g; ct ante oves h snlum. 
5. usque in ceteri. 9. infeccior ceteri 10. formam dcformem dcfor- 
macior ceteri. 11. quo ad i, quo at. m. d, ad om. f, habitandum i, et 
voce cetcri. 12. dc licrcsi cteri. i3. infeccius ag. 16. ymmo ;';; 
ras. a, nunc pro ymmo bg, ymmo om. cf, al. m. d, ct pro vm. e. 
20. cst racio ;'. 22. est det. gt, est al. m. ad. 26. sicut ;'. 3o. Et quo 
nni. gi. 3l. horret ceteri ; ib. ipsum al. m. h, om. bi. 32. eoi um ceteri. 

tam pro tanquam bceg. 



1. 4 Reg. 26, 2j» 2?. Nuni. 12, 10. 2C. Ib. 12, 11 et 12. 
34. Num. 5, 2. 



f,2 IOHANNIS WYCLIF [CAP. V. 

Candor autem lepre signat candorem ippocrisis quo 
in oculis iidelium simulant sanctitatem; et a primo papa 
symoniaco usque ad novissimum de generacione ista 
omnes percussi sunt quasi irremediabiliter ista lepra. Et 
sic prius dignos indignificat, non promovet sed con- 5 
dempnat, et eo gravius quam Gesi, quo tanquam alter 
deus iustilicat blasfeme peccatum periculosius contra 
Christum, et sic de bonis ecclesie, non suis, furatur 
summe sacrilege tamquam precipuus antichristus. 
Simony as to Et quantum ad primos fructus prepositorum nostrorum 10 
nij srnMni" n! °i uorum collacio ex eodem fonte processerat, ultra vires 
England. nituntur qui volunt excusare illud a symoniaca pravitate 
i questione 3 cap. Si quis obiecerit ; et, quod dete- 
standum est, tamdiu et longe diucius patens symonia 
quo ad patronos et suos clericos fuit defensata in i5 
Anglia. Aliquam tamen excusacionem habet in illis 
hoc vicium : primo quia non vendunt beneficium pro 
lirimis fructibus ut priores, sed tanquam legales cx 
heresiarcha prelato confirmacionem accipiunt. Sccundo 
populo suggerunt licet false, quod sine illis primis 20 
fructibus non possent perficere officium eis attincns; 
undc non symoniace reddunt beneficium spiritualc, 
sed predicacionem, correccionem et alia spiritualia 
carismata tanquam humiles servi Christi et populi. Sed 
relinquo populo occupacionem convincendi illud mcn- 25 
Jacium. Videnda est itaque forma a Petro ct ceteris 
apostolis, secundum quam dcbent laborare iri populo; et 
secundum ncccssitatem illius laboris pro se voluntaria 
cmolimenta plebis accipiant: non ad voluptatem car- 
nalem, non ad sumptuosum cultum mundialem, nec ad 3o 
familiarem commutatum superfiuum, sed adaptent stu- 
dium, quam fructuose quoad spiritum et quam leviter 
et abiecte quoad mundum possunt perficere Christi 
officium. 

... ., . Tercia ficticia est hominis qui extollitur super 35 

III. Pretence . ~ . 1 

that tho omne quod diciturdeus; scilicet quod papa licenciat ct 

payments are 
rignt because 
they havc the 

pope s j nitorem pro cand. ceteri. 2. similant /i. 4. omn. qni perc. ceteri. 

autnonty. 5 ct non a bgj. g. jd eo grav. abcefg. 6, 7. alius deus i. 11. pre- 
cesserat afg. 12. ill. excus. acefg. i3. I — obiecerit ante quornm 
collacio (tn v. 11) legitur in ceteris. in e al. m., obiec. om. bcfg, al. m. 
add. a, obiceret di. 14. longeque i. 20. papc suggerent h. M. possunt 
celeri. 29, 3o. corporalem abcdef. 3i. familiarem ceh, famularem 
ceteri; ib. comitatum bcde, comniunicatum fg, in textu ut g, al. m. 
comutatum a; comitatam h. 33. liccncict i. 

1?. Corp. iur. can. c. 7, c. 1, q. 3 (Friedberg I, 4i3). 



DE SIMONIA. 



CAP. V. 



63 



setting up the 
popc as 
Antichrist. 



statuit, ut sic fiat. Nullus igitur mortalium debet 
ordinacionem vel decretum tanti patris supponere esse 
illicitum, sed acceptare ipsum humiliter et obedienter 
ut ewangelium; eo ipso itaque quo a papa emanat 
5 decretum, ex dispensacione sua fit licitum, licet aliunde 
foret symoniacum, quia aliter papa non posset cum 
symoniaco dispensare. 

Hic dicitur quod omnes qui blasfemant in istam This is simplj 
sentenciam extollunt antichristum super omne quod 

lodicitur deus, quia innuunt papam inpeccabilem, et super 
hoc posse sic facere, quod indubie Christus nec secundum 
deitatem nec secundum humanitatem potest facere. 
Ideo, cum papa sit summe peccabilis, idem foret 
hominem prohibere, ne tractetur de sua potestate, nec 

iSiudicetur opus suum esse iniustum quidquid fecerit, et 
ipsum se profiteri antichristi discipulum et scolam suam 
velle contra Christum defendere. Et ideo dico cum beato 
ewangelista quod antichristi facti sunt multi, quia 
omnes qui opere vel favore tenent cum dicta sentencia, 

20 sunt antichristi. Nec timeamus corripere papam, dum 
in periculum ecclesie sic delinquit, quia ex hinc 
Christus vocavit Petrum Sathanam, Matth. 16, ne levis 
culpa sua transiret a fratribus inpunita, et hinc Paulus 
in facie restitit Petro, quia reprehensibilis erat, Gall. 2. 

25Ambo ista indubie ad nostram doctrinam scripta sunt. 
Et hinc cesares et multe particulares ecclesie secundum 
leges suas nedum restiterant sed deposuerant multos 
papas, quia aliter oporteret desperare de papa peccante et 
odire ecclesiam quam seducit. Unde nulli plus inimicantur 

3o papis ac pontificibus quam illi domestici qui cessant eos 
corripere, et statum suum et vitam suam non cessant 
blasphemo adulacionis oleo delinire. Non sic enim fecit 
beatus Bernardus cum papa Eugenio, quem tamen 



We must not 
fear to correct 
the pope. 



i. statuat ceteri (in d corr. in — it); ib. eciam stat. ut afpc, stat. eciam 
ut bi; ib. ergo pro igitur ceteri. 5. sit licit. h. 5, G.' for. al. ceteri ; 
ib. poterat d, poterit ceteri. G, 7. cum sym. al. m. h. ti. fac. sic 
ceteri. 12. deit. bceh, divinitatem ceteri; nec sec. hum., n. s. div. ag. 
14. homini ceteri. i5. iniustum h; al. m. ut h, in te.xtu iniquum d, 
iniquum ceieri; ib. et al. m. h. 18. manifeste pro multi fg, in textu manif., 
multi al m. ad, multi manif. bi. ig. qui eum opere afg, q. tam op. bc, 
cum cancellat. d, cum ;',- ib. et fav. ceteri. 20. sunt bm. cdefgh, al. m. 
add. a. 21. deliquit abff, corr. ex delinquit /'. 22. Chr. sic voc. bi, 
sic al. m. a. 2'i. transirct sic a z, sic al. m. a. 25. Et ambo ceteri; 
ib. in nostr. ac, in corr. in ad d. 27. deposuerant. /'#/!, deposuerunt 

ceteri. 2Q. inimicantur alias iniuriantur b. 3o. et pro ac bi; poten- 
tibus pro pontif. cg. 3i. suum om. ceteri; ib. ac vit. celeri. 32. blas- 
pheme cde ; ib. dilinire // ,• ib. cnim om. ceteri. 33. primum tamen al. m. h. 



17. I Joli. 2, 18. 22. Matth. 16, 2>. 24. Oal. 2, ir. 



64 



lOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. V. 



religiose dilexerat. Conceditur tamen quod contingit 
multos in isto inordinate procedere: ideo ut innitar 
ineflabili regule, suppono 1 5 condiciones episcopi quas 
declarat apostolus Thimoteo, que debent pape summe 
competere. Et ex eadem epistola suppono 20 condiciones 5 
pseudoepiscopi quas oportet antipape vel antichristo 
summe competere. Nec licet tideli istam fidem prohibere. 
ne Ghristianus ipsam cum suis sequentibus tractet, dis- 
cuciat aut predicet moderate. Et ex ista fide audacter 
assero, quod sive Romanus pontifex sive Avinonicus sive 10 
quicunque alius has 1 5 condiciones bonas in summo 
habuerit, hic est papa, et si in summo habuerit has 
20 condiciones, tunc est antipapa et maximus antichristus. 
Nec licet fideli istam fidem negare, aufugere, vel glosare 
extra sensum quem spiritus sanctus sibi inposuit, ut i5 
scola antichristi dicit, quod non licuit apostolo legem 
scribere, que ligaret papam sive Romanum pontificem, 
cum inferior non habet potestatem in superiorcm suum. 
They set the Ideo lex apostoli de episcopis fingitur competere epis- 
°<jospcl-law. copis solum subiectis papatui, sibi autem dicitur blasfeme 20 
licere super omnem legem dei vagari quomodocunque 
voluerit, quia quatuor ewangeliste cum Paulo et aliis 
apostolis non ligant papam, cum par in parem non 
habet imperium; et illud dicitur fons auctoritatis legis 
veteris. Ideo, ut fingunt, nulla lex dei nova vel vetus ib 
ligat papam; Christus autem voluit esse subditus legi 
dei, sicut necesse fuit ipsum implere ipsam virtute obe- 
dicncie debite trinitati. Si, inquam, papa a lege apostoli 
de episcopis apostataverit, nullus est plus fugiendus, 
discredendus, vel persequendus, quia tunc est maximus 3o 
antichristus. Et tota christianitas, si debet sequi eum 

2. in vita pro inniiar bjg, innitar al. m. a. 3. et infallibili regulc afg ; 
infailibili reg. bcde; reg. infall. i; ib. per pro episc. i. 4. summe ceh, 
fundamentafiter ceteri. 5. 20 eh, pro 20: 12 ag, secundo celeri; 20 om. b. 
6. apparet bcejg, corr. in opportet ad. 7. liceret ag ; ib. tidem om. ceteri. 
8. eam pro ipsam aceg ; ib. suis cum ag; ib. sequacibus ceteri ; in textu 
ut ceteri. al. m. ut h ; d. (j. inordinate gh, corr in moderate /', moderate/; 
ib. et om. a, ex om. i. 10. quod al. m. h; ib. pro Avin.: canonicus ag. 
12. si non abgi. i3. 20 jh, 2° d, 20 corr. in i5 e. om. ceteri : ib. antichr. 
al m. h. 14. ipsam /'. 16. non al. m. h; ib. legem Christi bi, Chr. al. m. a. 
19. ipsis pro episcopis ceteri. 20. solum deberc competere ceteri; ib. enim 
pro autem /;. 21. dei Iicite vacare ag, dei vacare bdj ; vag. om. ce; ib quo- 
modocunque dh, quecunque bcejg, quocunque ceteri. 23. par in parem eh, 
per imperatorem ceteri, in textu ut ceteri, al. m. ut h: di 24. III- dic. 
al. m. ali ; ib. auct. om. bcejg 26. subd. esse ag. 27. dei om. bceh. 
28. inquam dh, enim ceteri; pro papa: quis be, Christi/, Christus g, quis 
corr. in papa c, papa in ras. a. 28, 29. a lege Christi et apost. bi; Uir. 
al. m. a; ib. apostot. quis dc ep. ag, apostot. de ep. ceteri. 



4. Tim. 3, 1 seqq. 26. Cf. Mattli. 5, 17. 



CAP. V.] DE SIMUNIA. 65 

ut ducem, debet vitam suam, si illud excellenter Christcndom 

compleverit, diligenter attendere; si autem ab isto ex- the 0 pope°onTv 

horbitat, debet spreto papa secundum legem tidei sequi s? far *S , ! < = 
. f ,. ° tollows Chnsf. 

Christum. Sicut enim tripudiantes attendunt pedes coraule 

5 ut sibi conformiter moveantur, sic Christianus exercitus 

debet atfecciones ducis sui attenderc, et de quanto 

consequitur primum coraulam Christum, sequi ipsum, 

et si exhorbitat, illo expulso oportet sequi Christum. 

Et hinc Christus ordinat legem suam moventem affec- 

mciones debere cognosci ab omnibus Christianis et promittit 
se prompte adesse ubicunque in nomine suo duo vel 
tres fuerint congregati. Unde blasphemia est secunda 
licticia qua dicitur oportere legem Christi cessare propter 
variacionem temporis, et secundum legem aliam, quam 

i5papa ordinat, est vivendum. Licet autem istud dicat 
clerus concorditer tam verbo quam opere, tamen nichil 
blasfemius dissipat legem Christi vel viam preparat 
antichristo, quia indubie indicat sacerdocium Christi 
translatum in antichristum, cum aliter non lieret legis 

2osue eterne translacio, et sic supra legem antiquam et 
novam veniret tercia lex prophecie quam Judei expectant, 
et fieret monstrum in ecclesia supra corpus et animam. 

Ideo omnes Christiani et precipue domini seculares It is especiallj 
secundum informacionem sacerdotis in lege dei instructi "niier'"\n' 

25debent obstare istis erroribus. Sicut cnim intellectus oppose ^error. 
ecclesie deceptus est in materia de eucaristia in specula- 
bilibus, ita eius affectus per eandem sectam deceptus est 
in operabilibus. Sed rogemus dominum nos iuvare, et 
patet quod sepe falsum assumitur, quod papa statuit et 

3olicenciat ut sic fiat. Non enim licet sibi quitquam 
statuere nisi quod fuerit explicite vel implicite in scrip- 
tura, sed ad quid statueret illud ad onus ecclesie, cum 
deus dedit formam completam, secundum quam dimissis 
aliis voluit fideles exequi legem suam. Ideo ve illis qui 

35 lacerant hanc ordinacionem et impediunt cursum vel 
ordinem verbi dei! Sicut enim homo mortuus non est 
homo, sic ficta licencia non auctorisata a lege Christi 



2,3. exhorbitat ceh, exorbitaverit ceteri. \. trepidiantes h. 5. atiec- 
cionem abcef; ib. sui ducis ag. 7. sequitur bdi. 8. exorbitat ceteri ; 
ib. ipso ceteri; ib. si oport. ceteri. 11, 12. 2 vel 3 in n. s. t". bcdefi, 2 v. 3 
fuer. in n. s. ag. 16. cum pro tamen /;/'. 10. foret^J tn ras.; ib. Icgis ceh. 
Icgi ceteri. 20, 21. nov. et ant. ag. 43. specialiter sec. dom. ceteri. 
20. cst in m. d. euc. dccept. ag. 29. sepe — et al. m. h. 3o. licen- 
ciat dlt, liceat abcg, licenciavit ib. quod ita tiat as. 3i. tuit agi ; ib 
impl. v. expl. ceteri. 33. deus al. m. h. 35. et pro vel ceteri. 
36. Sicut crgo cfh. enim ceteri. 

.S 



66 



JOHANNIS WYCMr 



[CAP. V 



The Pope 
shonld makc 

public 
satisfaction 
when he has 
done WFong. 



Warning from 
Gehazi 



non est licencta, sed presurripcio illicita antichristi. Alitcr 
cnim nichil quod papa approbat, foret inordinata volucio, 
et per consequens nec papa nec aliquis tfactando cum 
eo vel suis comitteret symoniam: quod foret meridiana 
cecitas intidelis. Oportet ergo ad iudicandum aliquid esse 5 
ordinatum vel inordinatum consulcre legem dei, in 
qua omnis dei volucio vcl ordinacio est contenta; nichil 
enim cst licitum nisi de quanto ordinacioni ct volucioni 
dei fucrit conformatum. Sed heu! antichristus scrip- 
turam istam ct sic voluntatem dci nimis obnubilat, idco i<> 
ncccsse est voluntatem dei remanere incognitarri et 
voluntatem antichristi patule esse. exccutam. Supposito 
ergo quod factum vel decretum papc sit illicitum, 
omnis Christianus debet attcntc supponere ipsum esse 
huiusmodi, nc scqucndo cadat in fovcam et ev. parato i5 
laqueo diaboli decipiantur multc anime Christiane. 
Probatur sic: Bapa debet supponere factum vcl 
decretum suum huiusmodi csse malum atque illi- 
citum, totus grcx suus dcbct scqui ipsum in cunctis 
licitis: crgo totus grex suus dcbet supponerc factum 20 
talc cssc illicitum. Maior patet ex hoc quod papa debet 
de quolibet facto tali conteri et revocando pcr satis- 
faccionem dco et ccclesie confiteri, quod non faceret nisi 
supponeret factum suum fuisse illicitum. Unde cum sit 
valdc peccabilis, requiritur in eo patcncior satisfaccio, 25 
nc pcr cum residuum gregis dominici seducatur. 
Recoleret itaque vite Petri et sancti Elizei cum suis decretis 
et non symoniace acumularet sibi peccuniam propter 
mundum. Gesi enim affectus vite proprictarie, amando 
inordinate se ipsum, et detestans vitam pauperem 3o 
ct communem sancti Elizei domini sui, accepit dc 
Naaman duo talenta, et simulando ac si nichil mali 
egisset, perquisivit sibi vineas et oliveta; sed audivit 
duram sed iustam divinam sentenciam, ut patct 4 Reg. 5, 



2. probat g, corr. tn approb. a, approbet i ; ib. fieret ag; ib. volicio 
ceteri. 5. ergo op. bdf. 6, 7. dei — omnis al. m. h. y. volicio 
ceteri ; inordinacio h. 8. pro enim: autem acdefg, namque b; ib. voli- 
cioni ag, voluntati ceteri. q. conhrmatum h. io, u. nim. — dei om. 
abcefg, al. m. add. d. 12. esse pat. bcdefg. i?. autem pro ergo /'. 

15. ex parato dh, ex aperto bcefg, corr. in in experto a, in experto 1. 

16. mufte an. dec. ag. 17. Papamet deb. h. 18. esse huiusm. ag. 
19, 20. totus — licitis al. m. h. 20. debet pape supp. h. 21. minor 
cocr. in maior c. minor ceteri ; ib. patet eo ceteri; ib. debet in rersu 22. post 
tali ceteri. zi. nisi quod sic sup. df, ut sic ceteri. 25. patencior dh, 
potencior ceteri. 27. sancti om. i. 28. sym. al. m. h. ii. mali al. m. h. 
34. et iustam ceteri ; ib. dei sent. i; sic ont. i. 



i5. Matth. i5, 14. 27. Cf. 4 Reg. 5. 



CA!'. V.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



67 



and Simon 
Magus. 



sicut superius recitatur. Symon eciam, quia voluit emisse 

a Petro donum spiritus sancti propter peccuniam, audivit 

a Petro, ut dicitur Act. 8, decretum eiusdem spiritus: 

'Peccunia tua tecum sit in perdicionem' ; et licet Simon 

5 proposuit esse quoad mundum dives et inclitus, tamen 

de eo Petri sentencia est impleta. Nec phas est dis- 

eredere, quin, sicut ista sentencia fuit iustissima, sic 

est in quemcunque Romanum pontificem sic symoniacum 

inevitabiliter inferenda. Quod autem non sic sentitur 

lomodo in signo sensibili ad instruccionem ecclesie, licet 

peccatum sit undique gravius, est portentum durissimum, 

quia signum evidens quod papa prescitus sic reprobus 

sit linaliter induratus, et sic ut aper diaboli mactan- 

dus tamquam desperatus non valere ad aliud permissus ad 

i5sui dampnacionem graviorem gratis sordescere. Nec 

populus exemplandus ex dei vindicta ab ipso ut in ecclesia 

primitiva est dilectus a deo, sed sicut peccat in signis 

ut stferamentis que infideliter solempnisat, sic puniatur 

in peccato signorum per que revocaretur ad noticiam 

2overe vite; docet, inquam, iides quod idem est deus qui 

olim : non acceptor personarum, sed semper generaliter 

puniens hominem ut deliquit. Docet iterum eadem fides, 

quod sive papa sive quicunque alius episcopus tantum 

vel plus mercatur cum spiritualibus, tantum vel plus 

23 inclinatur ad mundum quam Simon vel Gesi, relicta lege 

dei et resipiscencia gravius punietur. Ad satisfaccionem 

talis perversi videtur michi quod oportet quod contitens 

peccatum publice revocet errorem ad instruccionem 

ecclesie, sicut leviora peccata Simonis et Gesi in scrip- 

O quam gloriosum foret exemplar a ii wealth and 

noster VI renuncciaret omnibus bdC ^ 

punty 01 

Petrus, ita quod in Urbano I 
et VI compleatur circulus, quo clerus religione Christi 
relicta in secularibus evagatur. Nec dubium quin cecus 



God punishes 
the people as 
well as the 
Pope. 



3otura fidei sunt inserta. 
ecclesie, si Urbanus 
mundi diviciis sicut 



Pope Urban 
slionld renounce 



Urban l. 



I. recitabatnr ccteri; ib. qui ag. 2. a P. em. don. ag, don. em. a P. /. 
3. a Petro i, in P. ceteri; ib. eiusd. domini spir. bcdefg. 5. quoad m. 
esse ceteri ; ib. et om. h. 6, 7. discedere bc. discere corr. in discr. a. 
7. quoniam celeri ; ib. fu. sent. cetcri. 10. insigne g, corr. in in signo a. 
11. peccet h ; und. sit ceteri. 14. lamquam 0111. i. iX. in sacram. i; 
ib. qui h. 10. revocare bcefg, revocatur ceteri Ca in ras.J ; in textu ad 
presenciam, al. m. alias ad noticiam b. 22. delinquit abfg. 23. q. s. 
p. s. at. m. h; ib. quic. aliquis alius i, quilibet alius ce. 24. tant. post 
spirit. om. ceteri. 26. resipiscitur bcefg, corr. in sensibiliter a, sensi- 
biliter ceteri. 27. vero talis ceteri; michi om. acei; ib. quod conlit. 
ceteri. 3o. inserta (ser in ras.) a solum; incerla bcJefgh, iusta i. 
3i. pro VI: II bfg, corr. in V a, V i, V corr. in VI d, summus e. 

?. Act. 8, 20. 



5* 



68 



IOHANNIS WYCLlF 



[CAl*. v. 



torpor dominorum secularium sit in causa quare tam 

gloriosus fructus et emendacio ecclesie retardatur, potens 

enim antichristus cum suis complicibus facit mcmbra 

sua ex permissione dei adhuc sordescere. 

Audacious and Ulterius omnis fidelis horreret hereses que sunt hodie 5 

h made a fo Cl the S P er ant,cri risti discipulos publice deffensate, ut publice 

Pope's ex- dicitur dampnatum a Gregorio XI tanquam hereticum, 
communication. , , , , 

quod non co ipso quod papa preterident se quovis modo 

solvere vel ligare, co ipso sic solvit vel ligat, et ille 

indubie qui posset facere oppositum lllius katholicum 10 

extolleretur supcr omne quod dicitur deus, et per 

consequens foret omnipotens antichristus; episcopi igitur 

qui procurarunt huiusmodi dampnacionem et adhuo 

deffcndunt tacite vel expresse, sunt indubie procuratores 

aut membra illius hominis maledicti. Ncgatur ergo i5 

tamquam summc hercticum quod co ipso quo a papa 

emanat mandatum, est ipsum licitum et perficicndum ac 

cum cius opposito prius illicito dispensatum. Sicut enim 

Petrus non potuit dispensare cum lcvi veniali peccato, 

pro quo Paulus in facie sihi restitit, ut omnino non sit 20 

peccatum vel ut sit licitum, sic nullus papa sequens 

potest legcm dei de symonia subvertere, nec potest 

dispensare cum aliquo de quantumcunque levi peccato, 

nisi dc quanto deus prius dispensat et ipse fideliter 

promulgat conformiter voluntati divinc. Tot ergo sunt 2 5 

blasphemie seminate de potestate pape, quod tam iidelis 

quam inlidelis resisteret; nec tamen nostri episcopi nec 

doctores audent in causa Christi contradicere, sed 

tamquam canes muti non valentes latrare pusilla- 

nimiter consenciunt reticendo. Et hec est racio quare 3o 

nimis magna pars vocate ecclesie est infecta. Nam 

infecta radice symoniaca pravitate necesse est venenum 

diffundi per totum stipitem, quia quitquid tantus here- 

ticus fecerit est aput deum hereticum et a tota 

triumphante ecclesia maledictum. Ideo ut dixi in fine 35 

tractatus De Veritate Sacre Scripture, medicina est 



3. fccit bi. 4. promissione gi. 7. pro XI: et sic afg, corr. in XI d, 
II bcei. 8. co ipso om. g, al. m. a. 10. huius ceteri. 12. amplius 
pro omnip. ce; ib. episc. eigo ccieri. i3. procurant ceteri, corr. in 
piocurarunt d. iG. ad papam i. 17, 18. ac tamen bcdei. lamcn al. m. a. 
19. pccc. ven. celeri. 20. omnino corr. ex modo a; modo g: ib. lit 
pro sil i. 21. sequ. vel episcopus pot. ag. 2I. cum al. disp. ag. 
25. provulgat abdf; ib. tot autcm ceteri. 27. et tamen nec bcdejt; nce 
oin. g, al. m. add. a. 32. rad. inf. prav. sym. ceteri. 

7. Cf. Walsingham, Ilist. Anglici. Rerum Briltanic. Scriptores 
XXVIIT, I, 354. 36. De Verit." Sacre Script., cf. Addenda. 



CAP. V.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



69 



hereticos talcs aufugere, instrumenta sua prudenter sub- 
trahcre et tribulaciones ac obprobria pro legc Christi 
equanimiter tollerare. Nam implicatus cum illis tam 
quo ad intelectum quam affectum necessario seducetur, 
5 cum seducent eciam, si .potest tieri, electos, ut tam Heresies as to 

. , ' . , . • 1 • thc Sacrameut 

magna cecitas mducta est m ecclesiam per antichnstum 0 f the altar. 
et suos complices de sacramento altaris, quod multi 
credunt nedum illud sacramentum esse accidens sine 
subiecto, sed ydemptice deum suum; et inter omnes 

10 cecitates que umquam permisse sunt a deo in ecclesiam 
cecidisse, magis mirabilis est, quod nedum populus, 
sed vocati sancti subtiliores doctores credunt quod 
quantitas, qualitas, ponderositas, vel fasciculus acci- 
dencium sit sine substrata substancia illud sensibile 

'5 sacramentum, nec Avicenna, Algazel, Hali et alii 
philosophi sunt tantum decepti versuciis Machometi; 
ac si antichristus sic argueret: 'Si possum precipuos 
philosophos Christianos ad tantum seducere, quod credant 
modum rei vel accidens sine substancia per se stare, 

:u cum hoc sit summe inpossibile et inintelligibile nisi 
in cortice, contrarium scripture, sanctis doctoribus, legi 
ccclesie, racioni naturali, et sensui; si, inquit diabolus, in 
antichristo possum facere eos hoc credere, faciam eos 
credere de potestate pape et eius operibus quicquid voluero 

25 consequenter'. Et dico hoc esse inintelligibile, quia omnes 
philosophi huius secte ignorant voces proprias loquendo 
dc accidente vel novem eius generibus varie explicatis. 
ita quod sicut adorant quod nesciunt, sic predicant 
quod non intelligunt; unde verecundantur in populo 

3o sentenciam suam detegere. Sed instinctu dei populus querit 
solicite quid est sacramentum altaris, cum non sit 
ydemptice corpus Christi; et nec populus nec pedagogus 
intelligit quod illud sit accidens sine subiecto. Nam 
secundum philosophos et sanctos accidens est modus 

1. tal. hei\ aceg; ib. pro instnim.: ministeria bcef; misteria corr. in 
ministcria a, misteria corr. in instrumenta d, mistena gi. 3. cum 

istis ag. 4. qu. ad atf. i. 5. et si lieri pot. ceteri ; ib. el clcctos 

ceteri. 10. promissc i. 12. sancti ct subt. doct. ecclcsic cred. celeri. 
0. nec Avic. beh, corr. ex ut d, ut ceteri; nec ante Alg. a. al. m. d, om. 
ceteri. 16. tantum dh, om. ceteri. 20. et om. cdefg, al. m. a, in 
om. d, al. m. a. 21. incorporate ceteri. corr. in in cortice d; ib. legem 
23. cos lioc ceh, eos f. h. f, lioc eos ceteri ; lioc al. m. a, om. g, faciam 
hoc cos cr. d. 25. in om. g, al. m. a. 27. eius om. celeri; al. m. d. 
33. Nam iuxta ceteri. 

5. Matth. 24, 24. i5. Avicenna, nomine Arabico Abu 
Ali etc. Ibn Sina, natus a. 980. Algazel (Aibu Hamiil etc. Al- 
Ghazzah"), natus est a. io5q. 



70 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



fCAP. VI. 



inherens substancie, quo ipsa non est aliquid, sed alicuius 
modi, et sic potest per vices abesse et adesse essencie 
remanenti. Et corespondenter seducitur affectus demerito 
et periculo in colacione temporalium que equivoce sunt 
accidencia clero vel episcopo,_ut dixi superius, sic quod 5 
pro illis possunt infinitum excommunicare vel concedere 
indulgencias et alia spiritualia suffragia simulata. 

GAP. VI. 

How a bishop Restat ulterius videre particularius quomodo episcopus 
mav incur . . . , . , 

simony. potest mcurrere symoniam; et patet ex dictis quomodo 10 

potest esse symoniacus in ingressu, in progressu et 

I. In entering in egressu. In ingressu quandocunque quocunque 
upon liis otfice ,. ..... . . . 

jmproperly. medio capit sibi episcopale regimen pure vel pocius 

propter temporalia lucra, ut fastum vel questum seculi, 

quam propter meritum beatitudinis vel animas populi i5 

querendas deo per doctrinam legis sue verbo et opere; 

quod ex modo suo vivendi est facile iudicare. Sive ergo 

processerit munus a manu, sive a lingua, sive a 

ministerio, per curatum vel alium, dum affuerit hec 

inordinata volucio, comittitur symonia. In omni enim 20 

volucione sicut in omni positivo latet aliquid divinum; 

ideo in deordinacione quam nec papa nec deus potest 

iustificare latitat symonia. Modus itaque attendi confor- 

miter debet ad voluntatem divinam, non querendo 

subterfugia, quod omnia talia possunt bene fieri, quia 25 

cum deus auctorisat et faciat, bene tit quodlibet 

positivum. Contingit enim hominem attendendo ad modum 

licitum meritorie superbire; nam Ys. 6.1: "Vos autem. 

filii, sacerdotes domini vocabimini ministri dei nostri. 

Dicetur vobis: fortitudinem gencium comedetis et in 3o 

gloriam eorum superbietis'. Quis enim dubitat. quin 

1. est quid g, corr. in aliquid a. 2. adesse et abesse ag. 4. in 
collectc bcefg, corr. in in collecta a, cione in ras. d; ib. qui h. 7. ac 
pro et alia ceteri. g. vid. ult. et part. ceteri. 11. et in progr. a, 
al. m. gi. 12. in eg~r. defh, in om. ceteri; ib. quomodocunque ceteri. 
i3. medie befg, corr. in medio a; ib. episc. reg. dh, temporale reg. ceteri 
(reg. temp. i). 14. temporale lucrum ceteri; ib. vel fast. ceteri. iG. sue 
lcg. ag ; ib. in verbo ceteri. 17. viv. suo fac. est ceteri ; ib. ergo om. h. 
al. m. d. ig procuratum ceteri, alium fh, aliunde ceteri, dum om. dhi; 
assumit pro aff. befg, corr. iu alluerit c. 20. volicio ceteri. 21. voli- 
cione celeri; ib. patrimonia pro positivo ceteri; ib. aliquod bcef. 
23. instituere pro iustif. e; ib. itaque al. m.h. 23, 2\. deb. conf. bcdefi. 
27. positivum h, possibile ce, positum corr. in peccatum d, positum ceteri. 
29. fil. dei sacerdotis voc. /"; fil. sacerdotis dom. d. 3o. gencium om. 
abfg, al. m. di, qui pro genc. c, corr. in gencium e. 



28. Is. 61, 6. 



CAP. VI.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



71 



sacerdotes Christi gaudebunt in hoc quod digni habiti 
sunt contumeliam pati pro nominc Jesu Christi domini 
sui? Ipsi autem comedunt spiritualiter, digerunt, et 
gignunt in domino gentes fortes, et in gloriam conver- 
^ 5 sorum apostoli Christi superbiunt, quia in hoc superant 
populum iudicandum quem ipsi superent tinaliter iudi- 
cantes, specialiter si ipsi gloriantur in tribulacionibus 
propter Christum, perseverantes finaliter in sancto pro- 
posito. Et hinc dicit Jeronimus Epistola 81 ad Eusto- 

iochium filiam sancte Paule: 'Disce', inquit, 'in hac parte 
sanctam superbiam'. Ex istis patet, ut sepe dixi, non esse 
colorem hoc potest bene fieri, ergo non peccatur 
faciendo illud. Attendendum est, inquam, ad modum quem 
sancti limitant ex fide scripture illud debere fieri. 

i5 Contingit ergo episcopum esse symoniacum inprogressu II. While 
vite sue tripliciter. Primo, si post ingressum symoniacum ,,, By negfecting 
omittit episcopale officium limitatum cunctis episcopis h- s d of<f ( f e ? f 
in Thimoteo, ut patet alibi. Et ista est longe gravior 
symonia quam illa que comittitur in ingressu, quia 

20 arra symonie prius data gravatur, cum in facto fedatur 
ecclesia lepra contracta a tali episcopo; ymo si con- 
tritus fuerit episcopus ad horam de symoniaco ingressu, 
post omittendo inordinate episcopale officium prior 
symonia, idem subiecto licet non tempore, reviviscit; 

25 ipse enim est finis malicie symonie prioris. Et patet 
ex descripcione symonie. Nam omnis talis habet 
inordinatam volucionem comutandi spirituale officium 
pro temporali precio; cum enim continue succedit no- 
vum episcopium, patet quod pro voluptate vel alia tem- 

3oporali causa inordinate commutans spirituale officium 
rit continue symoniacus. Et iste sensus videtur decreti 
1 questione 3 cap. Non solum, ubi dicitur quod nedum 
illi qui vulgariter diffamantur symoniaci, verum hii qui 
graciam dei vel gradum vel graciam spiritualem in 

2, 3. domini dei sui ceteri. 3. degerunt h. 0. dicit 0111. h; ib. 82 
ceteri, Eustachium acf. 10. filium h ; ib. Paule om. ccf, al. »1. d. 11. sup. 
sanct. ceteri. i3. in faciendo ceteri ; ib. ad 01». i. ' 17. amittit abccfg. 
iX. 111 pat. in Tliim. alibi ag. 22. episc. al. m. a, om. g. 24. ipsc g, 
corr. ex tempore a. 25. pro ipsc: iste corr. in ille d, iste ccteri ; ib. est 
oi». acefg, lin. cst ceteri ; ib. eciam pat. g, corr. in et a. 28. quo corr. in 
continue a, quo g. 29. episcopium h, corr. ex episcopum a", episcopum f, 
peccatum ceteri; quod patet quod ceteri ; ib. vohiptatc cefh, voluntate ceteri. 

31. vid. sens. ceteri. ^2. cap. om. bcefg, ai. m. a. 33. defamaiitur ab/g : 
symonia ceteri. 33, 3^. Verum — dei, al. m. a; pro his verbis : Qui iisum 
querit bg, quem usum gracia c, qui iisum gracia e; usiim pro verum/, 
hii — dei om. f. 

9. Mignc, Patrologia, Patrcs Latini, t. 22, 403 (16) (Ep. 22). 

32. Corp. iur. can. c. 11, C. t, q. 3 (Friedherg I, 417). 



72 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. VI. 



ecclesia, quam domino largicntc pcrceperant, non sim- 
plici intencione, scd cuiuslibct humane retribucionis 
causa exercent; multo magis si omittunt spirituale 
officium propter accidiam vel instinctum dyaboli. Et si 
queratur cum quo mercantur, dicitur indubie quod cum 5 , 
dyabolo, quia officium vel occupacionem tam spiritualis 
officii faciunt mercandia stultissima esse suum. 
6) hv spending Secundo modo nimis graviter comittit episcopus 
°aood?8f*the e symoniam, quando temporalia distribuenda pauperibus 
I 1 '»"'; inordinate consumit in se, superfiua vel sumptuosa io 
familia, aut tercio in complicibus suis forinsecis, ut 
retinentibus militibus vel cognatis; in> omnibus enim 
talibus inordinate comutatur episcopium propter lucrum 
turpissimum. Et ista est sentencia pape Gregorii i quc- 
stione 3. Pervcnit, que lex, quia est necessaria ad in-i5 
struccionem eccjesie geminatur 1 6 questione 7 : 'Pervenit', 
inquit, 'ad nos fama sinistra quod quidam episcoporum 
non sacerdotibus proprie dyocesis dccimas atque obla- 
ciones Christianorum conferant, sed pocius laycalibus 
personis militum videlicet sive servitorum vel, quod 20 
gravius est, consanguineis. Unde si quis amodo episcopus 
inventus fuerit huius divini precepti transgressor, intcr 
maximos hereticos et antichristos non minimus habeatur, 
ct, sicut Nicena synodus de symoniacis censuit, et qui 
dat episcopus, et qui recipiunt ab co layci, sive precio, 25 
sive beneficio, eterni incendii ignibus deputentur.' Multis, 
inquam, videtur quod iuxta illud decretum sanctissimum 
et ex fide scripture verissimum maior pars episcoporum 
post dotacionem ecclesie inficit lepra symoniaca se et 
suos in tantum, quod si quilibet episcopus in Anglia 3o 



l. quem g. corr. in quam a. 1, 2. simpl. corr. in symoniaci ad, 

symoniaci bcef. 3. causa al. m. h; ib. tam spirituale bce, tam" cancellat a. 
4. accidiam corr. ex accideiicia h. 5. queritur ceteri ; ib. mercantui" ceh, 
mercatur ceteri; ib. dicunt celeri, corr. in dicitur d. 5, 6. cum jpso 
dyab. ceteri. t>. vel occup. al. m. h;ib. tam om. ceteri. 7. merca c, 
cbrr. in mercarfcia a, mercam corr. in mercanciam e, mercandia h, corr. 
ex menta df, mercandia ceteri ; ib. mcrc. diaboli stult. ceteri, diab. can- 
cellat. d. 8. minus corr. in nimis h, unus corr. in nimis d, unus celeri ; 
ib. episc. om. ceteri, al. m. add. d. 10. conferunt ce, confert ceteri, 
corr. in consumit d; sumptuosam familiam ag. 11. forinsecus b, corr. 
ex forinsecis a. 12. et cogn. ceteri. i3. comittitur g, corr. in CODIU- 
tatur a, committatur bce. i3. episcopum bcefg, cpiscopus episco- 
pium ah, al. m. d. 14. illa ceteri; ib. (iic^. posita 1 bcdefg. i5. cap. 
1'erv. di, cap. al. m. a; ib. qum est om. h. 16. 18 qu. acefg. 17. epi- 
scoporum corr. ex sacerdotum /i. iS. diocen. a. 19. conferant cdeli. 
conferunt ceteri. 21. episc. repertus ag. 23. minimus ah, minus ceteri. 
26. cercius pro multis bcdefg, corr. in multisa. 27. illud ceh, om. ceteri. 
29. infecit ceteri. 



14, t5. Ib. c. i3 (I, 41 ■j). i*3. Ib. c, 3, C. i(3, q. 7 (F, 80 1). 




DE SI.MONIA. 



73 



essct sensihilitcr signatus signo bcstic, audiens signatos 
hereticos possct se ipsum primo notare in vertice, ct 
forte pauci vel nulli presbiteri aspirarent ad episco- 
pium sic infectum. Infectum dico fetenti stercore 
3 temporalium collinito, quia illo subducto non sic in- 
ordinate afficerentur illis episcopis, nec sic distribuendo 
bona pauperum inprovide cum tanta laycali sarcina 
gravarentur, ut dicit decretum 1 questione 3, cap. Ex 
multis et 1 questione 1, cap. Non cst putanda, teste 

loscriptura: 'Qui aliquid male aecipit, ut bcne dispenset, 
gravatur pocius quam iuvatur.' 

Tcrcio modo comittit episcopus symoniam inordinate c) by avarice. 
coligendo peccuniam vel aliud pruriens temporale; et 
illud fit infinitis modis secundum cautelas diaboli qui 

t-5 diu studuit in hac arte. Nam non dubium, quin qui- 
cunque episcopus inordinate occupat illud officium 
propter laudem vel honorem mundanum, est symoniacus 
ut patet 1 qucstione 3, cap. Non solum, quia inordinate 
comutat cum diabolo spiritualitatem episcopii cum vanis- 

20 simo temporali. Et quantum ad congregandum peccuniam 
sunt mille meandri per dyabolum machinati: ut nunc 
episcopus benedicendo ecclesias altaria vel cimiteria Heavy fees for 
capit excessivam peccuniam, et nunc sacramenta vel cerem » nieSi 
sacramentalia, que ministrat, tam care vendit capicns 

25 peccuniam quanta sufricit per se vel suos. Quantum 
ad consecraciones locorum dicitur, quod capiunt co- 
muniter quinque marcas vel amplius, et hoc ut legem 
statuunt et amplius observant quam evangelium, tardantes 
a solucione severissime puniendo. Numquid credimus 

?oillud posse excusari aput deum de heresi symoniaca, 
cum patenter vendunt benediccionem vel consecracionem 
pro precio temporali? Nec est racio plus de uno spiri- 

1, 2. her. sign. ag; ib. primum cetert. 3, 4. episcopium dli, epis- 
copatum ceteri; ib. nec sic cetcri. 7. b. p. sic inpr. a; ib. layca ag. 
S. quia dicit ccteri; ib. cap. al. m. d, om. ceteri. <». et — putanda om. 
abcefg. al. m. dhi. n. quam al. m. h. 12. modo cefli, om. ceteri. 

purius temporali bcg, corr. in pinguius periens a, pinguius corr. in 
pcnens d, p. om. e; pinguus/'. tS. cap. dh, om. ceteri. 19. committit 
ceteri ; ib. cum diab. al. m. h; ib. episcopi ccteri. 21. meandri al. m. ad, 
modi manifesti bce, mcnibri manifesti fg. 23. sacramenta vd om. ag. 
25. quantam chi; ib. pro se cfh, corr. in per i; ib. et suos cetcri. 
27. et hoc al. m. h, 28. obs. ampl. ceteri. 2y. scverissime bdeh, 
sevissime ceteri. 3o, 3r. de hcresi — bcned. om. b, al. m. ag, de — 
consecr. al. m. d; de lier. — vend. om. ef. 3o. deum itidicem acdi. 
3i. iudicionem pro bened. cef ; ib. aut consccr. abcefg, scu consecr. i. 



8. Ib. c. 9, C. 1, q. 3 (I, 41 5). 
(I, 369); ib. cf. Prov. 21, 27. 1 



I. g. Ib. c. 27, C. 1, q. 1 
18. Cf. not. ad pag. 70 v. 02. 



74 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. VI. 



uiali episcopi ministerio quam alio, cur non licct illud 
vcnderc ct non omnc. 
Emptiness () | Sed hic dicitur comuniter, quod labor corporalis 
made^for^tlicse vcnditur, non benediccio, et sic pro expensis, non pro 
cliarges. consecracione, datur precium. Istud autem est similc 5 
facto ministri cuiusdam divitis sed avan: fertur enim 
tlixisse magistro suo in nundinis, quod toti illius ville 
comunitati donant gratis aucas pingwissimas, sed carnes 
bovinas et alia comunia edulia care vendunt; ille 
autem fertur mandasse ministris comedere aucas do- 10 
natas, sed ipse voluit refici grossis cibariis usitatis; 
sed in fine facto. calculo carnes bovine inhauserant 
totum precium aucarum que fingebantur donari. Et ita 
videtur ecclesiam sophisticari in isto responso. Ideo 
i questione 3, in principio, destruitur ista ficticia sub hiis i5 
verbis: 'Tcmporalia', inquit, 'non spiritualia cmentes, 
nequaquam symoniaci habendi sunt'. Et respondctur, 
quod non solum qui spiritualia, sed eciam qui temporalia 
eis annexa precio accipiunt symoniaci iudicantur. Unde 
Malachias I. cius capitulo ita loquens ex persona domini 20 
ait. 'Quis est', inquit, "in vobis, qui claudat ostia ct in- 
cendat altarc meum gratuito? Non est michi voluntas 
in vobis, dicit dominus exercituum, et munus non sus- ' 
cipiam de manu vestra.' 'Ostia claudere', dicit Gracianus, 
•non est sacri muneris officium, sed tantum sibi adiunc- 25 
lum. Nec dubium, quin sic posset excusari quelibet sy- 
monia. Item cum episcopus vendit turpiter corporaleni 
laborem, videtur quod debet dare ipsum subiectis pro 
precio competenti. Sed constat quod longe minori precio 
posset parrochia emere tantum corporalem laborem 3o 
ab operario alieno, quod episcopus ingrate ferret cum 
suis filiis. Nec valet dicere quod corporalis labor epi- 
scopi in isto est magis validus, quam tantus labor 

i. mill. op. ag; ib. quam de alio ag. 8. commun. i solum, al. m. 
add. a: donavit ai, dent c, donat e. q. edulia ce, yendibilia pro cdulia 
ag, edilia ceteri ; ib. in textu vendunt, al. m. vendidit i. 10. aut. fert. 
om. bcef, al. m. d. 12. calcullo ag ; ib. inhauserant cek, inhauscrunt 
ceteri. 14. Jo papa pro ideo afg. 16. via corr. in non a, via bcef. 
17. Sed pro et ceteri; ib. videtur pro respondctur gi, corr. ex rcsp. a. 
20. I. eius cap. om. bcef, al. m. a; ib. ita, om. ceteri. 21. nohis b, 
corr. ex vobis a; ib. hostia ceteri. 11. gr. alt. m. h; ib. gratuito ceh, 
gratuite ceteri. 23. i\. accipiam abg, corr. ex susc. d. 25. satis 
mun. bceg, sacri al. m. d, om. ceteri. 2f>. possit i. 26, 27. sym. al. 
m. h. 28. darc om. ceteri, al. m. d. 3l. ergo pro quod ceh, corr. ex 
quod d; ib. ferret acefg, faceret dh, fert ceteri. 33. in isto sit validior ag. 

i5. Corp. iur. can. C. 1, q. 3, Gratiani verba. 20. Ma- 
lach. 1, 10. 24. lbidem. 



CAP. VI.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



lavci, quia hoc non haberet colorem nisi propter 
spirituale annexum; et per consequens cum propter illud 
precium tam excessivum accipitur, videtur quod princi- 
paliter illud est tam care venditum, quia infame foret 
5 episcopum tante dotatum tam care vendere corporale 
laboricium tam abiectum. Item queritur. quanti in veri- 
tate valet tantus labor corporalis episcopi; et cum 
quondam minus valuit quam modo, ymo minus valet in 
suffraganeo quam in domino episcopo, videtur quod 

10 plus valet secundum gravitatem persone et indigenciam 
parrochie ad illum laborem. Cum ergo unus episcopus 
sit reliquo gravior, et indigencia talis consecracionis 
potest infinite fingi et carius appreciari. videtur quod talis 
labor episcopi potest ad votum in precio extolli; et si 

i-^expense pensantur, episcopus propter tales labores hahet 
dotacionem pingwem a rege et regno, ymo sumptuo- 
sitas inordinata episcopi in equis et supernua familia 
redundaret in sumptuosum dampnum ecclesie. quod licet 
sit verum, est omnino iracionabile. Et eodemmodo 

20 comittitur symonia, si conducitur suffraganeus ad 
coligendum peccunias in talibus abiectis opusculis. Item 
videtur quod talis labor episcopi sit infinitum valencior 
quam tantus labor layci; sed tantus labor layci valet 
obulum, ut suppono, ergo ille labor episcopi valet 

2? infinitam peecuniam. Vel ergo donet eam gratis vel 
pro equo precio iuste vendat. Assumptum patet, quia 
signata pro porcione racionali oportet consequenter in 
casu concedere, quod benediccio episcopi valet ex equo 
obulum, ut posito, quod totidem benedicciones disseminet, 

3" quot obulos recipiet, preter unum; et tamen valorem 
talis benediccionis negaret villicus. Et theologus diceret 
quod in tali venditore columbarum foret fetidum vene- 
num, quia secundum beatum Gregorium et decretum 81 
distinccione cap. Si qui sunt, deus illi, cui talis benedixerit, 

4. est III. adfg ; causa tam care abfg. 6. pro queritur: communiter 
quia ceteri. 7." carnalis labor i. 8. quond. corr.ex quidam a; quod c, 
quibusdam g; ib. valet in al. m. a, om. g. i3. gravius bcefg, corr. in 
carius a. 1 (3 . et a regno ag. 17. equos g, corr. in equis a. 

23. Scd — laici al, m. adh. 24. ut supp. al. m. h, supponitur cetcri. 
26. aliquo pr. i; ib. argumentum pro ass. ceteri. 28. ex quo valet ag, 
2<). difhniet pro dissem. abcf, differt <?. 3o. oblaciones corr. in obu). aa", 
oblaciones bcefg. 3i. vetaret vill. ib. vill. in rasura a, om. b, valli- 
tu>. cef, yallerius g, wallicus /i. 32. columb. a/.m. a. nm.g; ib. fetidum 
in ras. a; seduccio venen. bg, pro venenum: seducto ch, scductum vcne- 
num d, fet. om., seducto ven. ef. 33. Greg. corr. in Gracianum d. 
34. cap. om ceteri ; ib. illi al. m. a, om. g. 

33. Corp. iur. can. c. i5, 1). *i (FrieJb. I, 284), cf. Malach. 2, 2. 



76 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. VI 



maledicit. Ymo vidctur quod longe minus malum 
foret celebrare sub divo, quam jn loco taliter benedicto; 
lepra enim spiritualis inticit parietes et loca distancia, 
cum deus pro leviori peccato submersit Sodomam ct 
Gomoram." Quantum ad istud videtur michi indubie quod 5 
in talibus consecracionibus heresis symoniaca est comissa; 
quia quandocunque verificatur de consecrante dicta 
descripcio, tunc consecracio episcopi non est vera 
consecracio, sed execracio et malediccio retardans 
fideles a ministerio debito deo suo. Nec est facile fingere i<> 
causam introduccionis et reservacionis huiusmodi con- 
secracionis episcopo, si non lucrum et preeminencie 
episcopalis superba ostensio. 
No warrant in Nec occurrit ex scriptura, quare sanctus laycus vel 
reserving^these quiltbet sacerdos non posset taliter benedicere eti5 
functions to sacrare . Sic enim assistente sacerdotali copia Salomon 
consccravit et benedixit templum 3. Reg. 8. Et sacerdotes 
benedicunt et consecrant eukaristiam. quod est infinitum 
prestancius, ut notat Jeronimus et ponitur in decretis 
p5 distinccione cap. Ecce ego dico, ymo videtur quod -o 
si propter tam peregrinum et leviter fundatum opus 
episcopi locus benedicitur vel consecratur, multo magis 
propter tam presentem benediccionem presbiteri, dum 
consecrat corpus Christi. Et- grave videtur cum tot 
cerimoniis onerare ecclesiam, ut patet in materia dc 
cessacione legalium et specialiter ex sinodo apostolorum 
Act. 1 5, et ex decreto Augustini posito 1 2 distinccione, cap. 
Omnia, et ex dicto beati Isidori 8 Ethimologiarum cap. 
Heresis. 'Nobis', inquit, 'nichil ex nostro arbitrio inducere 
licet, sed nec eligere quod aliqui de arbitrio suo in- 3° 
duxerunt. Apostolos dei habemus auctores, qui nec ipsi 
quitquam ex suo arbitrio quod inducerent elegerunt, sed 
accepta a Christo disciplina fideliter nacionibus assigna- 



1. mala bcefg. 3. quia lepra i. 5. michi om. i. S. et tunc atcefg. 
11. 12. ep. cons. hu. ceteri. 12. preminencie h. i(5. sacramentaliter bfg, 
corr. in sacrare a; it>. copia sacerdotum b, sacerdotum copia d, sac. cop. 
om. e, sacerdote, om. copia ceteri; ib. Salomone e. 17. 2 Reg. dh, 

3 om. bcfg. 3 al. m. e. 18. hostiam eukaristie b. 10. illud ante Jcr. 
omne.i praeter h; ill. corr. in Jer. d; Jer. al. m. a, om. fg. 20. dist. <i5 
ceteri: ib. cap. om. ceteri. 21. tam pr. ceteri. 22. et cons. abcef, 
et corr. in vel d; con. om. h, cancell. d. 25. circumstanciis bcefg, 
corr. in ccrim. ad. 27. 2 in ras., corr. in 12 a, 12 fh, i5 ceteri: ib. cap. 
om, ccteri. 2S. cap. Hester bcefg. 3o. aliqui ef, aliquid ccteri; 
ib. de arb. efh, ex arh. celeri ; de al. m a. 3o, 3t. induxerunt afgh, 
fnduxerint cetcri. 

17. 3 Reg., 8. 20. ib. c. 6, D. 95 (I, 333). 27. Act. 
i5, b seqq. 27. Corp. iur. c. 12, D. 12 (I, 3o). 28. Migne, 
Patrologia, Patr^s Latini, t. 82, 296. 



CAP.VI.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



77 



verunt. Itaque ct si angelus de cclo aliud ewangelisavcrit 
anathcma vocahitur.' Talia sunt multa dicta sanctorum Need of care 
ex quihus docemur seduccionem in signis evadere, 'beremonfes! 1 
contenti paucis sacramentis que fides scripture instituit. 
5 Quod si alia signa honesta implicita in scriptura surrep- 
serunt, cavendum est primo, quod secundum ordinem 
et formam quibus instituta sunt primitus observentur. 
et secundo quod postposita lege scripture non nimium 
pondercntur. Consecracio vera limitata episcopo potest 

iocum istis bene fieri; ymo episcopus potest in necessitate 
vite necessaria, subducta exaccione, benediccionem gratis 
dancium, quibus ministrat, licenter recipere, ut docent 
multe leges in 5. decretalium De Symonia. Sed illud 
sine symonia raro vel nunquam invenies, ymo videtur 

iSdotacioni incompossibile. Unde i questione 3, cap. 
finali, sic scribit papa Innocencius: 'Si quis prcbendas, 
vel prioratum, seu decanatum aut honorem, vcl pro- 
mocionem aliquam ecclesiasticam, seu quodlibet sacra- 
mentum ecclesiasticum, ut puta crisma vel oleum 

20 sanctificatum ad consecracionem altarium vel ecclesia- 
rum, execrabili ardore interveniente avaricie, per pecu- 
niam acquisierit, et honore male acquisito careat et 
emptor atque venditor et interventor nota infamie per- 
cellatur. Et nec pro pastu nec sub obtentu alicuius 

25 consuetudinis ante vel post aliquid exigatur, vel ipse 
dare presumat, quoniam symoniacum est; sed libere 
absquc diminucione aliqua collata sibi dignitate atque 
beneficio perfruatur.' Ex ista lege sancta patet, quomodo- 
cunque glosaverint doctores, quam spissim in istis decem 

3o symonia comittitur, et specialiter secundum fucum con- 
suetudinis, honoris vel reservacionis primorum fructuum, 



4. ct contenti abcef; ib. fideles i; ib. instituerunt i. 5. alia bh, 

alias cefg, aliqua ceteri, in a in ras. 5, 6. surrepserit ccteri. (i, 7. in- 
formacionem et ord.y, f. e. o. ceteri. 8. preposita ceteri. 9. vcro 
bcef; ib. licita bcefg, corr. in limitata ad; ib. pontifici pro ep. ceteri. 
10. c. ist. b. p. f. a; ib. in nec. p. i. 11. vite al. m. a; mittere fg, 
corr. in vite d; ib. bcnediccionum dlii. 14, pfo raro: partimper abf, 
corr. in rarenter d, patenter ce, rarenter gi. i5. donacioni /',• ib. iii- 
possibile chi. 17. archidiaconatum g, corr. in prioratum a; ib. vcl dec 
ag; ib. vel hon. h. 18. aliqu. a nostra ccclcsia seu bg, sticum in ras. a. 

20. pro sanctificatum : consecratum h; ib. ad cons. ceteri, et corr. e.x ad d. 

21. avaricia ceteri, corr. in cie d. 22. et al. m. h, om. celeri. 23. in- 
teremptor g, corr. in interv. a. 23, 24. procellantur /', percellatur ceteri : 
ib, per pastum alias pectum b. per pastum c, per pactum e. 25. ei 
ceteri, corr. in vel d. 21'). et nb. n. 21). doct. ^los. ceteri; ib. spissim 
in rasitra a, sepissime g; ib. decem dgh, om. ceteri. 3i. vel nm. e. et 
res. ceteri. 



1. Cf. Gal. 1, 8 et 1, i3. Decr. Grcg. IX, L. V, tit, III (Friudb. II, 
749 seqq.). i5. Corp. iur. c. i5, C. 1, q. 3. 



7* 



l< »H WMS WYCLIF 



[CAP.VI. 



Fces for 
consecration oi 
ornamcnts ctc. 



Fees to clerks 
anJ barbers. 



The bishop 
pretends t<> 
know nothinj 
of sucli 
practices, 



cum sic dimijiuetur instrumentum ofticii ad dei mini- 
sterium exequendum. 

Et eadem consideracio est de aliis ministeriis epis- 
copi, ut confirmacione. ordinacionc, et crismatis vel 
vestium ac ornamentorum consecracione. In conlir- 3 
macione vero, quia levis, brevis, et publica, comuniter 
non recipitur corporale stipendium per episcopum vcl 
ministrum. Sed in aliis sophisticatur ecclesia ministris 
symoniace recipientibus et episcopo facto symoniaco 
per consensum ; dicitur enim in ordinacione clericorum 10 
quod clericus pontificis inscribens nomen ordinandi, 
barbitonsor eciam si non raserit ordinandum, quod cst 
magis mirabile. presentans eciam litteras dimissorias 
non rehabebit easdem. antequam census sit dyabolo 
solutus, sic quod collectis symoniacis in minimis i5 
ministrorum. in ordinacione cpiscopi annuali acrescit 
ad multas libras magnus cumulus symonie. Nec refert 
de quantitate inpensi, cum sicut vidua paupercula 
mittens quadraritem in gazophilacium misit plus omni- 
iius aliis, sic clericus spoliatus de quadrante ex plus 20 
inordinata volucione, ex maiori heresi symoniaca spolia- 
tur. Cum autem omnes dicte ministrorum rapine redun- 
dant in magistrum ut archihereticum, patet quam 
culpandus est magister eorum, episcopus, qui permittit 
se percuti symonia tam multiplici pro precio tam vili. 2 5 
Unde 1 questione 2 in communi precipitur in cap. 
Sicut: 'Sicut episcopum non decet manum quam inponit 
vendere, ita minister vel notarius non debet in ordinacione 
eius vocem suam vel calamum venumdare"; utrobique 
enim est eadem racio symonie. Sed hec est communis3o 
responsio: quod hec ftunt ignorante episcopo; ymo 
minister episcopi ista non exigit sed licite accipit gratis 
datum: Et fundat se super lege predicta dicente: 'Is', 



1. et sic fg, corr. in et a. 3. est om. t, est cons. cetert. 4. et 
et vel 0771. g, al. m. a; ib. carismatis h. 5. autem orn. h; ib. consecr. — 
comun. om.f. (5. levius brevius /', corr. ex levis brevis a. 12. quod 
si bcefg, corr. in eciam si ad; ib. ordinatum corr. in ordinandum J, 
ordinatum ceteri. i3. eciam al. m. ah. corr. ex 4 d, 4 bcef, om. ceteri. 
14, i5. diab. sit persolutus /, per al. m. a. ti. minuciis ceteri. 17. pcr 
multas abfff. 20. cunctis aliis ccteri. 21. volicione celeri ; ib. multi- 
plici her. bfg, corr. in maiori a. 23. ac pro ut g. corr. in ut a; ib. ar- 
chiemberticum befg, corr. in archiheretici ad, archiepiscopum c. 
26. quest. 3 ceteri. 26, 27. in c. Sic. om. bcefg, al. m. ad. 3o. hec /'. 
corr. ex hic d. hic ceteri. 3i. ignorato ' g. corr. in ignorante a. 
3 2 . ista bcefh, ita ceteri. 33. fundatur ceteri; ib. Is dh, 07n. ceteri. 

i!S. Cfi Marc. 12, 42. 26. Corp. iur. can. c. 4, C. 1, q. 2 

(Friedberg 1, 40^). 33. Ibid. 



CAP. VI.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



79 



inquit, "uui ordinatus fucrit, si non ex pacto, neque <>r it is said 

' . r „ «• that the gifts 

exactus nec petitus, post acceptas cartas et palium are f re |_ 
offerre aliquid cuilibet ex clero gracie tantummodo 
causa voluerit, hoc accipi nullomodo prohibemus, quia 
5 eius oblacio nullam culpe maculam ingerit, que non 
ex ambientis peticione processit.' Quantum ad primum 
patet quod episcopus, qui hoc cognoscit vel debet The bishop 
cognoscere et non corrigit vel abicit, tanquam alter u ° ° noNN ' 
Elizeus qui punivit et abiecit Gezi, est censendus tan- 

ioquam particeps criminis ex consensu. Et quo ad legem 
patet quod opus vel voluntas ministri episcopi contra- 
dicit. Nam ordinati pauci vel nulli, quidam ex indigencia 
et quidam ex consciencia lepre symoniace, gratis offerunt 
ministris episcopi quequam dona; sed ordinatus hec and the gifts 

i5 negans vel ponit vadium vel excludetur ad hostium a extort«f! S 
vel aliunde deteriorabitur ad longe plus quam a suo 
socio est exactum; et illud indubie genus est exaccionis 
turpissimum, ideo nichil exactori sic cupido et legi 
predicte. Sic enim possent fingi excusaciones inlinite. 

20 ut, quod clericus non emit vel cupit spiritualem digni- 
tatem, cum sit oneris et non fructus, sed fit comutacio 
de temporali annexo; vel si circa illud contenditur. 
fingitur nuda empcio usus lucri temporalis dimisso 
eius dominio; et sic de infinitis stultis ficticiis. Ideo 

25 optimum iudicium est de symoniaco, videre si compleat 
ministerium quod requirit eius officium, et penes illud 
iudicare eius pravitatem symoniacam. Posset enim tercio 
fingere, quod non emit temporale huiusmodi annexum 
spirituali officio, sed eius usum, et tales duplices indubie 

3o non emunt beatitudinem, et tunc secundum beatum 
Gregorium Super Ewangelia Omelia 5. nunquam habe- 
bunt illam. 



2. paululum befg, corr. in palium ad, paulum c. 3. cuilibet bdflt, 
cuiuslibet ceteri ; ib. ergo ante gracie otnnes praeter dh, gracie om. bcefg, 
al. m. a. \. cum pro causa bcfg. 9. contempnendus cefg, corr. in 
censendus ad. II. vol. vel min. op. ag, op. min. ceteri. 12. quidani 
in ras. a, quod pro quidam bfg. 14. quodque ag, queque i. 14. do- 
num ag. 16. plus, alio quam i, alio, al. m. ad. 10, 17. suo soc. celt, 
soc. suo ceteri. 16. istud i; ib. exacc. cst ceteri. iS. exactori cch, 
exactore ceteri. 20. nec cupit ceteri. 21. honoris bg, cnrr. in 
oneris ad; ib. non om. bcefg. al. m. ad ; ib. lit om. i. 2?. complet ceteri, 
2(i. eius iiidicium assumi et bfg; eius iudicium vel officium et, acei v\cl 
om. ce, at. m. a, off. in ras. a), iudicium cancell. d. 21'). per eum 
illud bfg, penes om., spaciitm relictum e. 29. sed est bcefg, corr. in 
eius a; ib. osum bceg, esuin /. 3i. ewangeliura adf. 



3i. Migne Patres Latini 76, 1093. 



8o 



IOHANNIS WYCLIF 



fCap.VI. 



Thc law Unde ad excludendum talia sophismata dyaboli scripte 
0l extortfons? Cl1 sunt rnille lcges a papis et sanctis doctoribus, ut 
5. decrctalium l)c Symonia cap. I. precipitur: 'Pro ordi- 
nacione igitur, cartis atquc pastellis eum qui ordinatur 
omnino aliquid dare prohibemus.' Et i questione 3, cap. 5 
Si quis obiecerit, tollitur hoc sophisma, ubi dicitur, 
'quod licet ecclesia non possit esse hic sine tcmporali- 
bus, sicut nec anima sine corpore, tamen quisquis 
alterum horum vendit dei iudicium non evadet. Nullus 
ergo ematvel vendat aliquod ecclesiasticum nec pastcllum i<> 
vcl pastum ante vel postea pro hoc solvat.' Et gravis 
pena inponitur episcopo incidenti in illud vicium per se 
vel ministrum, ut patet i questione i, cap. Qiiitquid. 
Et idem est iudicium de quocunque quod episcopus in 
quantum huiusmodi, vel clericus in quantum clericus i5 
populo administrat, cum enim debet in omnibus talibus 
esse minister dei, qui supra humanam operacionem 
ministranti et operanti dat graciam ad devotum mini- 
sterium sortis sue. Quam blasfema foret presumpcio 
vendere tam cupide tam spirituale ministerium quod 20 
Christus Matth. 10 precepit gratis dari! Unde ex con- 
silio Romane ecclesie 1 questione 1 sic scribitur: 'Dictum 
est solere in quibusdam locis pro pcrcepcione crismatis 
nummos dari, similiter pro baptismo et comunione. Hec 
symoniace heresis detestata est sinodus et anathemati- 2r 
savit, et ut de cetero nec pro ordinacione, nec pro 
crismate vel baptismo vel balsamo, nec pro sepultura 
vel communione quitquam exigatur, statuit; sed gratis 
dona dei gratuita dispensacione donentur. 'Quotlibet 
sunt leges huiusmodi, sed ex ignorancia populi et desidia 3o 
episcopi cum cautela dyaboli sunt sopite. 



1. ad cdh, al. m. e, om. cctcri; ib. scripte om. h. 2. ut om. bf. 
3. in 5 afg. 4. ord. aut seu cartis bcef, seu ceteri; ib. aut pastellis ag. 
5. cap. om. cetcri. 6. abiecerit h. 7. quelibet bcefg, corr. in quod licet 
8. quisque ceteri. 9. alitcr a, alter bfg; ib. evadit cetcri. 10. vend. 
aut enii i. 12. iudiciiim i, cnrr. ex viciium a. i3. pro cap. : Et non 
idem abefg, non c. i5. in qu. cl. om. h, al. m. d. 16. deb. 1. o. t. bfh, 
i. o. t. d. ccteri. 17. oper. — 18. et om. e, operacionem dh, opposicio- 
nem c, racionem ccteri. 18. min. et al. m. a, om. bcdfgh, oper. om. cdli. 
18, 19. ministrum g, corr. in ministerium a. 19. Quam om. h (rasura). 
21. 16 acefg. 23. est om. hi; ib. ut pro codices. 24. dari acdefg, 
dare ceteri; ib. que ceteri, corr. in liec d. 2?. symoniaca ceteri ; 

ib. anathematisat bcf. 26. et om. h. 27. vel bals. bcefh, om. eeteri; 
ib. vel pro bi. 29. dona Christi ceteri; ib. disp. Christi don. di 
3o. ex om. g, al. m. a; ib. et ceh, vel ceteri. 

3. Corp. iur. can., Decretal. Gregorii IX, V, 3, 1 (Fried- 
berg II, 749). 5. Ib. c. 7, C. I, q. 3 (FrieJberg I, 4 1 3 J ; verbis 
compluribus mutatis. i3. Ib. c. 101, C. 1, q. 1 (I, 398). 

21. Matth. 10, 8. 22. Corp. iur. c. io5, C. 1, q. 1 (I, 399). 



CAP. VI.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



Tercioquidem dicitur quod citator vel scurra alius emet The bisho 
... rr- • .. , * ,■ • ,, otliccrs are 

ab episcopo vel clenco suo ofhcium taha denerendt, et nle t o buy th 

exigit fraude diaboli pecuniam maiorem vel minorem pro 

ofticio deferendi; et sic de denariis confessionis, de munus- 

5 culis pro baptismalibus calide introductis, ita quod sicut 

benediccio vertitur in malediccionem, sic elemosinarum 

collacio vertitur in exaccionem, et episcopalis dotacio in 

rapture populi preparacionem. Et hoc oportet, cum 

pompantes de potestate sua spirituali ultra sanctos 

toapostolos, tanquam alter Roboam hgurant divisionem 
ecclesie per heresim symoniacam, sicut Roboam per 
pompam inhnitum minus malam hguravit scissionem 
regni Salomonis per Jeroboam, ut notat Crisostomus 
Omelia i Operis Inperfecti. Quomodo, rogo, episcopus 

iSdotatus pingwiter cum bonis pauperum conducit care 
garciones pro custodiendis equis superhuis, et innumeros 
ministros curiosos, inpertinentes episcopali ofhcio et 
tamen non curat neglecta provisione ministrorum sui 
ofhcii mille modis comittere symoniam? Vel ergo 

20 habeat ministros ad hoc quibus plene subveniat de 
bonis comunibus, vel omittat inhcere populum lepra 
symoniaca, cum debet sanare oves morbidas et non 
prius mundas insanabiliter maculare. Quomodo, queso, 
requireret hdelis episcopus a ministro suo fructum com- 

25 positum de servicio mundano, quod sibi attinet, et de 
spirituali ministerio comunis ecclesie minus curat, 
ymo ministros suos, vel ob favorem seculi, vel ut 
habeat eos pro viliori precio, permittit multipliciter 
symoniace evagari? Non dubium mundus, non deus, est 

3o effectualiter deus talis inhdelis episcopi, cum mundi 
ofhcium magis curat; debet enim episcopus de bonis 
pauperum precise quantum est necessarium ad sui 



I. pro tercio: modo ceteri; ib. quid ahi ; ib. ci in ras. (in citator) /;, 
lectator ce. lecator cetcri. 2. talia — 4. oflicio al. m. h. 3 exiget bfg. 
4. de anle den. om. bcef, al. m. a. 5. baptismate ceteri. 6, 7. elemosine 
colleccio ceteri. 9. de peccato afg; ib. suo abfg. 10. faciunt abfg, 
corr. in figurant d, faciant ce, tingant d; ib. divisionem ceh, corr. ex 
dyoce im d, dyocesim ceteri. 12. minus om. bcefg; ib. malam bcefh, 
malum ceteri ; ib. ministravit ceteri, corr. in figuravit d: ib. scissionem 
al. m. h. i3. regni bdfh, corr. in rei <7, regnum g. rei ci, regum e. 
16. carciones bcefg. 19/Vel igitur ceteri 22. salvare abcefg, corr. in 
sanare d. 24. requireret c. h, corr. e.x requirit d, rcquirerit <?, qucrit /",■ 
requirit ceteri. 24. fructum — 26. minist. om. abcefg, al. m. d. 

24, 25. compotum h. 28. leviori prccio c. 29. Indubie ceteri; ib. non 
om. bcefg, al m. ad. 3o. effect. cnrr. in efficienter d; ib. deus om. tcefg, 
al. m. ad; ib. ep inf. ceteri. 32. precise h, corr. e.x persone d, per- 
sone /, per se ceteri. 



i3. Joannis Opp., t.VI in Migne, Patrologia, Patres Graeci, t. 56. 

6 



82 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. VI. 



ministcrium consumere cum timore, et cum haheat omnia 
hona sua in comuni, residuum provide dispensare. 
Dehct cnim quicunque episcopus habere quecunque 
talia quc occupat tamquam hona paupcrum in comuni, 
ut patet ex allegata lege Gregorii Pervenit, i questione 2, 5 
cap. Pastor ecclesie et cap. sequenti, Si qnis >wn vult, 
cum multis cis similihus; et racio religionis Christi 
It wouid bc ad illud necessitat. Ex quibus convincitur exigencia, 
bishop to havc quod tucius et perfeccius foret episcopum habcre pure 
necessaries alimenta et tegumcnta, ut precipit apostolus 1 Thim. 6, 10 
than to bo quam quantamlihet affhienciam temporalium quibus 
cndowcd. ecclesia est dotata, quia quantum ad personam pastoris 
pertinet eque, parce et moderate pascere corpus 
suum, et quantum ad peregrinum et laycale ofticium 
de deffendendo ac distribuendo bona pauperumiS 
patet, quod ncdum adiacet grande periculum, sed 
error maximus, cx quo totum genus hominum 
symoniace est infectum. Et hoc movebat me sepe dicere 
quod domini temporales debent auferre temporalia ab 
ecclesia delinquente. Docet enim Gregorius quod prelati 20 
incurrunt antichristinam heresim propter inprovidam 
distribucionem bonorum pauperum onerose familie, 
militibus, et cognatis; et 1 questione 2 docet decretum 
Jeronimi in cap. Cler.cos: 'Clericos,' inquit, 'illos con- 
venit ecclesie stipendiis sustentari, quibus parentum et 25 
propinquorum nulla bona suffragantur. Qui autem ex 
bonis parentum et suis opibus sustentari possunt, si quod 
pauperum est accipiunt, sacrilegium profecto comittunt 
et per abusionem talium iudicium sibi manducant et 
bibunt'. Unde quod omnia episcopi debent esse co- 3o 
munia, scribitur eadem questione capitulo finali: 'Clerici 
omnes qui ecclesie fideliter vigilanterque deserviunt, 
stipendia sanctis laboribus debita secundum servicii sui 

1. constimcre al m. h; ib. habct ceteri. 2. providerc /. 3. habet bfg, 
corr. in habere ad. 5. Provenit abefg, add triplex lex Cffg 6. cap. 
Past. dh, cap. om. cetfri; ib. lege seqii. ceteri. corr. in cap. ad 7. Chri- 
stianc bcefg. 8. ad om. hcefg, ill. nuncciat bfg. corr. ilt neccss. a ; ib. cxig. 
om. abcJefg. 9. que hi. 10. 1 om. ceteri; Thlt. /. 11. quantalibet affiucn- 
cia bceffi. i3." parce al. m. h i5. diticndcndo h. 17. tantum bcefg, 
corr. in totum a. iq. seculares ceteri. 2;. bon. temporalium ceteri; 
ib. fam. al. m. a. om. g. 21. Gregorii g, corr. in Jcron. a; ib. in c. Cl. 
nm. ceteri. 25. et om. bcefg, al. m. a. 27. bonis g, corr. in opcri- 
bus a, opcribus h ct ceteri; ib. si illud quod ceteri. 29. ambicioncm h. 
3o. quia ceteri. 3i. in eadem ceteri. 32. des. vig. ceteri. 

5. Corp. iur. can. c. i3, C. 1, q. 3 (Friedb. I, 417). 6. Ib. 
c. 7 et ci, C. i, q. 2 (I, 409, 410). 11. I Tim., 6, 8. 

23. Corp. iur. c. 6, C. 1, q. 2 (I, 409). 3i. Ib. c. 10 (I, 411). 



CAP. VI.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



83 



meritum per ordinacionem canonum a sacerdotibus con- 

sequantur'. Et preter illud consilium sancte ecclesie in 

eadem questione ex libro Prosperi sic habetur in cap. 

Sacerdos: 'Sacerdos', dicit glossa 'id est quilibet prela- 

5 tus, cui dispensacionis cura comissa est, non solum sine 

cupiditate sed eciam cum laude pietatis accipit a populo 

dispensanda, et fideliter dispensat accepta, quia omnia 

sua aut parentibus reliquit, aut pauperibus distribuit, 

aut ecclesie rebus adiunxit et se in numero pauperum 

10 paupertatis amore constituit, ut bene pauperibus sub- 

ministrat inde et ipse tamquam pauper voluntarius vivat.' 

Mille sunt tales leges ex quibus patenter convin- The laws 
. . . . , inculcatine 

citur, quod a papa et cunctis episcopis usque ad saccr- p0 verty are 

dotem infimum omnes pure clerici debent vivere vitam {j^argumcnts 

i5pauperem in comuni, quod si perversum est. patet quante for evading 
symoniaca heresis est hodie dilatata. Nec sanant mor- 
bum paliate procuraciones de quibus V. decreto, titulo 
De Symonia, cap. Cnm sit Romana, quia ille intelliguntur 
de gratis datis, non exactis stipendiis fideliter labo- 

20 rantibus ministratis, quando bona ecclesie aliunde non 
suppetunt. Nec valet secunda infamis ficticia, qua dici- 
tur quod de lege nature homo debet primo subvenire 
parentibus et cognatis, quia hoc habet colorem illis in 
maiori vel pari necessitate positis, ut ab indigencia rele- 

25 ventur, non ut mundo incliti et nobiles exaltentur. Nec 
valet tercia ficticia, qua dicitur quod dignitas status 
episcopalis in familia, in ornatu et sumptuosis expensis 
hec exigit, quia dignitas Christi et apostolorum in 
summa pauperie sine talibus rutilavit. Et patet de 

3o symonia episcopi in ingressu et progressu et de symonia 
in egressu est maxime formidandum, quia quotquot 
defendunt huiusmodi oppositum in vita et opere, per- 
sequentes simplices promulgantes istam sentenciam tam- 
quam hereticos et hoc usque finem vite sine resipis- 

35 cencia, videntur esse presciti filii dyaboli indurati. 



t, 2. sequantur h. 3, 4. in cap. Sacerdotes dli, om. ceteri. 4. Saccr- 
dos ef. sacerdotcs ceteri. 7. a pop. acc. i. q. rcb eccl. ag. 11. nndc 
panp. bcdefh, corr. in bene a ; ib. et ipse al. m. h. 12. Millc ch, corr. ex 
multc e. multe celeri; tales om. h. i3. a cunct. ;'. 14. pure ceh, univcrsa- 
litcr ceteri. i5. perversio abfg. 16. hcr. ho. dil. c ag ; ib. sanat abcefg. 
17. procuracionis atf; ib. ' in quinto. ccteri; ib dccretalium ceteri. 
20. ministratis eh, ministris ceteri, corr. in ministratis d. 23. in illis ci, 
in al. m. a 24 in pari i. 25. ct om. bdi. 26. stat. tcmporalis bcefg. 
28. quid dign. bdi. 3o. ct om. ceteri. 32. modi om. bcft:. 33. pro- 
vulgantes istas senteiicias ag. 34. usqu. ad fin. ceteri; ib. suc sine abgi. 
35. viderit i; ib. prelati abcg, prcfati di. 



3. Ib. c. 9 (I, 410). 18. Decr. Grcg.V, 3, 10 (Friedberg II, 75 1 j. 

6 - : 



«4 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. VII. 



CAP. VII. 

Simony among Ulterius restat videre quomodo religiosi possessionati 

the cndowcd ■ r j » r* j » i 

ordcrs. symoniaca heresi sunt fedati. redantur enim Iepra 

symoniaca in ingressu, in progressu et comuniter in 

egressu. In ingressu utrimque acceptor et acceptus. 5 

Acceptor quando data adopcione de persona plus 

religiosa preponit propter sanguinem, propt r divicias vel 

causam temporalem huiusmodi minus aptum; vendunt 

enim religionem et ordinem et statum sui ordinis, que 

est res valde spiritualis, et hoc inordinate pro comodo 10 

temporali, ergo iuxta descripcionem sunt ut sic symoniaci. 

Sic enim possent ex infecta eleccione ordinem sanctum 

subvertere. Et idem est iudicium de accepcione precii 

ex pacto vel consuetudine pro cocliari, pro cipho vel 

huiusmodi ornamento. Unde i questione 2, cap. Nullus i5 

precipit Urbanus II quod 'nullus abbas precium exigere 

vel sumere ab hiis qui ad conversionem veniunt aliqua 

placiti observacione presumat. Regulam antiquam sequens, 

nulli, umquam, de ordinacionibus aliquid omnino acci- 

piendum esse constituo'. Et patet ex racione et multis 20 

Corrodies legibus. Ex quo videtur, quod corrodiorum comuta.iones 

unlawful. sunt iHicite, quia symoniace, cum ius vescendi bonis 

pauperum inordinate valde pro temporali precio comu- 

tatur et per consequens spirituale inordinate emitur 

valde civiliter pro precio temporali. Inordinacio enim 25 

patet ex hoc quod emens corrodium desperat de ordi- 

nacione dei pro ipso quo ad vite necessaria contra 

evangelium Math. 6. Secundo dat occasionem ociandi 

et religiosos subvertendi contra legem Bede in epistola 



3. sunt al. m. h. 4. et progr. ceteri. 4, 5. et com. — egressu 
om. ceteri, al. m. add. d, sed similiter legit pro comuniter. 5. utrum- 
que ce, uterque ceteri.. 8. caus. specialem temp. f. 9. vel statum ceteri. 
12. possunt abcefg ; ib. ord. suum i, corr. ex sanctum ad. i3. pervert. gi. 
14. cx consuet. dfi. 14, i5. vel alio huiusm. c, alio corr. ex altero d, 
alterius e, altero ceteri. i5. cap. null. om. abcefg, al. m. d. 16. pre- 
cipitur abfg, precepit ;',• ib. Urb. II om. abcef. 17. sumere debet ab aogi; 
ib. concursionem 1; ib. convcniunt h. 17, 18. alia pl. bcef; ib placita 
codicei, Friedb. in textu; al pacti occasione. alii vero cod. pl. obs. 
18. presumant bc. 19. inquam ceteri; ib. d. ord. al. :', al d. ord. ceteri ; 
ib. omnino om. h. 21. legib. ista sentencia ceteri; ib. comut. al. m. h. 
22. bona bcefg. 24, 25. val. em. civ. ag. 25. In ordinando bcef. 

26. quod omnes abcdef, omne ceteri. 26, 27. corr. — ord. om. b. 

27. domini ceteri; ib. qui dhi. 28. Christi Math. ceteri ; ib. occ. d. ag. 
29. leg. om. i. 

14. Corp. iur. c. 2, C. t, q. 2 (Friedberg I, 408). 
21. De corrodio vocabulo cf. Ducange Glossarium s. v. conredium 
et addenda. 28. Matth. 6, 25 seqq. 



CAP. VII.] DE SIMONIA. 85 

ad episcopum Eboracensem. Et tercio prodit fundatores et 

pauperes. Fundatores, quia ubi religiosi ordinarunt pau- 

peres vivere de suis elemosinis, mundi divites voluptuose 

et irreligiose consumunt ipsas sacrilege; nec dubium quin 

3 talium bonorum substraccio de tanto defraudat pauperes. 

Et quo ad venditores patet quod commercium procedit 

ex ficta ydolatria qua avare concupiscunt pecuniam : By con-odies 

. , . , . ,. , • the house 

per ldem enim possent muitiplicare seculares m suis m jght be tiiied 

cenobiis, quousque omnes redditus domus vix vel minus Wlt " secu,ars - 

ioeis sufficerent et sic domum religiosam destruerent, 
quod in multis locis contingit in Anglia ; nec evadi 
potest quin de oracionibus fundatorum secundum formam 
donacionis et obligacionis de tanto subtrahitur. Nec 
dicetur racio quin per idem liceret pro precio mercari 

i5cum prelato, episcopo vel abbate et per idem cum 
uxore in novis nundinis, quod est contra legem pape 
humilis Bonifacii i questione 2 cap. Qitam pio, ubi 
alloquitur volentes mercari abbatem suum pro precio 
quod non licet. 'Nunquam', inquit, 'legimus domini 

20 discipulos vel eorum ministerio conversos, quempiam 
ad dei cultum aliquo muneris interventu provocasse, 
nisi forte de pauperum alimento quis in comune pro- 
ponat quorum nulli cuiuscunque professionis essent 
victualia negabantur'. Et ex illa lege sanctissima patet 

23primo, quomodo ex carencia testimonii scripture que 
includit omnem veritatem ut est noscibilis, negat inter 
religiosos esse tale mercimonium celebrandum. Et utinam 
ista racio esset hodie in honore! Tunc enim excluderetur 
nedum corrodiorum vendicio sed religiosorum symoniaca 

3o induccio. Patet secundo quod in primitiva ecclesia omnia 
temporalia erant cuicunque religioso egenti comunia, 
sicut fuit in maxima religionis data apostolis per spiritum 
sanctum Act. 4. 'Erant, inquit, illis omnia communia.' 



1. et om. ag. 2. ordinaverant d, ordinaverunt ceteri. 3. suis al. 
m. h. 5. abstraccio ceteri. 8. multiplicari bcg. 9. homines et 
reddit. bcfg, homines redd e; ib. et domus a 10. sufficiant abcfg. 

11. quia in bcef. corr. in quod a. 12 oracionibus i, corr ex oratoribus d, 
oratoribus ceteri. i5. ut ep. afg, vcl ep. ceteri. 17. benelicii g. corr. 
m Bonifacii a; ib. cap. om. ceteri ; ib. Quere pio abfg, Quem pio ce, 
piam d, pium /'. 21. mun. al. i. 22. pro in comune: inquam g, in 
quem b, commune in ras. a (Friedb. in textu inconcinne; in communc 
AB legunt). 23. esset abfg 25, 26. que continue incl. abcdfg ; que 
incl. cont. e. 28. excluderentur ceteri. 29, vendiciones /'. 32. reli- 
gionis ch, religione ceteri. 33. ut patet Act. /',- ib. omnia ill. h. 

1. Epistola ad Egbertum episcopum; v. Bedae Opera omnia, 
ed. Giles, I, 108, praecipue pag. 118 seqq., i3o, i3G. 17. Corp. 
iur. c. 2, C. 1, q. 2 (l, 408). 33. Act. 4, 32. 



86 



JOHANNIS WYCUF 



[CAP. VII 



Istam autcm religionem non impediret Ioci vel ritus 

l'overty would diversitas. Ideo ad excludendum discolos qui nolunt 
keep out from . . . . ... 

the ranks ot laborare, sed porcionem mordinate exigere, securum est 
the clergy tliose et ewangelicum de nudis vite necessariis contentari. Et 

wno take orders O 

only for the tercio patet racio huius papalis consilii. 'Scimus enim', 5 
sake of pav. • , 

mquit, quod "omne datum optimum et omne donum 

perfectum desursum est, descendens a patre luminum", 

a quo bone voluntatis donum accepit qui sancto deli- 

beracionis arbitrio gratis deo servire disponit. Restat 

ergo ut qui pro aliqua divini doni suscepcione munus 10 

acceperit vel dederit, donum dei symoniace vendit vel 

emit'. Et servata ista lege pauci seducerentur per in- 

gressum in religiones privatas pro comodo temporali, 

quia nescitur si donum patris luminum ad hoc aptat, 

quod si faciat, aptatus a deo non debet propter retri- i5 

bucionem temporalem vel comodum excitari, et multo 

minus emptor corrodii non debet loco oratoris religiosi 

pro precio acceptari. Nec valent fuci infames, quibus 

ista symonia subtegitur: primo, quod corrodium pure 

temporale emitur. Nam Gall. 6, scribit apostolus:2o 

'Nolite errare fratres, deus non irridetur.' Illa, inquam, 

inordinacio, qua donum dei comutatur temporali comer- 

cio, est dampnata, ut patet t questione 3, in principio, 

et eadem questione cap. Si quis obiecerit. Secundo 

obicitur per hoc, quod cenobium, cuius sunt bona, 25 

necessitatur propter casus fortuitos cum bonis propriis 

se iuvare. sed idem est argumentum pseudoprelati 

vendentis ccclesias vel alia dona dei. Item vix aut 

nunquam cadit domus religiosa in penuriam eciam ex 

sua stulticia, quin melius et religiosius poterit se iuvare;3o 



i. autem om. ag; ib. impedict abg, impedirent di; ib. loici dt. 
i. ritus duritas g, corr. in diversitas a. '}. sed om. ceg, al. m. a; 
ib. sed personam t. 5. enim om. ceteri. y. 1. a. p. i. 8. donum 
al. m. //, domini cefg; ib. accipit ceteri. 8, q. libacionis pro delib. //. 
q. disposuit bi. 10. divini bdeh, om. ceteri; ib. domini fg, corr. in doni a, 
doni at. m. d (Friedberg, Corp. iur.: aliq. ecclesiae susc). n. rece- 
perit ag ; ib. dei don. bcdef, ei dou. g, corr. in ei a. l3. in om. cefg. 
14. dei patris a; ib. aptat abcefh, aptant celeri. H>. excecari d; ib. mul- 
tum acef. 19. sub om. i; ib. primo //, puta ceteri 20. ad Gal. ag, 
2 abcef, 5 ceteri. 22. comutatur ;'. 24. cap. otn. abcefg; obiceret i. 
25. s. hec bona ceteri. 27. seminare g, corr. in se iuvare a ; add. non 
possunt omnes practer ceh. 27. prelati — 3o. iuvare al. m. h. 
28. elemosinas corr. in eccl. /1, eccl. corr.ex elem. a; ib. cum vix celeri ; 
ib. vix vel cdi. 29. deo pro domus f; ib. irreligiosa h; ib. in pen. om. 
abcefg; eciam .7/. m. di, ecclesia af. 

5. V. not. ad pag. 85, v. 17. Compluria verha mutata sunt. 
G. Jac. I, v. 17. 20. Gal. G, v. 7. 2?. c. 1 seqq., C. 1, 
q. 3 (I, 41 1) et ib. c. 7 (I, 41 3). 



CAP. VII.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



87 



sicut enim casualiter pauperatur sic meritorie paciatur. 
Item casu seculi vel eventu celi potest cenobium indisponi 
faciliter ut sit inpotens ad retribuendum temporalia 
que sic vendit. Nam in mercandia civili emens capit 
3 comuniter totum emptum simul prius quam det pre- 
cium. Sed in ista comutacione stulta vendicio non 
sufrtcit assecurare ementem, sed patronus tenetur con- 
tractum de elemosina sua dissolvere, et sic privato 
emptore corrodio, quando contractus foret illicitus, 

lonunquam gustaret aliquid de corrodio quod sic emit; 
ideo dicitur quod antequam pauperatus faceret talem 
contractum, permitteret et procuraret totam domum 
suam dissolvi in seculo relevatus. Primum enim repugnat 
legi dei involvens peccatum quod homo non faceret 

iSeciam pro salvacione tocius mundi, quanto magis pro 
salvacione nove adinvencionis humane stulte facte, cum 
non sit exemplatum in lege Christi quod fiant tales 
perpetue elemosine private, ideo indubie ordinacio dei 
foret undiquaque melior ut patet alibi. Unde consilium 

20 pape predictum dictaret talia privata conventicula dis- 
solvi, cum dissipant legem Christi. Sed dimittendo istam 
materiam particulariter ipsam studentibus, patet quanta 
symonia comittitur a religiosis prelatis ad prelacias 
aspirantibus, quia quotquot temporali munere, humano 

25 favore vel medio mundano voluerint sic prefici in suo 
ordine, tanquam excomunicati heretici incurrunt lepram 
symoniacam in ingressu, et sic eciam quicunque novicius 
cupierit talem ordinem propter quietem temporalem 
seu corporalem, propter lautum pastum vel propter 

3o mundanam excellenciam ultra hoc quod haberet in 
seculo, est statim symoniacus, quia spiritualem digni- 
tatem vel statum ordinis cupit nimius inordinate propter 
comodum temporale. Ideo vellem nostros consulere 
spiritum sanctum antequam intrarent talem ordinem ; si 



Danger Ihat a 
religious house 
niay be unable 
to fulfil its 
pecuniary 
engagemcnts. 



Simony 
committed l-y 
religious 
aspiring to 
prelacies. 



2 casualiter vel ag, casuali bc; casu simili di; ib. celi cdeh, tali ceteri. 
4- mercacione i, corr. ex mercandia a. 6, venditor ceteri. 9. emptore ch, 
corr. ex emptoris d, cmptoris ceteri. 10. qui sic ceteri. 11. quod 
al. m. h; ib. paupertetur abfg, p. om. c. 12. perm. eh, promitteret ceteri. 
|3. ministerio dei pro in sec. ceteri ; ib. revelatus bfi, corr. in revel. d. 
14. legi ceh. legem ceteri. i5. pr. s. ec i. 18. populi pro perp. abefg. 
19. pro undiq. tamquam abceg. und. corr. ex tamquam d; ib. medium bg, 
corr. in mclior ad. 20. predicta conv. i. 21. Chr. h. Chr. et dei df, 
dci ceteri. 22. stud. ceh, scrutantibus ceteri. 24, 25. fav. hum. i. 
25. mund. med. ceteri. 28, 29. temp. seu om. adfg. 29. seu corp. 
om. c, alias corp. b. 3o. humanam exc. ag ; ib haberent acg, herent e. 
3i. specialem ag ; ordinem g, corr. in dign. a. 32. capit./', al. m. h; 
ib. nimis inord. acefg, nim. om. ceteri. 33. Ideo — 1 (pag. 88). tempo- 
rale al. m. h. 34. s. pro spir. sanct. abg, corr. in sp. s. d; ib. intraret /, 
corr. in intrent d, introirent i. 



88 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. VII. 



comodum temporale pensatur, symonia incurritur; si 
perfeccio ordinis ponderatur, ordo Christi et apostolorum, 
qui cunctis est patulus, est quocunque ordine privato 
prestancior. 

Sitaony enters Quantum ad progressum in istis possessionatis ordi- b 

'"itffeol the J nibus patet quod ducuntur symonia in inpetracione, 

possessioners i n disnensacione et in temnoralium oubernacione. In 

distnbuting and lmpetracione non solum per mendacium atque ypo- 

their^propefty ■ c i"isim inpetrando a secularibus dominis in perpetuam 

cspecially in elemosinam reditus, et nrovcntus, nec solum impetrando io 
appropnations. .. .. . r . 

talia dominia cum bonis pauperum, quod est omnino 

symoniacum, scd in hoc potissime quod falsis sugge- 

stionibus talibus convcntibus appropriantur ecclesie. Cum 

enim ecclesiarum parrochialium elemosinis sustentarentur 

seculares clerici qui libere docerent et predicarent in i5 

parrochiis suis et alibi ewangelicam veritatem, per 

appropriaciones tales clericis talibus secularibus necessa- 

rium instrumentum subtrahitur, et fructus predictus 

indubie cautela diaboli a matre nostra suspenditur. Ideo 

dicit Lincolniensis in quodam sermone ad papam, post- 20 

quam numeravit defectus in cura pastoralis officii: 

'Cuni,' inquit, 'religiosis fit ecclesiarum parrochialium 

appropriacio pretactorum malorum firma est perpetua- 

cio', quia malis pastoribus temporalibus aliquando suc- 

cedere potuerunt qui opera peragant officii pastoralis. 25 

Nec solum hoc dampnum spirituale contingit ecclesie, 

sed ubi rectores multiplicarent gentem, pascerent plebem, 

et spiritualiter gignerent Christianum populum, pre- 

dicti dissipatores in globoso latibulo subtrahunt gentem 

regnis, depascunt pauperes loca ecclesie parrochialis 3o 

incollentes, et filios dyaboli parturiunt regnorum et 

dominorum temporaltum destructivos. 

1. tale corr. in temporale d, tale ceteri ; ib. inc. sym. ceteri. 2. pre- 
da.ur acefg. 3. est oin. g, al. m. a. 0. ducuntur, in marp. ditantur b; 
dicuntu r. ;'« mar^. ducuntur c, ducuntur e, ditantur g ; ib. svmoniaca abcefg, 
in om. abeg. 7 in disp. om. abcen, al. m. d. 7. et om. i. 9. im- 
perpetuum i. i5. cl. sec. i. 16. ct om. cde ; ib. alibi om d; pro alibi: 
quod ceteri. 17. appropriaciones dh, appropriatos ceteri. 22. sit abce. sic 
cetcri 23. pretactarum malarum g, corr in orum a. 24, 25. ante succ. 
pot. bf, corr. in aliqu. a. anna s. p. h ; succ. p. al. *. 25. que ceteri ; ib. pera- 
gant ceh, peragunt ceteri. 27. plebem - 29. gentem al. m d, om. f. 
28. pop. Chr. ceteri. 20. et gl. dgi ; ib. glorioso abg. 3o. regis bf, 
corr. in regnis a, regimims cde. 32. dominiorum ag, ib. destructivos h, 
d in las ., destrucciOnis bcfgi, destruccionem e. 

20. Line-olniensis, i. e. Robert Grosseteste, clarissimus Lin- 
colniensis episcopus. Locus hic laudatus apuJ Brown, Fascicul. 
Rerum Kxpetendarum (Lond. 1000). II., 254 legitur. 



CAP. VII.] DE SIMONIA. 89 

Patet autem in istis lepra heresis symoniace. Primo Proofs of 

ex hoc quod comutant et vendant statum perfeccionis S 'heresy: a 

vite exproprietarie pro questu modico temporali; sed pg r ^c t ^o n S fo r 

hoc est expresse lepra symoniaca: ergo in hoc quod money. 

5 ecclesias vel quicquid aliud temporale perpetuo sibi 

appropriant, cadunt in heresim supradictam. Et hec 

est racio quare apostoli et alii exproprietarii nolue- 

runt dulcedinem primevam deserere. Secundo patet II. Falsehood 
.. •.«■•• /■ ..■ 1 • d » in pretending: 

ldem ex triphci forma suggestioms mendacis; hngunt a j t [, at t | ie p0 p e 

ioautem pape et aliis personis mediis tantam egenciam and clergy are 
quod cum possessione priori non sufficiunt vivere 
nec sufferre onus ecclesie. Hoc autem est tam vere- 
cundum mendacium, quod calculato numero persona- 
rum et distributis redditibus per porciones equales 

oquilibet eorum sufficeret expendere mille marcas, et de 

longe minori porcione vixerant Christus et apostoli et 

patres ordinis sui in primevis temporibus. Secundo b) that 

. ... ...... appropriations 

suggerunt quod non ex tlla approprtacione dampmhca- must be good 

retur sed edificaretur ecclesia, quia aliter nec papa nec ^ r t J{fe C p"p C ! h 

20 aneelus de celo posset talem appropriacionem statuere, would not 
o c o j \. j allow them. 

ut patel Kom. 8 et 1 5. Sed totus mundus et papa et 

ydiote noverunt mendacium. Tercio vero promittunt, 

ut oportet, quod defendunt ius et statum ecclesie non 

deteriorando sed meliorando matrem ecclesiam, quia 

25 aliter liceret contrarium, ita quod prima sugestio appro- 
priacionis est mendicantis egencia. Secunda suggestio 
est antc omnes alios egentes in illis necessitatis pre- 
eminencia: nam si in aliis foret utilius ecclesie appro- 
prians non mediocriter peccaret subtrahendo vel omit- 

3o tendo tantum bonum matris ecclesie. Et tercia sugestio 
est in melioracione matris ecclesie constans perseveran- 
cia; constat quidem quod nec pape nec angelo de celo 
licet appropriare ecclesiam falsificante aliquo horum 
trium, sed quecunque appropriacio fundata super isto 

35 mendaci tripode destruenda est de lege dei, tanquam 
nidus sacrilege symonie. Tercio principaliter convincitur 



I. sym. her. celeri. 5. quodquam c, quicquam ceteri. 7. est om. dfh. 
8 dcferre ag. o, 10. tingunt cnim ceteri. 10. ct al. episcopis et pers. 
abg, ct episc. post mediis i. i5. centum marc. acdefg. 16. vixerunt 
ceteri. 20. appr. lalem abcefg. 21. Rom. 18 et i5 befg, 84 et i5 d. 
14 et i5 h. 21. 22. pape ydiote ceteri. 28. in illis ag ; si appr. ag. 
3l. est — eccl. al. m. h; ib. melioracio bceg. 3i, 32. const. pers. ceh, 
const. ex pers ceteri. 32, 33. de celo lic. ag, nec lic. p. n. ang. d c. h, 
lic de c. ceteri. 33. falsitate abcefg. 35. mendacii acefg; ib. tripede /;. 
36. symoniace i; ib. convinc. dli, comittitur ceteri. 



21. Rom. 8, 38 et 1 5, 18. 



qo JOHANNIS WYCr.IF [CAP. VII. 

III. Simony symoniaca appropriacio ex comutacione illicita tcmpo- 
rtie way money ralis muneris propter illam; taceo autem quantum datur 

' S to'obtain d F rac ' a appropriacionis pro acquirendo patronatu, pro 

appropriations habenda a rege licencia ad appropriandum et pro data 

acTvowsons^aiKi peccunia appropriantibus. Nec refert, sive illud datum 5 

licensesand s j t capiti, sive medic persone procuranti, sive nunccio 
secunng tavour. 1 » . * . ' . ' . . 

pro illo facinore laboranti. Nam infecta mendaci radice 

totum consentaneum concomitans est infectum ; ut cum 

patronatus preexigitur cum communitate cui fieri debet 

appropriacio, vidctur quod acquirens appropriacionem io 

gracia talis finis sit symoniacus, quia propter finem 

talis appropriacionis principaliter parat media sumptuosa 

et per consequens inordinate emit linem illum. Sic 

enim emit quis regnum celorum inordinate, dum sine 

oleo devocionis facit gracia huius opus bonum de i5 

genere, ut patct Math. 6, et iterum persona communi- 

tatis dat sibi ipsi primo talem ecclesiam, quod est 

suspecta symonia. Licet enim persona aggregata posset 

presentari parti sue plus habili ad beneticium cuius est 

patronus, ymo persona simplex posset in casu presentare 20 

se ipsam episcopo ad beneficium, cuius est patronus, 

in casu quo fuerit inter omnes plus habilis: tamen quod 

eadem persona agregata perpetuo successiva presentet 

se ipsam ad beneticium proprium, videtur esse iracio- 

nabile, potissime quia tam diutina et constans colacio25 

requirit magnam et plene prudentem noticiam de per- 

sona que sic debuit presentari, sed nec episcopus nec 

ipsa communitas scit vel topice habilitatem persone 

aggregate postmodum successure, sed nec habilitatem 

omnium membrorum persone aggregate in presenciarum, 3o 

quia sepe in talibus conventibus latet Judas. Nec 

dubium quin homo non debet auctorisare vel fovere 



1. appr. syni. ag ; ib. ex communicacione di. 6. pers. med. ceteri ; 
ib. sive necessario ag. 7. isto ceteri. 8. iniustum bcf, al. m. inlec- 
tum ad ; ib. ct bcef, corr. in ut d. 9. in pro cum ceteri ; ib. communi- 
tate ceh, corr. ex comitante d, comitantc ceteri ; ib. deb. fieri ag. 
10. patet quod i. 14. emit posl celorum ceteri. 16. ita ;'. iG, 17. com- 
munitatis beh, comutantis a, al. m. in textu om., communicans g, com- 
muuicantis ceteri. 17. ipsi sibi h, sibi corr. in scilicet g. iX. symonia 
corr ex ecclesia ag. iq. ad Otn. h. 20. patronus ceh. patronatus ceteri. 
io, 21. ymo — patr. in marg. a. 21. patronus ce, patronatlis celeri. 
22. omnes al. m. h; ib. plus humilis ag. 23. perpetue ag, successiva 
deh, successive ag. successivo ceteri 25. diutiva c, iva in ras. h, dorr.i- 
nica c, diuturna ceteri ; ib. ct om. ag. 28. scit bm.f, topice al. m. a, 
om. bcfg; com. vel cognoscit /, scit vel top. cognoscit ceteri (cogn. can- 
cell d). 3o. in futurum bfg, corr. in in pres. ad. 



16. Math. 6, 1 seqq. 



CAP. VII.] DE SIMONIA. 91 

facinus unius discoli propter omnia bona mundi, multo 

magis non debet approbare habilitatem persone pro 

futuris temporibus, cuius noticia negatur sibi a deo; 

ideo videtur quod auctorisantes talem perpetuam appro- 

5 priacionem incurrunt blasfemiam. Et hec racio est quare 

Christus et apostoli potentes, scientes et in amore 

ecclesie ferventes non fundarunt elemosinas tales per- 

petuas ut patet diffuse alibi. 

Sed obicitur de Scarioth, quem Christus elegit sciens Chrisfs 

ioipsum futurum malum, ergo nos qui debemus regulari iscarYofis^not a 

ner imittacionem factorum Christi in opere nostro debe- precedent for 
. . . . ... proiBqtmg bad 

mus m casu malum ehgere, specialiter cum simplici et priests. 

pia intencione ignorando suam maliciam. Aliter enim 

pusilanimitas impediret magnum bonum ex provisione 

1 5 tali proveniens. Ista blasfema argucia cecat multos; 
Christus enim omnisciens elegit Scarioth, ut sit por- 
tentum male prelacie future in ecclesia, et ut fructus 
tocius sue malicie prosit ecclesie, non ut peccet, ut 
patet diffuse alibi. Sed nimis est alienum ab illo, qui 

20 est vix membrum ecclesie, non caput, propter illud 
Christum ignoranter excedere ordinando in populo 
unum Judam perpetuum : recoleremus ergo, inquam, illius 
verbi Christi, Matth. 16, dicti Petro: 'Vade post me 
sathana', tunc enim non sic precederemus Christum, 

25 sicut antichristus, qui extollitur super omne quod dici- 
tur deus. Attendamus itaque ad illa que Christus fecit ut 
omnisciens et caput universalis ecclesie, et non affec- 
temus ipsum excedere vel parificari sibi in istis. nisi 
prius fuerimus caput ipsum et sic sciens. Ideo sequamur 

3o ipsum in istis, faciendo proporcionabiliter et sapienter 
quod mores sapiat, non stulte eligendo vel auctorisando 
malum peccati vel minus malum, licet magnum bonum 
divina gracia exinde eveniat, secundum doctrinam apostoli 
Rom. 3. Et sic ex stulticia preficiencium vel appro- 

1. discipiili bfg, corr. in discoli d. 2. appropriarc abcef. 3. nega- 
tur beh, corr. in negata d, nota g, corr. in negare a, negata ct ; ib. sibi beli, 
sit afg, corr. in cst d, est i. 4. Non tg. corr. in idco <j. 5. est 
racio adfg, est om. e. i>. Chr. et populi i; ib. scientes om. bcef. post 
ferventes ponunt cctcri (ad al. m ). 7. fundaverunt abdf. 10. eum 
titt. dg ; quia nos bcefg, corr. in ergo 17. II. sanctorum Chr. adf; 
ib. in n. op ceteri. 12. spiritualiter cancell. h. i3. Alter /'. 14. et ex ag. 
iG. omnia sciens adfg. 21, 22. exc. un. Jud. perp. in pop. ord. ag. 
22. ergo om. ceteri ; istius cetcri. 24. Sathan bef. Sathanas celeri. 
27. omnia sciens afg. 29. sciens al. m. h. 3o. eum bdf ; ib. prudenter 
ceteri. 3i. mores corr. ex malores /( ,- ib. sapiat ceh, sapiant ceteri. 
32. presens bcfg, corr. in peccati a, piu e. 32, 33. bonum div. ch, iu 
div. ceteri (iii cancell. d). 

23. Math. 16, 23. 34. Rom. 3, 8. 



y2 



JOHANNIS WYCIJF 



[CAP. VII. 



Simoniacal 
system of 
pensions. 



Pensions to 
religious 
houses. 



priancium tales ecclesias et ex stulticia laborancium, ut 
illis approprietur, patet appropriacionis infeccio. 

Sed ad hoc surrepit perseverancior et maior malicia 
ex pensionibus symoniacis tam in appropriatis quam 
in non appropriatis ecclesiis introductis. Nam gracia 5 
appropriacionis episcopus vel capitulum vel utrumquc 
habet pensionem annuam non dubium symoniace, quia 
propter spirituale beneficium ecclesie, ut pretendunt, et 
ista symonia est eo gravior quo in multis et in magnis 
personis est diuturnior. Sed in ecclesiis non appropriatis 10 
inducte sunt perpetue pensiones symoniace in hunc 
modum. Primo, inquam, populus cui ministrari debeat 
elegit sibi de lege dei unum episcopum vel prelatum ; 
et isto modo electi sunt sancti episcopi, quorum festa 
solennisat ccclesia, ut patet in legendis eorum. Secundo i5 
seculares domini, quia videbatur eis excellenciam sapere, 
tamquam patroni soli solos elegerant. ipsi autem con- 
sciencia ducti. Tercio dederunt patronatus religiosis con- 
ventibus, quia verisimile fuit eis quod sic exonerarentur, 
et caverent periculum, et ipsi religiosi conferrent pru- 2" 
dencius dignioribus dignitates. Et in isto tercio signo 
fundavit antichristus impensionibus perpetuam symoniam, 
nam ipsi secundum legem Luciferi dederunt eas in- 
hertibus, pro quibus potestates seculi rogabant secundum 
legem carnis, dederunt eas cognatis, licet ignaris artis 25 
spiritualis regiminis; et secundum legem mundi de- 
derunt eas servitoribus et quantumcunque inhabilibus 
volentibus plus offerre. Et de istis, sed specialiter de 
mediis, surrepserunt abbaciis omnes pensiones, quedam 
propter sanguinis gratitudinem, quedam propter fictam 3o 
domus egenciam vel sanctitatem et quedam propter reac- 
ceptam beneficii retribucionem. In talibus enim pensio 



2. approprientur acg, appropriarentur //. 3. si bf, corr in sed a; 
ib. hoc corr. in huc ds ; ib. surrepit eh, surrepsit ceteri. 5. non in ceteri. 
6. episcopos f, episcopum s, corr. in episcopus a. ~. pens. animarum 
dgi, annuam al. m. in spptio relicto e. 8. spiritualem beneficenciam 
ceteri. 9. et magnis c, et in magnis h, al. m. d; e. i. m. om. ceteri. 
11. inductive bcefg (mducte in in ras. a) ; ib. possessiones abg, corr. in 
pensiones d. 12. plebs cui bg, plebanus cui f. 14. facta abcfs, 
corr. in festa d. i5. eorum ceh, ipsorum ceteri. 16. pro videbatur: 
maculatur fs, deb. in ras. a; tb. excellencia bcefs. >:• pro solos : 
suas a, summos bc, suos ef ; ib. eligerant h ; ib. lpsa bcefg. 20. et al. 
m. h; ib. conf. om. g, al. m. a. confirmarent bcef, corr. in conferrent d. 
j3, 24. mercibus bcefg, corr. in inertibus a. 24. potentatus d, po- 
tentes ef, potestatus ceteri; ib. rogitabant abceg, corr. ex rogaverunt d. 

29. abb. perpetuc omn. i, perp. al m. d. 29, 3o, 3i. quidem pro 
quedani ceteri. 29, 3o. qucd. — gratid. om. bcefg, al. m. d. 

30, 3i, 32. pens. qucd. pr. f. dom. eg., sanct. et qued. (propt. sang. grat. 
in marg.) pr. acc. benef. retr. a. 3i. vel om. codices ; ib. quid ipsorum 
propter h. 3i. 32. et qu. — retrib. om. i. 



CAP. VII.J 



DE SIMONIA. 



9 3 



ista symoniaca per paucos annos in uno seducto est 

continuata, et in alio cautela dyaboli magis symoniaca 

et demum ex lege proscripcionis Luciferi tamquam de 

lege dei iustissime debitum vendicata; statuunt enim sibi 

5 pro lege hoc porisma dyaboli, quod nequissima symonia 

ex prescripcione vel diutiva conswetudine contrahit 

robur legis, ac si diceretur quod antiqua malicia conti- 

nuata per membra dyaboli prescripcione prevalet contra 

Christum. Patet ista induccio ex particularibus cronicis 

ioet ex carencia munimenti alterius ostendenda. Sed in The Popc's 

... • . claim to collate 

quarto signo blasphemo, super quo non quiescit deus, to all feenefices, 

vendicat sibi papa collaciones omnium beneficiorum and its evil 
r r , . consequcnces. 

ecclesie ex lege principalis domini super toto patri- 
monio crucifixi, et hinc currit beneficiorum, privilegio- 

iorum, iurium et dispensacionum venalitas, sic quod 
correccio huius facinoris superat omnem possibilitatem 
correccionis humane, propter hoc quod nervi testiculo- 
rum beemoth sunt a deo perplexi. 

Tria autem remedia ex dei gracia coniecturo. Primum Three remedies 

20 quod deus irradiet mentem pape, exempli gracia Urbani VI, (^od^race. 

quod attenta lege papali i questione 3 capitulo finali '• m 'a at ^ or 1 m pc 

conquasset omnes huiusmodi symonias; sed illud foret these things 

. - i t i i (but that would 

mopinatum et mmensum miraculum. Ideo secundum jndced be a 

remedium probabilitati propinquius est: quod seculares It m i r u C,e) ; 

. . 1 . r n . ^ .II. That the 

25 domini informati a domino resistendo pape concorditer secular power 
■ . • . should resume 

obturent scaturtgtnem symome et capiant m manus tne 

suas patrum elemosinas, cum quibus symoniaci sic endowments. 

mercantur, quia necesse est ignem dyaboli cremare 

continue, quamdiu habeat fomitem quem comburat. Sed 

3o cecacio yppocritica, confederacio lucrativa et occupacio 

circa mundialia preponderancia faciunt seculares dominos 



i. est om. ceteri. 2. aliacA, alio ceteri. 3. p>o Luciferi : dyaboli ag. 
3,4. cx lege/j. 4. iusticieft; vendicata dh, vcndi ta ceteri. 5. potissima 
ceteri, corr.' in porisma e. 6. pre om. c, al. m. d, scripture/, pre- 
scripturc g, corr. in prescripcione a ; ib. diuturna ccteri. 7. antiquata dfg, 
ta cancetl a. 8. prescriptivc ceteri. Q. cx partibus bcefg. corr. in 
ex particul. ad. 10. et om fg, al. m. a; ib. ostendendo ceteri. 11. in 
blasph. a (al. m.), bcei. 12. si. pa. ch, pa. si. ceteri. 17. ncrvi in 
ras. a, in via bfg; co>r. in nervi d. 17, 18. culorum in ras. a, testi- 
moniorum bcfg. 18. vehemoth e, corr. ex vehementer a, vehementer 
ceteri ; ib. perplexi corr. in complexi a, compl. corr. in perpl. d. 20. irra- 
diat i; ib. papalem ceteri ; ib. ut exempli ceteri. 21. sic quod codd., 
sic cancell. h; ib. attentus befg. 22. omnino ceteri. 23. Ideo ceh, 
vel bg, om.f, et ccteri. 24. probabile remedium abceg, principale rem. df; 
ib. est prop. eeteri 25. conformiter ag 29. continue om. bcefp, 
al. m. a; ib. ergo quamdiu bcdef. 29, 3o. Scilicet cec. abf. 3o. con- 
federacio gh, corr. in considcracio a, consid. ceteri. 3i. pro circa: 
ista bcefg, contra h, contra corr. in circa a; ib. preponderancia ceh, 
populo ad beneficia bfg, corr. in preponderancia ad, preponderanda i. 



17. Tob. 40, 7. 21. Corp. iur. can. I, 418 (c. i5, C. 1, qu. 3). 



94 



IOHANMS WYCLIF 



[cap. vn. 



III. (The must illud ministerium retardare. Ideo tercium est remedium 
^tte^peoplc*' ^ c ma ^' s conlido: quod populus subtrahat decimas 

shoula e t oblaciones et alias nrivatas elemosinas ab indianis 

withdraw llieir ' . ° 

lithes ;md antichnstl discipulis quos vident circa bonorum suorum 
° enngs. sacrilegas rapinas sic mercari; cum enim hoc debent 5 
facere de lcge dei, non est timenda sed gaudenter 
acceptanda malediccio vel censura, quam inferunt discipuli 
antichristi. Rogemus ergodeum, quod illud particulariter 
practisatum sic crescat, quod clerus ad statum primevum 
redeat contentus alimentis et tegumentis secundum 10 
, normam apostoli, et populus elemosinarie spirituales 
prepositos eligat sibi propter salutem anime magis 
aptos. 

Ii is said that Sed obicitur per hoc, quod iuxta istud non foret ecclesia- 

learnmgVould Vum appropriacio et per consequens extingwerentur 1 5 

tail if colleeia et sic clerus. Sed quo ad illud dictum est 
appropnation «•« ■ « 

were put an diffuse ahbi, quod expediret ecclesie non esse aliquas 
trutt/the clergy appropriaciones huiusmodi ecclesiis kathedralibus, vel 
would profit capellis principum, vel universitatibus collegiis secu- 

larium clericorum, sed tunc staret clerus copiosius, 20 
virtuosius et operosius quam stat modo; verumtamen 
consonum foret cum iustis paribus quod in ecclesia par- 
rochiali que per se sufficeret uni clericorum, collegium 
ipsum ibi resideat quamdiu ex legali ministerio staret 
dignum. Et quantum ad collegia in studiis clericorum 23 
patet quod a malo processerant, a malo quidem epi- 
scopi qui debet promovere et subvenire theologis, et a 
malo appropriacionis ecclesiarum parrochialium de qui- 
bus continuari debet scola theologorum in studiis undique. 
Patronase of Unde videtur quod subducta omni appropriacione ecclesia- 3o 

wouid b S e S rum , ve l redditus temporalis, collegia starent prosperius 
Cn °coneges '"^ 9 uam stant modo, si unicuique collegio fuerit siguatus 
numerus patronatuum qui iam sunt in manu mortua, et 
ipsum collegium eligat de magis habilibus, qui per 
certam anni partem laborent in parrochiis et per aliam 33 



1. ministerium corr. m misterium a, misterium e; ib. recordari bfg, 
recordare c, corr. in retardare ai. 4. contra bon. h. 5. rap. sacr. ceteri; 
ib. sic al. m. h. 8. Rog. itaque ceteri. o sic al. m. /1 ; ib. st. dei prim. 
abgi, priorem prim. f. ' 10. cont. de alim. ceteri. 11. populos ag : ib. pop. 
qm debct elem. h. al. m. d; pop. qui clem. /'. 12 cligit :'. 14. lllud dji. 
10. qnantum ceteri, corr. in quo d ; ib. istud bcefg. 17. diffuse om. h ; io. et 
exped. bces. 18 huiusm. in eccl. df. vel eccl. ceteri. ig. in univ. bcefg. 
21. stat nunc celeri. 22 istis ceteri, corr. in iustis d: tb. quod in h, corr. ex 
et d, et ceteri. 24. sibi/A. 26. processerunt abfgi. 3o. Undc vid. qu. 
al. m. a, om. bcefg ; ib. quod om. h; ib. omni cafh. cnim bfg, om. ai. 
3l. collegiis h. ?2. signatus ceh, assignatus ceteri. 33. unus patr. ceteri ; 
ib. est in manu a. sit ceteri, om. c, qui omnia in manu e; cst violcnta bfs, 
corr. in sit mortua abdg. 33. part. anni celen; ib. parrochianos bcdf. 



CAP. VII.] DE SIMONIA. 9 5 

partem anni dum prodest ecclesie, stent in scolis, habeant- 
que sccundum gradus reddituum inferiores clericos 
secum, ex quibus .et aliis adiunctis a parentibus co- 
munitas studii theologie in universitatibus sit servata; 
5 perdantque collegia aput regem et regnum ius patro- 
natus huiusmodi, dum convicti sunt eligere minus 
aptos. Talia, inquam, collegia fructificarent in studiis, 
ubi nostra collegia frustra depauperant regnum et 
laborant invidia. 

io Quantum ad expcnsiones et seculares defensiones Simoniacal 

, . payments to 

bonorum conventuum, patet quod sunt plena symoniaca laymen for 

pravitate, nam iuxta legem ewangelicam pape Gregorii g^jJ^Qf^e 

supradictam 16 questione 7, cap., Pervcnit episcopi qui convcnts. 

consumunt bona pauperum in sumptuosa familia, in 

'5militibus et cognatis, sunt de numero maximorum 
hereticorum qui sunt symoniaci; sed ista lex magis 
obligat abbates et priores et ceteros religiosorum prelatos, 
ergo ipsi faciendo sic sunt de genere maxime bereti- 
corum, qui sunt symoniaci; minor argumenti patet ex 

20 hoc quod dicti religiosi sunt ex voto magis alienati a 
mundo, cx religione et signis magis profitentur pauper- 
tatem ewangelicam quam seculares episcopi, ergo faciendo 
contra predictam legem ewangelicam magis peccant, et 
per consequens ex maiori contagione symonie sunt pro- 

25 fundiores heretici; illi enim qui tam patenter solvunt 

pactum religionis, quod deo pepigerant, sunt infideles 

patrono suo et sancte ecclesie. Maiorem autem argu- Luxury and 
r . ... cxtravagance of 

menti testantur experti notantes conversacionem ecclesie, prelates. 

qui vident quod in prandiis quo ad numerum ministrorum, 

3o prandiorum et vasorum excedunt comites, quo ad 

equitaturam ad conventus comunes regnorum excedunt 

principes; et quo ad expensas forinsecas dicitur quod 

bona pauperum consumuntur in pensionibus et conviva- 

cionibus hominum legis humane et duplicis, in maleficiis 



3, 4. communitatis bg, corr. in comunitas a, contentas ce. 5. in prn 
ius dgi. 6. convicti cefli, coniuncti ceteri. 8. frustra om. afgi, al. m. d. 
0. invidia cefh. in inv. celeri. r3. 16 — cap. om. abcejg, al. m d. 
ii"). pro magis: non minus ceteri. i*. igitur ipsi ceteri; ib. maximo ce, 
maximorum ceteri. 20. toto ib. pro alienati : obligati abcefg;. obl. 

corr. in alien. d; ct relig. ceteri. 21. magis al. m. h; ib. profiterentur ap. 
22. scolarcs episc. h. 25. ergo g. corr. in cnim a, vcro df. 3o. pro 
prandiorum: pastorum abdfg (in d n»la in margine legitur : scilicet quibus 
se pascuni); past. om. cctei i. 3o. ct vas. om.f, al. m. ad. 3i. com. et ef. 
ct commun. ceteri, et cancell. d. 33. 34. et in conviv. /'. 34. pro duplicis: 
lalis befg, corr. in eciam d, eciam ceteri (a in ras.); ib. maliticiis ch. 



i3. Corp. iur. can. I, 801 (c. 3, C. 16, q. 7). 



9 6 



JOHANNIS WYCUF 



[CAP. VII. 



et tirannis nec non et cognatis et aliis secundum 
mundum confederatis ; quod si sit verum, quis est pro- 
fundior in dicto eo capitulo hereticorum? Et sic mirantur 
fideles huiusmodi, quod leges papales que lucrum sapiunt, 
licet sint infundabiles et contrarie fidei scripture, repu- 5 
tantur, servantur et practisantur plus quam ewangelium, 
sed leges papales in ewangelio fundate que religionem 
sapiunt postponuntur tanquam heretice vel prophane; 
It is a mere et hec est nota heresis et infidelitatis maxime. Nec 

devil s plea tliat , ~ . . . , , . 

such waste of valet ncta excusacio m peccatis que ex commento dyaboli 10 

'the^noor is' ' st ' s a^dicitur; dicunt enim et forte verum, quod nisi 
needed to save conferrent istis legistis et tironibus bona pauperum, 
endowments. . . ,. • »■■•¥• •■ 

circumvenirent et spoharent eos de suis redditibus; 

ideo pro servanda possessione et iure ecclesie necesse 

est bona pauperum talibus impertiri. Tales autem in- i5 

fideli deteriores sunt in capitulo infidelium Rom. 3 

dicencium : 'Faciamus mala et eveniant bona'; ymo 

peius dicunt: quod sunt facienda eis sacrilega atque 

heretica, ut continuentur in eis plus execrabilia et here- 

tica, ut puta ecclesie et predia que symoniace perpetrarunt; 20 

nam iuxta istam versuciam perpetrarent maius ma- 

lum et iterum maius et sic sine fine, ut malum quod 

maius reputant evadatur. 

Th.is » s mereiy [^ eo | sta excusacio contra principium apostoli est 
doing evil that . ... - , c ,. 

good may mdubie mcitamentum dyaboh ut muucat suos profundius 20 

C dUo'bedience Ct m errorem; cum enim ex decreto ecclesie hoc fuit in 

to st. Paui. tempore sancto sacrilegum atque hereticum, nec fit 

licitum propter multiplicacionem tirrannidis vel peccati : 

relinquitur quod adhuc sit hereticum sicut primo, nam 

dies mali non excusant sed augent maliciam. Recolerent, 3o 

inquam, principium fidei, quod sepe sumit Anshelmus 

et sancti alii, quod nemo comitteret vel leve peccatum 

2. unum bfg, corr. in vcrum ad. 3. pro in dicto: iudicio celeri; 
ib. cap. om. ceteri; ib. quomodo bfg, cnrr. in hic a hoc c, hic di. 
4. htiiusm. nm. ceteri. 9. nota corr. in racio a, racio i. 10. communi- 
tate bfg, corr. in commcnto a, comm. om., spatium relict. e. 11. aducitur 
abg; W. unum cfg, corr. in verum ad; ib. quod al m h. 12. tyrannis ;'. 
14. prcserv. gtii. i5, 16. infideli eh, infidelis c, corr. ex infideles d, 
infideles ceteri. 16. pro cap : casu i. 17. ut ev. ceteri. 18. peius ceh, 
corr. ex pocius d, pocius ceteri; ib. sacrilegia bcdef, corr. in sacrilega g, 
a finale in ras. a. 18, iq. atq. her. /, at. m. a, et her. al. m. g. 
19,20. ut cont. — heret. om. ghi. 20. syui. aue bcetg. 21. magis ceteri 
(magis om , maius al. m. d). 21, 22. mal. et it. mai. om abcdefg. 
23. magis abcefg. 24. ista idco cefg, ista igitur b. unde ista ceteri, 
unde a al m. 27. sanco om. di ; ib. tuit 28. multitudinem abcefg, 

multiplicitatem di, in corr. ex multitudinem. 29. fit di. 3o. Reco- 
lecturi g, recolectum g, -lerent in ras. a. 3t. inquam fgh, corr. in 
ergo a; ib. sumit in ras. a, fuit b, sint f. 

16. Rom. 3, 8. 



CAP. VII.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



97 



propter preceptum domini vel salvacionem tocius mundi, 
crgo multo minus pro continuanda possesione iniqua et 
colligenda irregularitate perversa. Deus enim docuit G od sets us an 
in particulatim dando lumina, pluvias et alias influencias dis^trfbutiae his 
5 celestes quod late in comuni et non in globis inordinate 6> fts t0 a "- 
homines expenderent bona sua, ut patet ex decreto 
sancti ewangeliste posito in lege nature patule cuicunque; 
tunc possunt videre luce clarius, quam gaudentcr tolle- 
rarent dissolucionem perpetuam domus sue et omnium red- 

lodituum ac appropriacionem ecclesiarum, antequam di- 
stribuerent sic heretice bona dei.Nam inconveniens sequens 
non foret, nisi quod religiosi et temporalia sua dis- 
pergerentur ut olim in seculo, et per consequens magis 
celestiter edilicarent ecclesiam consumpto nido heretico. 

1 5 Sed donemus tirrannis istam iniuriam! Recoleremus, in- 
quam, quomodo secularibus debetur illud ofricium circa 
temporalia occupari et quomodo nos subtraximus ab 
eis illud officium et insuper quomodo fovemus eos in 
sua tirrannide; et tunc doleremus de nostra apostasia 

:o que causat in eis illa facinora. 

Cum enim secundum philosophos nullum violentum God\ 

eternum et secundum scripturam pugnabit cum deo bringback 

totus orbis terrarum, pro complemento iusticie necesse th , e Church to 

. . , , , , , , . tlic state he 

est mstrumenta dei vel bene vel male reducere ecclesiam ordained. 

25 ad statum quem ipse instituit, nec excomunicaciones 
vel humane leges possunt in illa frustrari divinum pro- 
positum, ideo, ut sepe dixi, ista discrasia cleri est causa 
bellorum in seculo et tocius irreligiositatis ecclesie. Si 
autem cupimus religiose vivere vitam monasticam, fu- u we wish to 

3o giamus ad loca deserta, sicut fecerunt sancti patres [ lt £ we^shoulcf 

priores, et ibi defleamus neccata nostra et nopuli, non ,le , c to tn e 
r ' . ... , , , . desert. 

autem maneamus m urnibus supplantando seculariter 

et heretice laicos a suo officio et inriciendo eos lepra 

heretica, quia ut sic indubie inplicamus in inconvenienciis 



i. proptcr al. m. h. 2. passione abf, corr. iu posscss. d. 3. colli- 
genua s"; ib irrth b ic3itatt ctt&ri, ib cn deus / i m particuKri bvfg 
corr. in inpertiri a. inpertiri dei; ib. lunam ceteri. 5. late dh, latct 
ccteri ; ib. mordinatis ceteri. S. possunt ch, possent ceteri; ib. quod 
ceteri. 10. appropriacionum ag; ib ecclesiaticarum ag, ecelesiastico- 
rum bcef. n. bona dei dh, dei om. ceteri; ib. nam al.m. a; pro ham : 
cum vero bfg, omne vero ce. 14. sceleriter corr. in celesciter a, scele- 
riter b, scelesciter cf. 18. istud bce, corr. in illud g; ib fov. eos ceh. 
e. f. ceteri. 19. de eorr. in in g, in bi. 23. totus om. ceteri. 24. pro 
instrunienta : iusticiam abcef, corr. ex instr. d, iusticia g ; ib. vel om. ceg. 
26. ncc hum. a; ib. pro illa: islo abdf isto corr. in istis g; islis cetert. 
26, 27. pro propositum: perpetuum /;'. 27. dissensio clcri ce. 3t. ita 
defl. h. 34. inpl. om. b, al. m. ai; ib. in om. ce; inconveniens ceteri. 

22. Sap. 5, 21. 



7 



98 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[cap. vm. 



insolubiliter nosmet ipsos. Nam invincibilis condicio 
peccati est et insolubilis cautcla sophiste dyaboli, quod 
omnes servos suos ducit ad metam redargucionis turpis- 
simam. Nam velint nolint conccdent veritatem in die 
iudicii quam nunc negant, pertinacia itaque religiosorum 5 
qua usque ad mortcm laboriose et sumptuose defen- 
dunt suam hercsim est maxime formidanda. 



CAP. VIII. 



Tlic lcprosy of 

Simony is 
widcly spread. 



Whoever 
consents to 
Simony is a 
sjimouiac. 



A riilcr shonld 

know what 
Simony is and 

not allow 
himself to be 
dcccived. 



Ex istis potest scdulus speculator attendcre, quam 
spissim et varie seminatur lepra lieresis symoniace in 10 
ecclesia militante et quomodo potest illa ecclesia dc 
remedio contra dictam heresim providere. I.epra autcm 
symoniaea cx prcdictis describitur, quibus iungendum 
arbitror quod omnis symoniace heresi conscnciens sy- 
moniacus est censendus. Consentit enim homo sexi5 
modis et modis compositis resultantibus ex ipsis, sicut 
alias diffuse exposui ex sentcnciis sanctorum et legum 
ecclesie; continentur autem in istis versibus: 

Consentit opcrans, defendens, consilium dans 
Ac auctorisans, non iuvans nec reprehcndens. 20 
Ille autem qui cooperatur cum symoniaco vel mcdians 
vel mercando est symoniacus ex consensu, sicut ille qui 
defcndit symoniam scolastice vel contenciose, sicut tercio 
tlle qui consulit ad pravitatem symoniacam et quartopoten- 
tatus qui auctorisat homines ut suos vel facta sua que 2? 
debet cognoscere esse symoniaca. Sicut enim quilibct 
lidelis racionis capax debet cognoscere peccata mortalia ut 
evitet ipsa, sic quilibet racionis capax et specialiter secu- 
laris dominus debet cognoscere symoniam ; cultores tamen 
accidencium sicut celant a populo quiditatem eukariste 3o 
sic celant raciones et species symonie. Quinto modo et 
sexto symonia comittitur, quando homo habens a deo 
opnrtunitatem et noticiam datam mutescit non reprehen- 
dens taliter viciosos. Et in isto casu sunt maior pars 
fratrum vel omnes et speculativi cuiuscunque status, 35 



2. qui i, corr. e.x quod a. 9. scdulc abfg. 11. ipsa eccl. h. 
1.4. arbitratus cef. i5. autem homo ceteri. 18. autem dh, queproaut. 
ceteri, nm. e. ig. coopcrans h (co al. m.), operans ceteri. 20. minans 
bcef, corr. in iuvans a, iuvans ceteri. 23, 24. sym. — illc al. m. a. 
2(5. enim al. m. /;. 27, 28. deb. — capax om. b. 27 — 29. pecc. — sym. 
at. m. g. 29. tamen cult. a ; tamen om. bcc, al. m. d; cum cultores bcef. 
20— 3i. tamen — sic om. f 3i. sic dli, ita ceteri ; ib. sensus sym. df; 
ib. modo deest ab. 32. com. sym. abdfgi. 33. dat. not. celeri. 

34. casu abf, corr. in capitulo dg, capitulo cehi; ib. est maior h. 

35. oinnino fli; ib. ct al. m. h; ib. cciam ai, al. m. g., om. ceteri. 



CAP. VIII.] DE SIMONIA. 99 

etatis vel sexus fuerint, qui propter timorem servilem 

vel comodum temporale tacent in causa dei atque 

ecclesie. Sed aliomodo omnis peccans mortaliter, dum 

suspendit se a iuvamine contra heresim symoniacam, 

5 fit symoniacus ex consensu; nam ut sepe dixi tam 

virtutes quam vicia sunt conne.xa et sic deus scit qui 

non maculatur symonia vel heresi de vocata ecclesie. 

Et patet prima pars proposicionis prime proposite. 

Sed pro secunda notandum quod heresiarche statu- n i" said that 
,, • • ■ i no onc s 1 1 o 1 1 1 d 

toerunt, ut nullus censeatur symomacus nisi hoc coram be heid 

eis secundum tradiciones suas, ut inquiunt legittime, sit U n|^' s m !v ed 

probatum et tunc convictum de symonia vel heresi such in the 

comburunt vel aliter occidunt vel puniunt, si noluerit 

ab eis emere symoniace culpam sibi inpositam ; quod si 

i5reus in facto eis placenter voluerit emere culpam suam 

evadet testificatus ab eis immunis et mundus, licet heresi But the 

. . . . . judgmenl <j| thc 

sua symoniaca maculavit et maculat pertinaciter magnam Courts can be 

partem ecclesie. Constat de episcopis et prelatis quos purC fr// e n d 0 and 

propter peccuniam vel preces dominorum literatorias weight. 

20 auctoritative instituunt, licet de eis credant vel dubi- 
tent si antea non sint digni, et omnino sciunt per leges 
proprias, quod tam prepositus per hoc medium quam 
ipse auctorisando preponens quam eciam dominus 
rogatu et ad hoc medians incurrit lepram symoniacam 

25 eo ipso, et sic nec vult misereri anime sue nec proximi, 
sed tamquam blasfemus heresiarcha se ipsum et alios 
cece precipitat; talem itaque ducem debemus aufugere. 
Item propter iudicium sophisticatum a talibus non est 
homo magis aut minus symoniacus nisi forte ex eorum 

3o ceco sophismate sit infectus. Sed cum infeccio sit 
contra universalem ecclessiam, oportet illam exstingwi; 
igitur relinquitur alius iudex quam talis ecclesia sic 
infecta; licet enim debeat iudicare de heresi, quia debet 
examinare conscienciam propriam purgando se primo 

35 a symoniaca pravitate, cum propter reatum proprium 
est inepta, ut sit iudex publicus, quia tunc primo se 
ipsam combureret. Ideo dicit Christus Matth. 7 : 'Ypocrita, 



2. ct pro vcl ceteri; ib. tcmp. com. abdfgi. 4. a iuvam. al. m. h. 
7. maculantur ce. <3. 11 1 patet bcf, ut corr. in ncc e. 14. sym. cm. 
ceteriin d, corr. ut h. 1 1, i5. sibi — culp. ont. bg. al. m. d. i5. placcntc 
cefh. n. si autem non sint indif;ni ceteri ; ib. omnia ef, corr. in, omnino 
abcg. a3. preponens eh, preposiciones ceteri. 24. etom. def. 25. ex 
ipso agi. 28. sophisticum ceteri. 'Mi. Sed quod i. 3i. ipsam ext. 
ceteri. 35. tamen cfh, corr. in cum d, cum ceteri. 

37. Matth. 7, 5. 



I oo 



JOHANNIS WYGLIF 



[CAP. VIII. 



A judge 
infcctad with 

Siniony is 
incompetent. 



Qualities 
needed in a 
judge. 



eice primum trabem de oculo tuo et tunc festucam de 
oculo fratris tui poteris eicere': et sunt ad hoc leges 
multe tam dei quam hominum. Sicut enim yctericus 
non iudicat de coloribus, sic iudex infectus macula non 
reputabit illam peccatum in aliis, sed fovebit; sicut ergo 5 
symoniacus peccat in universalem ecclesiam et quodlibet 
eius membrum, quod tenetur peccalum illud cognoscere, 
sic persona universalis ecclesic cum sit superior atque 
habilior, debet de peccato tali cognoscere. Nec requiritur 
ad hoc magna industria, sed quccunque persona, eciam 10 
hereticus vel merctrix, peccato cognito debet ipsum viis 
et modis extinguere, ut patet V. Decretalium, titulo De 
Symonia, capitulo Tanta; aliter enim posset heresis symo- 
niaca inlicere totam ecclesiam antequam leprosus symo- 
niacus ipsam de castris expelleret. Ideo ordinatum est ib 
in lege domini, quod sacerdotes qui debent iudicare dc 
lepra sint mundi, ut patet quo ad inplicitum Levitici i 3 
et ad aliud Levitici 21, quia aliter subverterent iudi- 
cium, ut duo senes presbiteri iudicarunt Zuzanam 
Daniel. 14. Ideo docetur a Jetro cognato Moysi Exod. 18, 20 
'quod provideret de omni plebe viros potentes et timen- 
tes deum, in quibus sii veritas et qui oderint avari- 
ciam', qui iudicent populum. Item ad iudicandum sic 
de heresi vel symonia requiritur precipua noticia scrip- 
turarum, sed huius legis sunt predicti satrape ignari 25 
communiter, ergo et indispositi ad sic iudicandum de 
heresi, nec excusat ignoranciam eorum quod possunt ad 
hoc vocare clericos vel sciollos legis dei, quia sic potest 
imperator et apcius ad convincendum eciam papam 
super heretica pravitate. 3o 

Requiritur ergo iudicem habere inflexibilem potenciam 
corespondenter ad deum patrem, requiritur secundo quod 
habeat conscienciam timendo deum corespondenter ad 



1. primo aejli. 2. fratris tui ag, tui om. ceteri; potes h. 7. quod 
et tenetur h. 8, 9. sic — cognoscere al. m. h; ib. atquc humilior ce. 
10. hoc mapis bcefy. 10, 11. et hereticus bcef. 12. tit. om. pi, al. m. a. 
i3. cap. Tota ab. 11. communem cccl. bf, corr. in totam d, commun. 
totam gi, tot. al. m. add. a. 17. qno ad inplementum bce/. iS, 10. iudi- 
cium al m. h. 19. canes pro sen. h; ib. veteres corr. in presb. h; ib. iudi- 
paverunt ceteri. 20. a retro cf. 21. decera plebe bcj', de onini in ras. a. 
22. dominum in cctcri; ib. oderinl bh, oderunt ceteri. ' 23. ad siciud. df; 
sic al. m. h. 24. not precip abdj'gi. 23. prcdicte ch. 26. el ceh, 
al. »1. d, om. ceteri ; ib. ut dispos. ce, indisposite ft. 27. ignoranciam dh, 
ignorancia ceteri; ib. quod ceh, quia ceteri. 28. ct sciol. ceteri. 
3i. intlexib. corr. ex intiexivam a. 

12. Corp. iur. can. Decr. De Simonia X, 3, 7 (FrieJberg, II, ySn). 
17. Levit. i3 et 21. 20. Exod. 18, 21. Dan. 14, 20 seqq. 



CAP. VIII.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



IOI 



Christi humanitatem, et requiritur tercio quod habeat 
noticiam corespondenter ad veritatis divinitatem, quarto 
eciam requiritur quod habeat puram benivolenciam cores- 
pondenter ad spiritum sanctum et tunc odiet avariciam. 
5 Iste autem quatuor condiciones requiruntur in iudice, ut 
patet ex fide scripture. Aliter enim satrapa posset iudicare 
hominem ad mortem propter veritatem scripture sibi 
Jisplicentem quam fidelis deftendit katholice. vSic enim 
summi sacerdotes iudicarunt Christum ad mortem tur- 

io pissimam tamquam summum hereticum, quia blasfemum; 
Joh. 19 scribitur: Nos legem habemus et secundum legem 
debet mori; patet autem illa lex Levit. 24, ubi dominus 
precipit blasfemum duci et a toto populo lapidari; sed 
certum est, quod isti iudices scelerati in omnibus istis 

oquatuor disposicionibus defecerunt et ideo erraverunt 

undique in iudicio. Sed nota quod populus debuit The people 
lapidare blasfemum, quia totus populus debuit legem th^law^of^God 
dei cognoscere et eius iniuriam tamquam persona dignior anJ main,ain jt - 
vindicare, sicut sepe dixi in communi sermone de heresi, 

20 fides scripture, cum sit regula specularis ad iudicandum 
de heresi ac omnis homo debet ipsam cognoscere, ymmo 
omnes homincs et singuli debent confunderc hereticos 
destruendo heresim et specialiter heresim symoniacam 
patulam quantum possunt. Sicud ergo summi sacer- 

25 dotes in se ipsis summi heretici dampnarunt dominum 
nostrum Jesum Christum pro heresi, sic summi sacer- 
dotes antichristi possunt dampnare et extinguere membra 
Christi, propter hoc quod catholice reprobant peccata 
eorum et predicant quomodo ecclesia potest licite per 

3o exoneracionem temporalium adiuvari. Tota itaque ecclesia 
debet insurgere contra senes, qui videbantur regere popu- 
lum, quando avaricia debriati svmoniaceparant sibi pseudo- 
pastores contra salutem populi et fidem ewangelii. 



2. veritatis dimensionem bf, corr. in veritatem deitatis a; veritatem 
deitatis i; in h. al. tn. ad divinit. add.: beatitudinem. 3. et reqniritur 
quarto ceteri. 4. odient bf. 5. ad iudiccm a. (>. enim scriptura /'. 
q. iudicarunt c//, iudicaverunt celeri. 9, 10. ad mort. turp. al. »1. h. 
10. quia bcf, in ras. h, corr. in et ad. w — ij. Nos — duci om. e. 
i3 precipit h. corr. ex precepit d, preccpit rete r i ; ib. toto al. m. h. 
14. celerati h; ib. omnibus al. m. h. i5 disposicionibus cdefh. disp. 
alias condicionicus b, condicionibus ceteri. 10. nnd. in iud. eh, in iud 
und. ceteri. n. blasf. lap. df. u). vindicari abf; ib. sepe h. al. m. d, 
om ceteri. 21. homo om. bf, al m. ad. rS. dampnaverunt ceteri. 
2G. nostrum oiw h ; ib. rfom. Jes. Chr. al. m. h, Clir om. ce. 27. antichr. 
om. bf, al. m. d. 32. debriati h. corr. ex delirati rf, dclirati ceteri. 
i3. salutem cwang. gi. 



11. Joh. ig, 7. 12. Levit. 24, [6. 



I 02 



IOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. VIII 



ii u is urged Ista quidem est causa maxima contra quam fidelis 
'obejTihoseln de»et militare. Et si obicitur quod credendum est illis 

8 "5* ut senioribus, qui debent potestative populum regere, 
oniv whiic they non autem privatis pusillis et ydyotis qui ignorabant 

° of God. Wa3 dignitates et leges ecclesie, omnes fideles debent credere 5 

quod ipsi deserentes viam domini faciliter possunt de- 

ficere, debent insuper cuncti fideles cognoscere quod 

tunc symoniace peccent tamquam summi heretici, quando 

propter lucrum temporale exaltant ydiotas quos popu- 

lus sentit esse ignaros vel desides in regimine animarum <o 

et tercio hoc experto debet totus populus contra tales in- 

surgere, ymmo ipsimet debent insurgere in se ipsos. Et 

notum est ecclesie et regnis multis, quod papa propter 

talem prefeccionem colligit primos fructus ; notum est 

eis iterum quod pastores quos preficiunt patenter de-'5 

Gnd has eiven ficiunt a cura spiritualis regiminis. Ideo cum ad hoc 
ns tree will and , , ,. .... .., .... , . 

iudgment to deus dedit cuuibet libertatem arbitrn ut curet de antma 

"wVsouTs" sua ' cmus discrecionem satrape obscurare non possunt, 

licet in parte quo ad sacramenta excecant populum, 

ideo secundum libertatem arbitrii post patentem no- 20 

ticiam totus populus debet insurgere contra tales. I.ex, 

inquam, papalis dicit i questione 3, Si quis prebendas, 

ut sepe repecii, quod nemo debet promovere vel pro- 

moveri ad beneficium vel dignitatem ecclesiasticam 

propter munus datum ante vel post, sed statim hoc25 

faciens tamquam symoniacus nota infamie percellatur; 

percellere autem secundum gramaticos est occidere 

When abiurare, elidere, percutere vel amputare. Quia ut dicit 
mcumbents die . « 

rapidly the papa in eadem lege, non obstante quacunque con- 

^nTaVtakelhc^ swetudine beneficium debet dari libere absque diminu- 3o 

whole benefice. cione, collector autem primorum fructuum moriente 

incumbente primo anno et quotquot sic sequentibus 

plus quam diminuit fructum beneficii quia regulariter 

capit totum, vel igitur oportet hereticare legem 

istam papalem et fidem scripturc vel concorditer in- 35 



2. militari cgi. 3. deb. ceh, habcnt ceteri; ib. potestative aceh, 
corr. ex potcstatem d, potestatem ceteri. 4. pro ydyotis: ideo talis ce ; 
ib. ignorabat ce. 5. eccl. leg. gi. 11. omnis pop. a, tot. om. e; 
ib. tales al. m. h. 12. ymmo — insurg. al. m. a; ib. se ipsis cde. 
14 talem al. m. ad, nm. bcef. i5, 16. pat. def. om. a. |6, 17. deus 
ded. ad hoc g, deus ad hoc ded. ceteri. 17, 18. anima cius bef. 23, 24. vel 
promovcri cancellat. ce; pronioveri vel promoverc /1. 26. sym. vel in- 
tamis a/. corr. in nota inf. g. 27. percell. quidem ceteri. 28. abiurare li, 
obviare ceteri. 3|. causavit tot. i. 

11. Corp. iur. can. Decr. c. i5; C. 1, qu. 3 (Friedberg I, 418). 
39. Ibid. in fine. 32. Incumbens i. e. possessor. 



CAP. Vllf.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



surgere contra tales. Nec sunt audiendi qui blasfeme bal- 

buciunt, quod pape est quascunque leges ecclesie inter- 

pretari, ad votum suspendere vel penitus abrogare ut 

videtur ex lege 25, questione i, His itaque, quia ut sepe 

5 dixi, nichil magis cassaret leges ecclesie nec blasphemaret 

papam quam quod plenus antichristus dispenset et pre- 

scribat contra dcum, ymmo nichil magis generaret contra 

papam, ut dicit Lincolniensis, diffidencie et inobediencie 

cathaclismum ; quis eniin tunc crederet vel obediret legi 

lovel bullis panalibus? Sed contradiceret iuxta sentenciam If the Pope 
, i t • •, rnay abrogate 

istam, quod tenetur obedire voluntati pape tn tribus pre- any law we can 

dictis ticticiis. Sed non claret ex bullis pape quantum- that^wehave 

cunque recenter venerint de pape in terpretacione suspen- his last. 

sione vel abrogacione; ideo ne offendatur in ultimam vo- 

iSluntatem pape, nemo debet secundum leges suas vel bullas 

aliqualiter operari. Ideo benedictus sit papa, cuius voluntas 

est inflexibiliter iusta, cunctis notissima in eterna. 

Cum autem secundum ecclesiam totam talis infamis There will be 
.... ... . j no peace in tlie 

nereticus debet percelli a populo, et regum ac dominorum world tiii 
2osecuIarium est quo ad istud regere, ducere et animare s ' m Xwn PU ' 
populum, patet quod illi debent ex oflicio sui regiminis 
animosius postponendo tiniorem vel lucrum privatum in 
istis precedere; et unum audenter assero : quod antequam 
ista scaturigo emanans a fonte symoniace heresis a 
25 regnis fuerit obturata, nunquam quiescent aput deum et 
homines inturbata, quia ipsi principes et totus populus 
eorum aliter percussi sunt heresi symoniaca ex consensu, 
et eo gravius quo ofticio suo pertinencius atque facilius 
possent tales inficientes leprosos a dominiis suis ex- 



i. pape al. m. d, om f; ib. eccl. al. m. d, om.f; leg. eccl. qu. a. 
leg. qn. eccl. ceteri. 6. pro papam : quamquam c, quam om. omnes 
praeler eh ; ib. plene dgi, corr. ex pleuus a. X. diffidenda bf. io. contra 
om. bh; deberet tpro diceret) abf, corr. in deberct /'; ib. iiixta om. omnes 
praeler dh fin d diceret el iuxta m ras.). n. debetur obed. a. i3. venerint 
ceh, renuit a, renuerit bf. venerunt ceteri. 1 1. offendatur dh. ork-ndant ee, 
offendantur ceteri. 16. aliqualiter li, alter df. alifer ceteri; ib. papa 

Christus agi, in marg. at. m. add., sciltcet Chrisius d. iH. cunctis not. 
ojh. abdfg; ib. et eterna ceteri. iH. tpt. eccl. ceteri; ib. informis bf, 
amis in ras. a. ig. aut dom. a. 20. hoc reg c, illnd ceteri ; ib. et 
ducere df. 21 ibi deb. abcfg; ib. regiminis corr. ex reeis a, sui regis ce, 
legis i, prima manu corr. in regiminis g. 122. postponere 1; ib. et lucr. ceteri. 
23. et utriim i; ib. evidenter assero abcf . 2 \ . scaturi sacio bef, corr. in sca- 
turigo ag ; ib. Iier. sym. celeri. 25. ap. deum et h, corr. ex a deo et hom. //. 
26. ad inturbata al. m. adnotatum: scil. rcgna d. 2S. orl'. suo quo dgi. 

4. Corp. iur. can. Decr. c. 1, 3 — q, etc, C. 25, q. 1 (Friedberg I, 
1007 seqq.). 8. De I.incolniensi cf. pag. 88, not. ad v. 20. Locum 
hic citatum in celebri Roberti episcopi epistola ad papam invenies 
(Matthaei Paris. Chronica Majora, ed. I.uarJ in Rerum Britan. 
Script, Vol". V, 389, 390J. 



IOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAI>. VIII. 



pellere: non enim opporteret ad hoc parare populum 
grandem tliesaurum et inmensum vel arma bellica 
Papal collectors sumptuosa, sed prohibere vel non licenciare ut hii vel 
Sh to1er«ted. 8 collectores perfidi exeant vel incollant terram suam. 

Quomodo, inquam, respondebunt principes in die iudicii 5 
pro ecclesia, quam a Christo tuendam et specialiter a 
svmoniaca heresi acceperunt, quando tam faciliter et tam 
sibi utiliter possent venenum illud excludere, et 
tamen pro amore dyaboli, quia pro fastu seculi, consu- 
munt omnino contrarie se et suos! Quicunque autem 10 
consiliarii principum vel contrariantur vel tacent prin- 
cipibus istam sentenciam necandi et percellendi, sunt 
tamquam summi heretici, quia calidissimi symoniaci et 
subtilissimi discipuli antichristi. Speculator autem se- 
cundum doctrinam dei Ezech. 34. debet animam suamo 
et populi a periculo liberare, considerans quod non 
modicum sed grandiosum est periculum vel persecucio 
inde surgens. Sic itaque ecclesia sed specialiter spe- 
culatores debent tales symoniacos hereticos alte et 
continue declamare, vertendo periculosa bella mundialia 20 
in illud oflicium; et quicunque confessor, consultor 
vel depravator dicat contrarium, caveat sibi de sentencia 
domini ex testimonio Ezechielis animam perditam de 
tnanu tacentis prepositi requirentis. Nec videtur quod 
Simoniacs arc tales blasfemi symoniaci sunt hodie ut in lege veteri 25 
"^tVdeath^ 111 generaliter occidendi, sed secundum doctrinam apostoli 
ad Titum 3. a quolibet Christicola fugiendi. Ad Titum 3. 
precipitur: 'Hereticum hominem post primam et se- 
cundam correpcionem devita,' nam ubi Christus pre- 
cipit Matth. 18 peccantem in nos terna vice corripere, 3o 
apostolus suus precipit eodem spiritu hereticum, qui 



i. parere hi. 3. 11011 al. m. a, om. g. 3, 4. ut vel sui coll. aceg, 
sui corr. m servi d, vel ut s. coll. i, ut servi vel coll. bf. 7. accipiunt a, 
in texlu acccp., al. m. suscep. b; ib. quin tam bi. 8. utiliter abcdef 
inutiliter celeri. 10. Qui tantum bf. 12. vacandi a. notandi cde, vo- 
candi f. 14. speculatur ce. 14. i5. itaque secund. ceteri. |5. Ezech. 34 
capitulo dehet h 16. 11011 om. ce. 17. gaudiosum bcefh, corr. in 

erandiosum a; ib. et pers. ceteri. 18. inde insurgens /",- consurgens gi; 
ib. itaque eciam bi. 19. symoniace bef. iq, 20. alte et continue cdefli, 
alte et confuse b, alte ct conf. vel congiue gi, alte et continuc corr. in 
conf. vel congrue a. 20. declarare ab, declam. corr. in declinare g; 
ib. mundialia h ; iniurdiana bf, in undancia c, inundacius e, invadencia 
ceteri. 2>. vel dampnator bf. corr. in deprav. d; ib. dicit bdgi ; ib. de 
sciencia bcef. 24. tacentis ceh, corr. ex tenentis d. 25. ut at. m. h. 
27. ad Tit. 3 primum h, al. m. d, om. ceteri ; ib. sunt filg. df. 28. pre- 
cepit a 29. corrercionem /1. 29, 3o. precepit abf. 3i. precip. 

al. m. ad, om. ef; ib. eod spir. precip. ceteri. 



i5. Ezech. 34, 10 — 13. 23. Ibid. v. 11. 27. Tit. 3, 10. 
3o. Matth. 18, i5. 



CAP. VIII.] DE SIMONIA. io5 

non est nisi symoniacus post correpcionem secundam 
super eius pertinacia devitare, nam antequam devenit 
ad tantam pertinaciam correptus fuit generaliter a fide- 
libus multis viis, et legum exposiciones, generales predica- 
5 ciones et publice excommunicaciones tam crebro pre- 
conisaverant predictos hereticos, quod non restat fideli- 
bus nisi se ipsos aufugere. Quod autem plures de populo 
libencius conversantur et mercantur cum talibus ceca 
stulticia et heresis symoniaca sunt in causa, quia II, 

loJoh. scribitur: *Si quis venit ad vos et hanc doctrinam 
non affert, nolite recipere eum in domum nec ave ei 
dixeritis, qui enim dicit illi ave communicat operi- 
bus eius malignis'. Doctrina autem ista est preeminencia 
pastoralis officii in Christo et membris ipsum sequenti- 

i5bus, quam symoniaci non solum non afferunt sed con- 

fundunt; quibus si prohibetur salutacio, quomodo non 

magis bonorum pauperum ministracio? 

Sed obicitur: Cum maior pars ecclesie et specialiter It is said thai 

capitales infecti sunt hac heresi, non restat quo fidelis 1 of^Simony" 

2oaufugeret cum petens deserta peccato percuteretur ex . makcs it 

,. . . ..... lmpossible to 

consensu vecordi et negacione mvaminis. IIic dicitur flee the 

quod cuilibet Christiano precipitur fuga sequendi symo- C simon'iacs°.' 

niacos in moribus et fragilibus precipitur fuga communi- 11 is enough to 
T . cut ourselves 

candi cum eis presencia corporali propter timorem off from all 

25 coinquinacionis lepre, sed difficultas videtur claustralibus, te "sTnion P y. Vlth 
cum quasi omnis eorum multitudo hac lepra inficitur 
et aufugientes incarcerabuntur tamquam appostote. Sed 
constat, cum deus sit immensus, Symon autem misera 
creatura stricta iudicata ad penam, a deo nemo potest 

3o aufugere sed ubique a Symone; nam quilibet potest ex 
libertate arbitrii preparare habitaculum deo suo, quo 
Symon non audet ingredi, ut devoti claustrales dolent 
de symoniacis et caventes a consensu eorum maculas 
reprimunt quantum possunt,sed temptantur mille meandris 



2. devit om. i. 2, 3. nam — pertin. om. c. 4. nt legum ceteri. 
5, 6. preconUaverant bdefh (in li al. m.J, preconisaverunt ceteri. 7. se 
om. ceteri ; ib. fugere gi. II. ottert cef; ib. eum recip. ceteri; ib. dom. 
vestrum abcdefgi. 12. illi dicit adf. ' |3. cius oper. eeteri ; ib. est om. 
bcef. al. m. d. i5. asserunt bfg, auferunt, au m ras. h. 17. bon. 
operum b; instruccio bcef. operum institacio cnrr. in paup. ministr. a. 
19. capitulares ceh; ib sunt inf. ceteri ; ib. quomodo iq, 20. tideles 

aufugerent i. 20. peccato om. bcdef, al. m a; ib. percuteretur dli, per- 
cutitur ceteri. .'5. claustrantibus f, corr. in claustralibus e. 26. quasi 
abeefli, commuuiter ceteri. 27. incaicerabuntur dh, incarcerantur ceteri. 
28. miserrima bcdef. 3i. quo h, corr. ex quomodo d. quomodo ceteri. 
34. tcmptatur h, temperantur ce; ib. mendaicis abfg, corr. in meandris d. 

10. II Joh. 10, 11. 



i oG 



lOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. VIII. 



Monks and dvaboli, ut nunc suggeritur, quod virtute sacre obediencie 

^not^aidin oportet lal)orare attentc commiscendo mendacia pro 

getting annropriandis ccclesiis vel multiplicandis redditibus. Sed 
appropnations . rl ' . .. . . 

although lstud commentum patris mendacn statim convincitur 

theTr^su^pwiors P er ' loc quod precise tantum obediendum est privato 5 

io do so. prcposito quantum dcus precipit conformiter legi sue. 

Ideo Act. 5 dicunt apostoli: 'Obedire oportet magis deo 

quam hominibus', ideo videtur michi quod missi ad tale 

officium detegerent mendacia Symonis et procurarent in 

eis dissolucionem symoniace pravitatis; sic enim con- io 

sumpsit Thomas Didimus thezaurum regis Gundofori. 

Nunc autem blaspheme dicitur quod papa approprians 

vel confirmanJo aut tacendo approbans eo ipso licenciat 

quod prius fuit illicitum. Nam idem foret hoc dicere 

et ipsum extollere super deum, quia in die qua unus- i5 

quisque onus suum portabit, non excusabit blasphemus 

error pape vel prelati alterius quo se et suos subditos 

ducit in foveam, sed fides scripture, que est ultima 

voluntas testamenti dei, et duplicitas temerarii consensus 

condcmpnabunt tales in die novissimo. Nam false sug- 20 

gerunt et dyabolice incitant papam vel prelatum ad facinus 

et post tamquam prccones huius sceleris gravando ipsum 

in opere multiplici persecuntur; et quod ista non sit 

excusacio sed accusacio novit iudex a cuius sentencia 

non licet cuiquam appellare. 23 

A monk cannot Tercia excusacio in peccatis est, quod claustralis non 

of 1 responsTbMity intromittit se de talibus. sed cum contentatur de paucis 

m this ac p arce v ite necessariis, devote contemplans et orans 
matter. 1 ' . , 

coram domino excusatur deus enim vult quod servi 

sui de suo reditu sustententur ; sed caveat sic loquens de 3o 

taciturnitate qua mutescit non reprehendendo prepositos, 

1. virtute ceh, virtutes ceteri. 2. pro om. ce. 3. mortificandis bcefh, 
corr. in multiplic. ad, multiplic.gr'. 4. istud />//, ittud ceteri ; ib. coniunctum 
bcefh. 5. per se tant. cef; ib. private ce, pri\ ato om. bf, al m. ad. 6. pre- 
cepit ag. X. quasi hom. bc ; ib. quod 11 11 lli bcefg, multi corr. in missi i. 
q. oracionis bcejg, corr. in Svmonis ad. n. Diaimus abcef, Adumus d, 
Didius ceteri. i3. vel tacendo acegi. 14.. quid prius ce, quin bf; 
ib. licitum bdf. \b. in die illo quo af, in illo die quo b, in die quo e. 
17. suos om. abcefi. 19. voluntas dh, volicio ceteri ; ib. et om. bcef, 
al. m. a. 20. condempnabit ab. 21. et symoniace et dyabolice df; 
ib. suscitant abcef corr. in incitant d; ib. populum corr. i'n papam i ; 
ib. prelatos abcfgi. 22. tam om. adfi. 25. cuicunque ce. 27 in- 
tromittat cetert; ib. sc om. ceh. 2S. parcis ceteri. 3o. sustentiir bf 

7. Act. 5, <). 11. Cf. I.oserth, Johannis Wycl. Sermones, III. 
4q8, et Carl Horsttnann, The early South Englisli Legendary (Earlv 
English Text Societv) p. 38 1 seqq , quos locos mihi F. D. Matthew 
vir doctissimus benigne subministravit. 13e Didymo s. Thomae apo- 
stoli cognomine cf. Joh. 11, 16, ib. 20, 24 et 2 1 , 2. 1 3. Galat. 6, 5. 



CAP. VIII. J 



DE SIMONIA. 



et defectu iuvaminis quo spiritualiter iuvaret suos prepo- 
sitos, ista enim sunt duo subtilia genera consensus damp- 
nabilis. Si enim unicuique mandavit deus de proximo, 
servus cui deus dedit talentum noticie, debet correpcione 
5 iuvare suum prepositum, cum ungendo eum oleo peccatoris 
et comedendo cum eo de ydolaticis dicet cum Vsaia fina- 
liter: 'Ve michi quia tacui,' nam fidelis in quo amor dei 
preponderat non tacebit sic vecorditer in causa dei contra 
Symonem. Nec pensat deus quid aut quantum de bonis 

10 suis servus suus consumpserit. sed qualiter et quibus me- 
diis sibi quesierit, quia aliter predones, latrones et scelesti 
forent de omni abusu bonorum domini excusati. 

Quarto fingitur, quod claustrales quibus appropiiantur 
ecclesie, virtute appropriacionis exonerantur a cura com- 

iSmissa vicariis nec competit eis officium predicacionis 
sed devote oracionis. In ista excusacione Luciferi miror 
primo quomodo maledicta appropriacio infundabilis in 
lege dei, in qua omnis veritas continetur, habet tantam 
virtutem exhonerandi mercenarios a cura suarum ovium, 

20 cum beneficium et correspondens ofticium inseparabiliter 
se secuntur. Item cum nichil debet esse inordinatum in 
domo domini et officium orandi sit minime sumptuo- 
sum, fugiens mundanos strepitus videtur valde inordi- 
nate appropriare tam paucis tot ecclesias pro illo 

25 nudo officio; sic enim in primitiva ecclesia et hodie 
facilius et fructuosius complctur illud officium. Item 
cum officium predicandi sit summum in preposito, ut 
hic supponitur, si virtute appropriacionis illud potest 
subtrahi a subiectis, a pari totum oflicium pastorale; 

3oquomodo ergo respondebunt rectores illi pro animabus, 
quarum decimis vescuntur, in die iudicii, si ipsas non 
rexerint viam virtutum et legem domini predicando? 
Symoniaca quidem foret comutacio emere oraciones 
pro tanto temporali stipendio; illas enim oraciones 

35 haberet parrochianus fructuosius excuciendo a se 
prudenter istud servile comercium. Item, ut suppono ex 
fide sepe dicta, non licet angelo vel homini ad 



He is bound to 

reprove his 
superiors if he 
knows thcm to 
be doin^ 
wrong. 



Monks may not 
leave 
appropriated 
churches to 
their vicars. 



Henefice and 

duty are 
inseparably 
connected. 



3. Sic bef. 4. dedit deus bc; ib. correptive abcf, corr. in correp- 
cionc d. 5. cum cefh, non ceteri. G. ut dicit ii, dicet cefh, dicit 
ceteri, cum nm. a, tamen bgi. 0. symoniam gi. 11. illa ques. ceteri ; 
ib. et latr. gi. 12. de nm. abfgi, al. m. d. i\. quo exon. afgi, quo 
al. m. d. 17. modo al m. a. om. bf. 23. michi pro valde a. 
23, 24. inordinatum adghi. 27. proposito abdei. 3o. rectores eh, 
om ceteri ; ih. ibi prn illi h 3i. pascuntur gi, corr. ex vescuntur a; 
vesc. corr ex utunlur df. 3G, 37. ex f. supp. gi. 

6. Is. 6, 5. 



io8 



.IOHANNIS WYCI.IF 



[CAP. VIII. 



deterioracionem, sed solum ad ecclesie edilicacionem 

procedere. Cum ergo ante appropriacionem erant 

simul in appropriata ccclesia tam rector quam eius 

vicarius curantes et pascentes subditos suos, ut sup- 

pono, ergo non licet homini sine recompensa curam 5 

rectoris subtrahere. Oracio enim specialiter symo- 

niaci non potest equivalere officio predicandi, quia 

tunc deus frustra ordinaret predicacionem. 

It is false tliat Nec valet ficticia qua dicitur quod nunc predicacio 
a Cliristiati a ■ • ■ 

communitv supertluit, cum communitas satis novit tidem Christi, 10 
d preacWng. ed ^ ma i n ^ UD i e illi q iu ' s ta ignare balbuciunt sunt perfidis 
deteriores et fideles evvangelisantes conclusiones katholicas 
sequentes ex principiis fidei persequentes in tantum 
quod non credunt in deum; ideo nunquam fuit maior 
necessitas fidem katholicam predicandi Item iuxta istam i5 
stulticiam episcopus et papa forent maxime exonerati 
a cura quia per eos cura tocius populi rectoribus et 
vicariis partibiliter est commissa et sic episcopus et papa 
iuxta interpretacionem sui nominis privarent se ipsos 
episcopio et papatu. Sed deliramenta sunt ista: habent 20 
enim papa et episcopus et rector et vicarius curam de 

The higher the ovibus et superior plus curatur, ut deus, cui secundum 
rank, the , .. , r ' , ' ,. 

more the philosophos est cura de omnibus, licet equivoce est 
responsibihtv. max j me cura t U s. Unde quod deus curat homines innuit 

apostolus 1 Cor. 9 querens: 'Numquid deo cura est de 25 
bobus?" Unde ille summus pastor dignatus est habere 
homines in evvangelisando populo adiutores; 1 Cor. 3 
scribit apostolus: 'Dei enim adiutores summus,' et ideo 
sicut deus eligit magis ydoneos adiutores, sic debet epis- 
copus sciendo quod fert onus curati sui et omnium ovium 3o 
suarum; ideo debet examinare diligenter curatum cui 
curam comiserat sciendo quod propter maiorem defectum 
sui vicarii fert gravius et propter diligenciorem curam 
sui officii tollerabilius suportabit. Unde nota infidelitatis 

1. eccl. dei edif. gi. 4. suos om. h. f>. sub. om. ce ; ib. enim 
et sp. celeri. (5. 7. symoniaca abdgi. 8. frustra deus ce. 10. nn- 
verit ab. 11. quod ind. agi. i3. ex princ. tid. perseq. post necessitas i. 
15. Hd. kath. combinandi corr. in predic. a, breviandi f. brev. corr. in 
predic. d. 18. partibiliter corr. ex particulariter a; ib. episcopatu ae. 
corr. in episcopio g. 20. super ista 1. 21. et ante episc. om. abcei ; 
ib. et ante rect. om. h. 22. curat abfgi. 23, 24. max. e. i. 25. Cor. 
al. m. h; ib. deo al. m. h; ib. est cura ceteri. 26- pastor eh. pastorum 
ceteri. 27, 2S. 1 Cor. — adiut. al. m. ad. 28. enim om. d, al. m. h. 
29. eligit ch, elegit ccteri. 3o. fert corr. ex foret d. foret ceteri. 
34. nota al. m. ad, om. bf; ib. infidelitas bf. 



25. I Cor. 9, 9. 27. I Cor. 3, 9. 



CAP. VIII.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



gravissima foret episcopum parvipendere vicarii sui 
officium ; cuni enim secundum apostolum i Cor. 14, 
omnia dcbent fieri ad editicacionem nec habet potes- 
tatem faciendi quidquam nisi in edihcationem ut 
3 patet II Cor. 1 3, plane scquitur quod appropriando 
ecclesias, nisi ut sit cura fructuosior, est stulto stulcior, 
quia appropriando aliter propter modicum lucrum 
comodi temporalis onerat se symoniace ad respondcn- 
dum deo pro tanto defectu deterioracionis sue ecclesie, 

ioquod homo non faceret pro toto mundo. Ideo episcopi 
necessitati sunt deffendere, quod omnes quibus appro- 
priant ecclesias vel appropriabant in sua diocesi, fruc- 
tuosius adiuvant ipsos gerentes ofhciosius curam ovium 
quam rectores ante ea curaverant, cum aliter forent ipsi 

i5 pseudopastores et procuratores antichristi, de tanto The superfluity 

portantes gravius onus ecclesie. Conceditur tamen, quod may be given 

licitum et meritorium est in casu parrochie ultra suf- *"°!i! e r , 

... . community but 

ficienciam necessariam sui privati curati facerc ele- <>"ly hy'thc 
.... ..... ... . . . frcc will of the 

mosinas de decimis, oblacionibus aut alus clemosinis givcrs. 

2ogratis datis communitati vel persone ad quam gratis 

deliberat faciendum, sed hoc alienum est a limitacione 

sui episcopi, ne forte conswetudo trahatur in legem 

execrabilem et elemosina voluntaria in servilem exac- 

cionem. 

25 Sed ultimo videtur istam sentenciam ad tantum It is said our 
turbare ecclesiam, quod defficerent paparum consccra- ^"u^an chuxch 
ciones, episcoporum benedicciones et missarum cele- rites invalid. 
braciones, eo quod omnia talia ministeria in symoniacis 
sunt infecta. Hic dicitur concedendo conclusionem 

3o nam ritus tales imlisponentes ecclesiam necessario 
habent hnem et cum per se notum sit ex principiis 
lidei quod symonia sit unum de peccatis gravissimis, et 
iterum notum sit ex eisdem principiis quod quitquid 



1. vic. adiutoris siii abcdef, adiutoris corr. in vicarii h. 2. I om. 
abcef. .<, cdilicando ce. 5. 11 om. bcef. (j. ubi sit ceteri. 7. alitcr 
papaofr. 8. tcmp. comm. eeteri. 10. pro t. m. non f. ceteri. 12. appro- 
pnabant li, corr. e.x. appropriant d, appropriant ceteri. i3. adiuvantes 
ceteri; ib. cos ger. (I. 14. pastores abgi; ib. antca abc ; ib. curaverunt 
ceteri: ib. ipsi al. m. Ii. 17. cst om. h. 17, 18. sutlicicncia necessaria h. 
iS. sui prclati priv. cur. abgi, prel. vcl priv. i;i. vcl 17/. m. a. i<S, fac. 
ccclcsia* a. 10. aut eh, ac ceteri; ib. aliis elcmosinis h, corr. ex ccclc- 
sias d. ecclesias b, elem. om. ceteri. 21. deliberant adg, delibant bcef, 
deliberavil i; ib. facienda abcef, faciendam d. faciendi gi. 22. quod pro 
cpisc. bcf; ib. mcrc pro nc bf. 2'i. ccclcsia pro clcm. af, clcm. om. b. 
al. m. d,' vol. elem. cegi. 23. ad Titum c. ad t m - c'. 2<). coDsequenciam 
ceteri. }o. eciam dispon. bf, corr. in in a. 3i. pcr sc 0111. bcdef, 
al. m. a, not. p. s. sit agi. 32, 33. symonia — quod om. c. 



2. I Cor. 14, 26. ?. II Cor. 1?, 10. 



I I o 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. VIII. 



homo in mortali peccato fecerit, peccat mortaliter, 
manifeste convincitur, quod omnis talis actus symoniaci 
It would he est ad dampnum ecclesie; et sic minus nocivum foret 
churclfil alf ecclesie quod omnino in tulibus prepositis cessarent 
cc^sed' 3 " ministeria supradicla, nam incipiendo alj infimo patet 5 
minister. quod misse et oraciones symoniaci fiunt in peccatum 
suum et dampnum ecclesie. Unde in 5. decretalium de 
symonia sic scrihitur cap. Tanta: 'Tanta est labes 
huius criminis quod eciam servi aput dominos et quilibet 
criminosi admittuntur ad accusacionem.' Et sequitur 10 
iterum : 'Omnis peccator potest cantare missam preter 
symoniacum, quem quilibet ut ab ordine male sus- 
ceptos removeatur accusare potest, eciam meretrix;' 
cum ergo hec lex sit infallibiliter vera, videtur quod 
pauci audirent missam presbiteri, quia nimis multi sunt i5 
A simoniac is symoniaci opere vel consensu. Nec oportet expectarc 
suspended' from c l uo aL ' forum consciencie probacionem ecclesie quo 
°i* oiiicc. a j tales symoniacos, quia, ut docet glossa, talis symo- 
niacus in principio suspenditur ipso facto; cum enim 
meretrix vel alius infidelis potest docere iudicem et sic 20 
ecclesiam de vicio symonie, tantum est periculum com- 
municare cum symoniacis eciam ante humanum iudicium, 
sicud si continue fuerit simulatum, cum veritas periculi 
non sit minus nota ecclesie. Unde nimis illudunt populo 
qui dicunt, quod tantum valet missa presbiteri quan- 25 
tumlibet scelerati sicut missa presbiteri quantum- 
cunque katholici et devoti, ut ostenditur in tractatu De 
Eukaristia et memoratur decretum sub auctoritate 
Jeronimi 1 questione 1 cap. Sacerdotes : 'Sacerdotes,' 
inquit, 'qui eukaristie serviunt et sanguinem domini 3o 



1. mortali om. bf. al. m. ad, pecc. mort. cegi. i. si min. bf. 
4. cassarcnt ab. 7. in om. ceteri. 8. cap. Tanta om. ccteri; ib. lab. 
est ah, c. I. ceteri. Q. cjnod infimi vel eciam g, inf. v. al. m. a. 
11. itcm gh. 12. quem h, qtiam ce, quo f, quoniam ceteri ; ib. quilib. 
\ir dgi, vir in ras a. 12, i3. suscepto eh, suspecto bcf corr. in sus- 
Ceptus a, susceptus dgi. l3 eciam pot. bdfi. 14. cum itaque cetcri ; 
ib. sit lex di. i5. audient bcef, corr. in audirent a, audirent dshi; 
ib. multi nimis ceteri. Nullns oport. ceteri. 22. eciam om. bdefh. 

24. non min. sit a. min. om. g, s. n. m. ceteri; ib. alhidunt bef; ib. papc 
dhi, populo ceteri. 25, 20. quantumlibet — presbiteri o;;i. bcf, al. m. d 
quantumcunque ceteri. 27. et al. m. a. om. bcef ; ib ostendi cetcri, 
29. cap. Sacerd. om. ceteri. 

7. Corp. iur. can. Decr. De Symonia V, 3, 7 (Friedberg II, 75o). 
18. Cf. glossam ordinariam ad capitulum nota praecedenti lan- 
datum in editione Corp iur. can. a. i5ob. II, I. 21)4, in rine col. III, 
sub littera i: Simoniacus in ipso sui initio suspensus est. 27. De 
Eucharistia Cap. IV, p. 112. 29. Corp. iur. can. Decr. c. 90, 
C. 1, q. 1 (Friedberg I, 3gi). 



CAP. VIII.] 



DE SIMONIA. 



i i i 



populo eius dividunt, impie agunt in legem Christi, 
putantes eukaristiam inprecantis facere verba, non vitam. 
et necessariam esse tantum solempncm oracionem, non 
sacerdotum merita de quibus dicitur: Sacerdos in qua- 
5 cunque fuerit macula deprehensus non accedat offerre 
oblaciones domino;' si, inquam, in lege veteri que fuit 
plena cerimonialibus iudiciis, ecclesia non adesset in suo 
ministerio cui nota quomodolibet foret culpa, ut patet 
Levit. 21, quanto magis in sacramento et ministerio 

ionove legis; populus enim non interesset tornamentis 
sive spectaculis. ergo multo minus officio in quo fit 
Christo tantum dedecus et in quo sacerdos occidit se 
ipsum et deteriorat populum. Negacio itaque comuni- 
cacionis cum talibus ipsos erubescentes peccata sua 

i5 converteret, participacionem criminis contractam ex 
consensu a plebe averteret, et utrobique ydolatriam 
evitaret. 

Quo ad- episcoporum ministerium patet, quod regnante A Simoniac 
in eis symonia quidquid fecerint est blasphemum. Ideo pcrform a'nv ot 

20 non tunc benedicunt nec consecrant nec ordinant vel ,iis Jllties - 
conlirmant, sed temptantes faciunt omnino oppositum, 
ut patet ex testimoniis infinitis ut quo ad ordines patet 
1 questione 1. cap. Si qiti.s episcopus: "Qui, inquit, 
ordinatus est (suple: a talibus) nichil ex hac ordinacione 

25 vel promocione proticiat;' et sequitur decretum VIII 
sinodi cap. Qui: 'Qui per pecuniam quemquam con- 
secraverit vel ab alio consecratus est, alienus est a 
sacerdocio;' et tercio testatur idem decretum Gregorii 
sic scribentis cap. Qiiicunque: 'Quicunque sacros ordines 

3o vendunt aut emunt sacerdotes esse non possunt. Unde 
scriptum est: "Anathema danti et anathema accipienti, 
hec est symoniaca heresis." Quomodo ergo si anathema 
sunt et sancti non sunt sanctificare alios possunt? 

1. populis ceteri. 2 in potestatis etbf, corr. in impetrantis d. 3. ora- 
cionum a. S.mac. fu. h. o. et ministerio al. m. k. 10, n. populus — 
spectaculis al. m. in marg. a. 11. mal.m. h. i3. negandoi. r3, 14. con- 
iuncciones 1. 17. evitaret gh, corr. ex eructaret a, turbarut corr. ex 
eructaret d, eructaret bcef, ruitaret 20. non ord. abdfg, corr. in nec t. 
21. temperantes ce. 22. ut p. al. m. h. cap. om. ceteri; ib. quis inq. 

dgi. 24. suplo a tal. om. ceteri; ib. nichil in ras h, nec ceteri. 25. 8 corr. 
ex 81 /', 81 g. 20. cap. qui om. ceteri ; ib. quam dghi. 26, 27. con- 
secravorit ah, consecravit ceteri. 27. aliquo h. 2 ). cap. Quicunque 
om. ceteri ; ib. cunquo lante sacr.) 0111. bcef, al. m. a. 3o. vel em. ceteri. 
32. quc est abcefg. 33. quomodo sanctlf. ab; ib. alios al. m. h. 

4. Cf. Levit 21, 21. 9. Ibid. 23. Corp. iur. can. Decr. c. 8, 
C. I, q. 1 (Friedberg I, 359). 2( '- Ibid. c. 9. 29. Ibid. c. 12 
(Friedberg I, 36 1). 



I I 2 



JOHANNIS WYCLIF 



[CAP. VIII. 



Quomodo corpus Chrisii tradere vel aecipere possunt? 
Qui maledictus est benedicere quomodo potest.' Ideo 
n t dixi supcrius cx testimonio Jeronimi ct Gregorii, 
hencdiccio talium est nociva. Sicut enim blasfcmant, 
They bless quod Christus benedicendo panem ipsum destruxit 5 
'rteirblessing penitus ad non esse, sic benedicunt populum ad sensum 
is a curse. ironicum, hoc est ad sensum uxoris Job (secundo eius 
capitulo), populo maledicunt. Et idem est iudicium de 
quocunquc papa symoniaco quo ad omnem conse- 
cracionem episcopi vel omne opus quod tunc fccerit. 10 
Si ergo sccundum leges satraparum deficiente prelato 
superiori, cum sit essencialis ordo inter ipsum et pre- 
latum vel sacerdotem subditum, ministrantem necessc 
est cassarc officium subditi, pauci vel nulli forent 
presbiteri, quia illi forent per prelatos symoniacos i3 
procreati et sic perirent in ecclesia sacerdotalia sacra- 
menta. Nec valet fingere, quod deus mutat legem 
operacionis sue ad instanciam, ad deffectum vel roga- 
tum talis sacerdocii maledicti, quia gratis dat graciam, 
non pro temporali lucro, sed subtrahit dicente Ambrosio 20 
ut recitatur in decretis ubi supra: 'Cum ordinaretur 
episcopus, quod dedit aurum fuit, quod perdidit anima 
fuit; cum alium ordinat, quod accepit aurum fuit, quod 
dedit lepra fuit.' Ideo cogimur negare ordinem illum 
Christ ordains essencialem inter prelatos nostros et suos subditos, 20 
whom^and^ oWy mQ j enc i ent i DUS illis ut cifris Christus ordinat quem- 
cunque, quomodocunque et quandocunque voluerit. Et 
hinc sciens errores illos futuros in ecclesia, ordinavit 
apostolos suos episcopos tempore et forma nobis in- 
cognitis, ut discamus vel sic non nimis apreciari solemp- 3o 
nitates quas adinvenimus sacramentis nec nimis pom- 
pare de dignitatibus secundum quas ex institucione 
humana excedimus fratres nostros. Sequatur ergo sacerdos 
Christum in moribus et secure de ipso potest confidere. 



?. Quomodo — possunt ont. g. Ante quom. corpus haec sunt omitta, 
quae in decreto teguntur : lit cum in Christi corpore 11011 sunt. ..Jcre- 
mie ffi. 6. popuHim h. cnrr. ex popnlo d, populo celeri, pop. penitus abgi. 
7, 8. sec. c. cap. h, al. m. d, om. eeteri. 14. cessare a. cessari c. 
14, i5. forent — illi om. fg. 16. pro sacerdot. : sacramentalia fg, 
sacerd. al. m. ad. iS ad iusticiam h. 20. non om. acef al. m. d; 
ib. abstrahit ceteri. 22. pcrdideiit 24. ill. ord. ceteri. 2D. citris 

befgh. corr. in cifis ad, citis r", citri c. 27. quandocunque h, om. J, 
quantumcunque corr. ex qualiterc. a, al. m. d, quantumcunque ceterL 
28. istos errores ceteri. 3o. aprcciare agi. ^4. pot. d. ip. ceteri. 



7. Job. 2, K). 23. Corp. iur, can. Dccr. c. 14, C. 1, q. 1. 

(Friedberg 1, 35g.) 



CAi 1 . vm.] DE SIMONIA. i 1 3 

quod auctoritate sui dericiente quocunque prelato cesareo 

sit a Christo legittime ordinatus et in quocunque 

sacramento vel opere quod rite fecerit approbatus. Ex 

istis colligitur tiriaca, sine qua ut probabiliter creditur, 

3 ecclesia de symoniaca heresi non accipit medicinam, If simoniacs 
... , , . . .. . . will not resign 

scihcet quod dominus papa, episcopi, omnes religiosi their 

vel pure clerici titulo possessionis perpetue dotati debent ^ular ^wer* 

renuncciare illis in manus brachii secularis ecclesie, should make 
.... , . , , them do so. 

quod si pertinaciter noluerint per seculares dominos 

' o debent cogi. Probatur prima pars per illud Luc. i 4. : 'Omnis 
ex vobis qui non renuncciat omnibus que possidet 
non potest meus esse discipulus.' Et secunda pars patet 
per illud Matth. 5 : 'Quod si sal evanuerit ad niehilum 
valet ultra, nisi ut mittatur foras et eoneulcetur ab 

1 5 hominibus.' Rex itaque celestis expectat ista meritoria 
medicamina regum terre, ad quod ipse moveat, qui super 
totam ecclesiam semper regnat. Amen. 



4. ut al. m. a, om. bcdef ; ib. credi potest e. 5. quod ecclesia ce, 
ib, her. sym. ceteri. 8 illas ceteri. n. renunciaverit dgi. 16. me- 
dicamenta a. 16, 17. terram totam corr. in eccl. tot. a 17 regnat 
semper /, amen al. m. a, om bci. In fine tractatus lii adduntur versus: 
Explicit hoc verum conculcans Symonis clerum, 
Cunctos cum papis mordens monachosque prelatos i, 
cunctis, modis monachisque prelatis a, papis monachis ceterisque pre- 
latis b, monachisque prelatis fg. In b haec quoque legitur adnotatio: 
Conclusio: pura religio Christiana est quacunque privata perfeccior. In f: 
Amen dicant. Finitus est iste tractatus a. 1401. 



io. I tic. 14, 33. 1?. Matth. 5, i3. 



8 



ARGUMENTUM. 



Sentencia tractatus de symonia capitulariter sic ha- 
betur. 

Capitulum primum declarando tres modos heresis 
ostendit quid est symonia et ex descripcione concludit 
5 triplex corelarium: primum quod sancti attente detegunt 
ut debent equivocaciones signorum ad declarandum cam- 
bium symoniacum evitandum. secundum quod pauci vel 
nulli sunt prelati vel clerici qui non heresi symoniaca 
sunt percussi; et tercium quod tria movent reges et 

ioseculares dominos diligenter cavere ne ista heresi sint 
fedati. In qua materia narrat remedium contra symo- 
niacos et necessitatem iuvandi ecclesiam contra illud 
peccatum gravissimum ad cuius animacionem arguit 
triplici argumento. 

i5 Capitulum secundum obicit primo contra descripcio- 
nem datam de symonia per hoc quod iuriste et famosi 
theologi ponunt aliam, declarando utrobique conformi- 
tatem sentencie et declarat facilitatem et rectitudinem 
loyce sic mutate, declarans quomodo contingit regnum 

20 celorum iuste emere, quomodo contingit hominem ven- 
dere quod non habet, et quomodo omnis symoniacus 
est hereticus et econtra. Secundo obicitur quod dicta 
descripcio convenit cuilibet temporalium mercatori, et 
respondet declarando quod obiectus tollitur per hoc 

"> quod symonia est inordinata volicio; et concedit quod 
quilibet iniuste emens aut vendens, ymo omnis pro- 
curator aut iudex iniuste sentencians est symoniacus, 
cum hec labes sequitur ad mortale. Obicitur tercio per 
hoc quod videtur necessarium omnem sacerdotem esse 

osymoniacum, et tollit per hoc quod accipientes ordinate 

1. capcialiter corr. in capit. e, capcialiter bcf 8. sint be. 9. tam 
pro tria cf; ib. moverunt b. moverent ei, moveret/. II. detedati ag, 
17. et decl. ei. 20. iuste corr. e.x iniustea, iniuste e; ib. contingit al. m, 
in textu convenit a, couv. al. m. 9' in e textu conting. <]' e. 

8* 



ARGUMENTUM. 



temporale stipendium gracia salutis populi quem edifi- 
cant, commutant elcmosinas ordinate, et ex istis elicit 
primam conclusionem quod quicunque clericus intencione 
alia vel mensura benedictionem recipit a populo quam 
gracia spiritualiter edificandi populum symoniacus est 5 
censendus; secundam quod quicunque episcopus vel 
curatus vel presbiter preponderanter accipit talem statum 
propter honorem vel comodum temporale est symoniacus 
et hereticus permanens in illa heresi quam diu inhabilis 
ad suum officium servaverit illum statum: et terciam i<> 
conclusionem adicit, quod religiosus assumens dignitatem 
vel ordinem abbatis. prioris, dignitatis vel gradus reli- 
gionis possessionate vel exproprietarie plus propter 
dignitatem aut prosperitatem mundanam quam propter 
devocionem in paupere vita. ut mundum deserat, est >5 
anathema. quia symoniacus et hereticus in ingressu. 
Ex quibus concludit corelarie quam intoxicata et ex- 
comunicata sunt regna per prelatos hereticos, quia 
symoniacos, et omnia genera sacerdotum, et quomodo 
eorum benediccio et ministracio nocet regnis. Secundo 20 
principaliter obicit contra descripcionem propriam per 
hoc quod non licet precari pro quantumcunque habili 
ad beneficium ecclesiasticum promovendum et per con- 
sequens patronatus superflueret, et solvit movens dubium 
si beneficiatus symoniace tenetur beneficium dimittere 2? 
quod deciarat; dubitat secundo si licet prelaciam ap- 
petere et dissolvit: dubitat tercio, si licet adire curiam 
Romanam pro beneficio ecclesiastico acquirendo et 
dissolvit. Tercio obicit principaliter per hoc quod omnis 
symonia videtur esse opus extrinsecum, non voluntas: 3<> 
confirmat tripliciter ac dissolvit. 

Capitulum tercium arguit quod papa non potest 
comittere symoniam et respondet declarans quod sic 
faciJiter vel extollitur super deum et declarat tres vias 
quibus potest comittere symoniam papa; propter suam 35 
propriam excellenciam dignitatem illam monarchicam 
affectando: secundo tradiciones legi dei contrarias multi- 

4. ben. r. a p. al. m. a, om. ef. 6. vel ante cur. om. efi. 7. prep. 
al. m. corr. ex ad papandum a, ad papandum in scriptum e. preponen- 
dus bce, corr. in preponderanter g; ib. autem acc. bce, accepit bfg. 
i3. expropr. corr. in ex prepoMtura a, exproprietatur c, cxproprietacio f, 
cxprepositura i. i5. mundus ei. 17. conclud. corr. ex concedit a, 
concedit efi. 18. 19. et sym. g, corr. in quia a. 20. nocet efi. 22. non 
om. bc; ib. peccari c, corr. in precari e. 24. supertiucrent //'. 28. et 
om. cegi. 3i. ct diss. cf. 33. quod — 4a. 3. vias om. f; rcspondcns 
declarat i. 36. propt. s, exc. et propriam ditjn. ag; ib. monarchiam a. 



ARGUMENTUM. 



plicando ubi declarat legem Bonifacii VIII de presidendo 
ecclesiasticos esse hereticam; tercio inordinate volendo 
preticere minus ydoneos propter lucrum et solvit argu- 
mentum. Quarto suadetur pape Iicere racione capitalis 

5 dominii quod bona ecclesie quomodocunque voluerit 
dispertiri. Ulterius probat tripliciter quod ad reges, non 
ad papam pertinet conferre regnorum beneficia et obicit 
per Iegem minantem sacrilegium patrono dissolventi 
ius ad collaciam ecclesie et respondet. 

o Capitulum quartum probat tripliciter quod alienum 
est ab ofticio papali constituere prepositos patrie aliene 
et swadet multipliciter quod ad reges pertinet specia- 
liter heresim istam destruere et recitat glossam dicentem 
quod sufticit elleccio intrinseco quod sit bonus et arguit 

5 similiter contra illud ; post obicit tripliciter et dissolvit; 
primo quod cessaret omnis civilis eleccio et distinguens 
de elleccione concedit hoc fore expediens; secundo in 
hoc, quod in omni elleccione sufticit quod persona 
electa sit habilis et respondet dicendo quod repugnat 

o multos per semel et simul esse habiles ad idem officium 
singulare; tercio per hoc quod in lege veteri eligebatur 
summus sacerdos in ducem populi, ergo per idem 
apparet in nova lege papam eligi et respondet con- 
cedendo quod Christus est ille quem sufficit habere in 

5 papam cuius presencia ecclesia manet in eternum. 

Capitulum quintum declarat si pape liceat reservare 
sibi primos fructus personarum quas promovet, arguit 
que octupliciter ad negativam excluditque tres hcciones 
quibus affinnativum mendacium coloratur. 

0 Capitulum sextum declarat quomodo episcopus potest 
esse symoniacus in ingressu. in progressu et egressu. 
Fn ingressu tripliciter secundum tres modos vivendi. In 
progressu tripliciter: primo in ociando quo ad episco- 
pale officium; secundo in expendendo inprovide bona 

5 pauperum et tercio in extorquendo peccuniam propter 
spirituale ministerium; et obicit quintupliciter contra 
excusacionem symoniacam, qua dicitur quod spirituale 
non venditur, sed labor spirituali annexus et respondet 



2 ecclcs, oni. i; ib. volcns t. i. proficcrc eg; ib. dissolvitcj. \. po- 
pulo c, cad. titanu corr. in pape e. b. domini cf. 14. sutt. ell. intr. 
ex suit. in eleccione prclaii intrinseca corrupt. esse pag. 45 v. 32 dncei. 
25, maneat bei. 26. dubitat ce. 2y.sibi0m.efi. a8. arguiturque efi ; 
ib. ad o>». ce. 32. pro vi\endi in abef litterare complures quae sensu 
carent. ponunlur, in c lacuna relicta est; in a aliamanusvivendiscripsit. 



ARGUMENTUM. 



declarando symonias multiplices prelatorum et detcgendo 
vcrsucias excusacionum ostendit ex dictis sanctorum 
quomodo oneratur ecclesia et quomodo per dona tam 
ante quam post exhibita committitur symonia. 

Capitulum septimum declarat quomodo religiosi posses- 5 
sionati sunt utrinque symoniaci in ingressu et quomodo 
in empcione corrodiorum comittitur symonia; et post 
eius declaracionem multiplicem tollit tres excusaciones 
sophisticas, excuciendo venenum appropriacionis eccle- 
siarum parrochialium convincit ipsum tripliciter et io 
obicit tripliciter ac dissolvit, declarans primo quomodo 
ius patronatus sophisticum est secundum quatuor gradus 
et narrat triplex remcdium, secundo declarat quomodo 
sine tali ecclesiarum appropriacione starent collegia, et 
tercio quomodo pro omnibus bonis mundi non sic i3 
foverent discolos. 

Capitulum octavum declarat primo extensionem heresis 
tam opere quam consensu. Secundo declarat tripliciter 
quomodo papa cum aliis prepositis inficitur symonia, 
tercio ostenditur quomodo et a quibus lepra symoniaca 20 
decernitur et quomodo symoniacus post correpcionem 
triplicem fugietur et obiciendo specialiter de claustra- 
libus recitat quatuor ficticias et dissolvit, obiciendo 
quintupliciter contra quartam que simulat iusticiam 
appropriacionum ecclesiarum claustralibus, et ultimo -'■ 
obicitur per hoc quod iuxta hanc viam deficerent mini- 
steria prelatorum, et dissolvit concedendo ipsis existen- 
tibus symoniacis ut declarat per leges et raciones 
multiplices. 



6. utrumquc bc, utriusque/, utriquc i. 



Index of Quotations. 



I. Quotations from Scripture. 



Gcncsis XIX, 9, p. 12. 
Lxodus III and IV, P . 53. 

— XII. 22, p. 12. 

— XVIII, 18, p. 33. 

— XVIII, 21, p. 100. 
Leviticus XIII, p. 100. 

— XXI, p. 100. 

— XXI. 21, P . III. 

— XXIV, 16, p. 101. 
Numbers V, 2, p. 61. 

— VIII, 9, p. 42. 

— XII, IO, D. 01. 

— Xll, II, 12, p. 6l. 

— XXVII, 18, p. 41. 

I. Kings VIII, 6 et seq., p. 47. 

III. Kings VIII, p. 76. 

— XIII, 33. 34, p. 9. 

IV. Kings V, 27, p. 9. 

— V, 20, p. 60. 

— V, 22, p. 60. 

— V 21). 27, p. 01. 
Tobit XI., 7, p. 93. 
Job II, 19, p. 112. 
Psalms LXVIII, l0 , p. 11. 
Proverbs XIV, 34, p 7. 
Ecclesiastes IV, 17, p. 26. 
Canticles V, 12, p. D. 
Wisdom V, 21, p. 97. 
Isaiah VI, 5, p. 107. 

— XXXIII, i5, p. 3. 

— LV, 1. p. 2. 

— LXI, 6, p. 70. 
.leremiah XVII, 1, p. 20. 

— XXXI. 21, p. 38. 

Lzekiel XXXIV, io-i3, p. 104. 

— XXXIV. 11, p. io t . 

Daniel XIV, 39 et seq. p. 100. 
Hosea IV 8, p. 11. 



Hosea XIII, u, p. 47. 
Malachi I, 10, p. 74. 

— II, 2, p. 19, 75. 

II. Maccabecs I, 20, p. 1 
Matthew V, i3, p. uJ. 

— V, 17, p. 04. 

— VI, 1 ct seq. p. 90. 

— VI, ->i et seq. p.' 84 • 

- VII 5, p. 99. 

- X, 8, p. 4, 12, 80. 

— X, i5, p. 9- 

- XII, 32, p. 1. 

— XV, 14, p. 66. 

- XVI, 23, P . 63, 91. 

— XVIII, i5, p. 104. 

- XVIII, 17, p. 19. 

— XX, 20 & seq. p. 44. 

- XXI, 12, p. 9. 

- XXIV, 12, p. 14. 

- XXIV, 24, p. 69. 

- XXVI, 14, i5, p. i5. 
Mark XII, 42, p. 77. 
Luke II, 14, p. 11. 

- X, 6, p. 48. 

- XI, 17, p. 10. 

- XII, 14. p. 3o. 

- XIV, 33, p. u3. 
John II, 1, 2, p. 4, 5. 

- i3, et seq., p. 9. 

- i5, 18, p. 10. 

- 17, 20, p. 11. 

- IV, 8, p. i5. 

- X, 7, 9, p. 12. 

- XI, 16, p. 106. 

- XIX, 7, p. 101. 
-- XX, 26, p. 12. 
Acts I, 26, p. 41. 

- III, 6, P . 3o. 



Acts IV, 32, p. 85. 

- V, 9, p. 106. 

- VIII, 18, p. 25. 

- VIII, 20, p. 12, 67. 

- IX, 2, p. 39- 

- XV, 5 et seq., p. 76. 

- XV, 36, p. 49. 
Romans III, 8, p. 29, 91, 90. 

- VIII, 14, p. 49. 

- VIII, 38, p. 89. 

- XIV, 22, 23, p. 48. 

- XV, 18, p. 80. 

I Corinthians III, 0, p. 10S. 
I Corinthians IX, 11, p. ib- 

- IX, 9, p. 108. 

- XII, 4. P- 46- 

- XIV, 20, p. 109. 

II. Corinthians XIII, 10, p. 110 
Galatians I, 8, p. 77. 

- I, i3, p. 77. 

- II, 11, p. 63. 

- V. 10 & scq., p. 38. 

- VI, 5, p. 106. 

- VI, 7. p. 86. 
Philippians, III, 8, p. 38. 

II. Thessalonians II, 4, p- 28. 
I. Timothy, III, 1 & seq. p. 22, 
40, 64. 

- III, 7. P- 42- 

- IV, 2, p. 26. 

- VI, 8, p. 82. 
Titus III, 10, p. 104. 
James I, 17, p. 86. 

I. Peter IV. 11, p. 18. 
I John I, 8, p. 52. 

- II, 18, p. 63. 

II. John X, 11, p. n>5. 



II. Quotations of Canon Law. 



Decr. Grat. 1* Pars, pp. 5, 27, 
36, 75, 76. 

Decr. Grat >* Pars. pp. 4, 9, 
14, l5, 17, 18, 10, 20, 27, 20, 
3i, 34, 35, 36, 37, 41, 42, 43, 



43, 48, 62, 71, 72, 73, 77, 

78, 80, 82, 84. 85, 86, 93, 
95, 102. lo3, 110, 111, 112. 

Decr. Grat. 2* Pars, p. 47. 

Decr. Greg., pp. 36, 77, 80, 83. 



Decr. De Simonia (V. 3, 7). 
pp. 100, 110. 

V. Decr. (3, 5), p. 9. 

VI. Dccr. De rescnptis, p. 29. 



I 20 



INDEX OF QUOTATIONS. 



III. Other Quotations. 



liede thc Vencrable, 8 1 ". 
Bcrnard, St., 2. 
Brown | Fasciculus), 88 note. 
Cestrensis Polvchronicon, 33, 

56, 58. 
Chrysostom, 22, 8i. 
Council ot l.aodicea, iy. 
Ducange, 84 note. 
Gregory, St., 3, 4, 7, u, 79. 
Grosscteste, 88, io3. 



(juilclmus l'arisiensis, 8 and 

note, 11, 12. 
Guilelmus Peraldus, 8 and note. 
Hipden s Polychronicon 33. 56, 

58. 

Isidorus, St., 76. 
.leromc, St., 71. 

Thomas Aquinas, St., 14 and 
note. 
| Walsingham, G8. 



Wyclif: 

De Ci\ili Uominio, 8. 
De Eucharistia, 110. 
De Potestate Papac (De Papa) 
42, 5p. 

De Regis Officio (De Regc 

44- 

De Veritatc Sacrae Scrip 
turae. 68. 
Sermones, 106. 



General Index. 



Abolition, tlie, oi simonv, is very dillicult, 26. 
Abrogation, the, of a law, does not belong to 

the Pope, io3, and in any case it requires 

greater zeal on the part of the monks, 109. 
Atsentee bencficiaries should, as in Scotland. 

receive no income, 32. 
Accidenls wilhout a subject. 3q, 69. 
Acts, though positive, if attended by sin, are 

called sinful, though sin is a mere defect, 25. 
Administration, the, of temporalities, is infe- 

rior to the proper spiritual funclions of the 

Pope, 3o. 

Admission into a rcligious order, if paid for, 

unlawful, 84. 
Advowsons, simonically purchased, 90. 
Aiga^el, 6q. 

Alms shoiild be withdrawn as a defensivc 
measure against Papal claims, 56. 

Anecdote about a rich miser's servant 74. 

Anselm, St , his maxim that the slightest sin 
should not be committcd, even to save the 
world, 97. 

Antichrist, 6, 28, 3l, 44, 45, 81, 63, 65, 68, 
101, io3. 

Appointments for which a priest is unfit, or 
which are taken from wrong motives, con- 
stitute simony, 17. 

Appropriations 6f benefices by religious houses, 
a source of simony, 88; are not good though 
allowed by the Pope, 89; should not be got 
by monks and friars, even though recom- 
mendcd by their superiors, 106. 

Aquinas, his approbation of the detinition of 
simony given in the Decretals, 14. 

Aristoteles' axiom that what is violent cannot 
last, 97. 

Avicenna, 69. 

Avignon is the fountain hcad of simony, y. 
Authority, human,\\ rongly equalled to Divine, 3q. 
Avarice, the, of Bishops, 73. 

Barbers' tecs for tonsures, 78. 
Belial, sons of, who troublc tlie charch, i3. 
Benejice, a : implies dutics 10 be perlormed, 107. 
Bernard. St., and Pope Eugenius, 63. 
Bishop, the work of a, may bedcsircd, but not 

tlic dignity, 22. 
liishops tainted with simony, 70; should have 

only the necessarics of hfe, 82. 
Blasphemy, thc, of those who maintain that thc 

Pope is above every law, 64. 
Hlessings from the accurst are themselves 

acciirst, 10. 



! Blindncss. the, ot certain rulers, 14. 
Boniface VIII, 28, 29. 
Bulls of provision are unlawful, 48. 

Canon, a. if unfit, should reluse a bishopric, 46. 

Cardinals sent from Kome to England should 
not be admitted to any positions, 32. 

Ceremonies, heavv tecs for, 73; empty pretences 
that they are" payments only for bodilv 
trouble and expense, 74 : the Church bur- 
dened with them, 76. 

Chrt\t cast out thc buyers and sellers in the 
templc, 0, 11; cntered to his disciples, the 
doors being closed; mystic signification of 
this act, 12; condcmned to death as an arch- 
heretic, 101. 

Church, the, what parts of it are infected by 
simony, p. 27 to end of ihe book. 

Chrism, holy, forbiddcn to be sold under severe 
penalties, 77. 

Christians should obey the Popc only in so tar 
as he follows Christ, 65. 

Clement, St., 41, 56. 

Clergy thc, was primitively elected and oughl 

to be so now, 36. 
Clerks should not be prnmoted for secular ser- 
vice, 44. 

Colleges would not fail, but be more prospe- 

rous. if there were 110 appropriation, 94. 
Conditions, fifteen, which it a Pontili possesscs 

hc is a true Popc, 64. 
Conlempt of Christ shown m thc invention 01 

new iraditions, 9. 
Conlradiclion, the, ot Decretals, with eachOther, 

29» 52. . 
Corrodies, unlawfulness ot, 84, 85. Addenda. 
| p. ni. 
Conncil ot Lyon, 56. 

Creatures, all. are spiritual or rclated with 
something spiritual. i5. 

Oauger, Ihe, of holding patronage, 24; its 
abuses, 36. 

Death ought not to be inllicted 011 simomacs, 
but they should be left alone, 104; if tbeir 
compariy cannot bc shunned, their fellowship 
can, io5. 

Defences, sophistical, of simony, /4- 
Decretals; how thev define simony; the dclini- 

tion is faulty, 14, i5; contradiction among>i 

them, 2q. 

Devil, the noonday (or southcrn 1 is thc Pope, 
| if he makes unuist claims, 3l. 



122 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Devil, thc, would fear to do what simoniacs 
do, i3. 

Difficulty, tlic, of putting an end to simonv, 

26. 

Dilemma, a : either tlic papal decree, "si quis 

prebendas", is lieretical, or it is our dut) 

to enforce it, 102, io3. 
Door, the, signilies Christ, 12; no one should 

cntcr, unlcss with thc blood of thc I.amb, 

12, i3. 

Dove, thc, signifies the Chiirch mystically, 5: 

the simoniacal sellers of, /5. 
Duty, thc neglect of, renders a bishop simoniac 

by a tacit contract with the lievil, 72. 



Election by thc people is best, 42. Tvvo sorts 
of, 49. 

Elisha'i prophccy against Geha^i fulfilled 

aeainst the Church, 9. 
Endowments. many of thcm should be sup- 

prcsscd, 37; ought not to be savcd by wast- 

mg ihe goods of the poor, 96. 
Endowment is tlie nurse of heresy, 8; dcspoils 

thc Church, 38. 
Endowed orders, simonv among thcm, ch. VII, 

pp. 84—98. 

Episcopal consecrations might bc performed 
iust as wcll by a holy layman, yo. 

Episcopal duties cannot bc performed bv simo- 
niacs, 111. 

Eucharist, the, lalse doctrines prevalent con- 

cerning, 39, 69. 
Eusenius, Pope, and St. Bcrnard, (i3. 
Evil donc that good may come, 96. 
F.xcommunicatinn need not bc feared, 45. 
Excuses, thc, that a tcmporal gift alonc is 

bought bv corrodies, are a mockery of 

God, 86. " 

Extortions at oidinations undcr form of frcc 
gifts, 78—80. 



Ealsity, of the proposition that a man is good, 

if hot moraliy bad. 4(1. 
Eavour, the. of patrons, simoniacalh obtaincd. 

90. 

Fictitious claims as to endowments, 35. 

Fire, tlie sacrificial; its cxtinction, mystic sig- 

nitication of, i3. 
First fruits should not bc givcn to the Pope, 

?4. 55; their payment implies a simoniacal 

contract, not explicit but, tacit, 59. 
Fittest, the. should ahvays be elected, 46; i- c. 

not the fittcst in himself, but for place aud 

time, &c, 47. 
Founders of monasteries, wronged bv corro- 

dies, 85. 

Freedom ot the Church, the, infringed upon by 

the 1'opc. 55. 
Free-will givcn us by God, obliges us, io act 

against simony, 102. 
Friars and contemplative Orders are for the 

niost part simoniacs by their tacit consent 

to simony, 98 — 99. 

Gehafi, the Old Tcstament type of the simoniac, 
0; his behaviour less wicked than that ol 
fnodern simoniacs, 60; lns punishment, 61, 

66, 79. 

God sclls things spiritual to His creatures, 16; 
Hc alone bcing sinless, and master of all 
things spiritual, the Pope may bc a simoniac, 



3o; Hc gives his gifts lo all frcclv, and vvc 

should do likewise, 97. 
God's lan> ; whatever is addcd thcrcto is more 

or less wrong, 5o. 
Gold is given und the soul is lost by a simo- 

niacal gift. 112. 
Greed is an impedimcnt to lawful promotion. 

20; Gregory XI, his condemnation of the 

doctrine that the Papal power of binding 

and loosing is limitea, 68. 
Gundophorus, King; legend of St. .Thomas 

and, 106. 

| Heaven awaits rulers who put down simonv, 7. 

lleresy is divided chiefly into three kinds, 
simony, apostasy, and blasphemv; 1; exists 
amongst the clergy, especially in high places, 
4; is nurscd by endowmcnts, 8. 

Heretics, Different sorts of; simoniacs, friars, 
and rulers who support simoniacs, 6. 

Idolatry ot simoniacs, i3; incurred in thrusting 

onesclf into officc, 20. 
iunorance which the Bishop prctends of simony 

ad ordinations; 78; he ought to know, 79'. 
Impeccability cannot belong to the Pope, 3i. 
Income. vcarly, of each membcr of the clergv 

would amount 011 an avcrage to tooo marks, 
, »9- 

Injustice ot Bonitace VIII' s law that the first 
person of manv who presents a papal pro- 
vision, shall have thc benefice, 29. 

Innocent UTa authority as regards the liucha- 
rist, 39, 40. 

Irony of the blessingsof siinoniacs whosc blcss- 
ing is a curse, 112. 

Iscariofs sin, less heinous than that of simo- 
niacs, 11 ; his toleration by Christ, no ex- 
cuse for promoting bod priests, 91. 



Jeroboam, an exainple of simonv . io. 

Jolm XXII was the lirst Pope who ordcred thc 

payment of lirst fruits, 38. 
Joshua, 41. 

Judas is always very activc in the Church, 29; 

men now scll Cnrist as he did. 43. 
Judges who are themselves infected with simony 

are incapable of judging rightly, 100. 
Justice, wrongfully bought and sold. issimon\ , 

16. 

King, thc, has thc duty to dispense beneticcs, 
3i: must be the first in his kingdom, 33; 
should awakc from slumber, 44; is morc 
guilty if he tolerates simony, than if he 
should lct leprosy or hostile invasion deso- 
late his rcalm, 10. 

Kingdoms arc troubled by siraony, 7. 

I.abour. corporal, pretendcd to bc paid for in 
fees tor ceremonies. of which the price 
would be very smalll, if not for the spiri- 
tual value ot the ceremonies, 75. 

Lawfulness, thc, of asking promotion for one 
whom we know to be tit, 19. 

I.egal proof oi simony is sometimes impossiblc 
and mav be dispehsed with, 99. 

Leprosy is the iniagc of simony, 9, 61; likc it, 
is hard to cure, 26. 

Leprosy, spiritual, has fallcn 011 the Popes, 61. 



GENERAL INDKX. 123 



Licenses sfmoniacally purchased, 90. 
I.ots, castinf; ; an Apostolic modc 6f choicc, 41. 
I.ouis, St., king of France, burned certain papal 
bulls, 5g. 

I.ucifer's argiiments are most heretical, 3o. 
I.usts, the, of the flesh are an impediment to 

lawful promotion, 20. 
Lu.xury in food, dress, etc. renders a Bishop 

simoniac, 72, j3, 81 ; of prelates, g5. 
I.yon, council of, 50. 



Maledictions, if unjust, are blessings, 4?. 

Mark of the Beast, the. if visible, would be 
seen on all English liishops, 72, -3. 

Mass, according to Canon law may be said bv 
all sinful priests except by simoniacs, 116. 

Mathias, St., 41. 

Miriam struck with leprosy, 6r. 

Money paid by another lor a benefice docs 
not prevent its lawful reception, if the benc- 
liciary do not know of it, 20 ; is simoni- 
acally taken out of England, 44. 

Monks "should do penance in thc desert and 
not live in towns, ousting laymen from 
their places, 97 ; should not leave appro- 
priated churches to their vicars, 107. 

Mortal sin is the buying of the right to be 
damned, i5, and is simony in its most uni- 
versal sense, 16; is incurred at every action 
of a man in a state of mortal sin, 18, and 
in elections to charges made according to 
human traditions, 5o. 

Moscs' position and that ot the Pope cannot 
be comparcd, 53. 

Naaman's leprosv, simony figured by, 9. 
Necessity of choosing the very tittest for any 

charge, 5i. 
Niaiveh, 32. 
\oonday devil, the, 3i. 
Mepotism in the Church, 92. 



Obedience is due only in so far as our rulers 

follow God's law "102. 
Objections to Wychfs defimtion of simony, 

disposcd of, 24, 25; to the doctrine that the 

tittest should be ulected, refuted, 5l— 5<j.. 
obtigation, the, of giving up a beneticc obtain- 

ed simoniacally ; how far it extcnds, 21. 
Of/iciers, the, Bishops', arc said lo buy thcir 

offices, 81. 

Orders takcn onlv lor pay ; how this abuse 

might bc avoided. 86. 
Ornaments, consecration of: fecs for, 8. 



Papal collectors should not be tolcrated, 104. 
Patrimony of the Crucified, the; abuses ofthe, 
l3, 93. 

Patronage the danger of 24, ought to belong 
to the foundcr of the benefice .14 ; was at 
first in lay hands, and therefore could not j 
lawfully havc come nto those of the clcrgy, : 
34, 35 its abuses, 36. 

Paul, St., struck with blindness notwithstand- 
ing .his good intentions, 38. 

Paul. St., rcsisted St. Heter to his facc, <>3, 68. i 

Payments to lavmen for defence of convents 
are simony, g5. 

Payment and service ought to be inseparablc, 55. 



Peace, the, of thc world requircs that simony 

should be put down, io3. 
Pe<nniary engagements, it a religious house 

undertakes them, mav perhaps not bc ful- 

lillcd, 87. 

Pcnance, the sacramcnt of, false doctrincs pre- 
valent concerning, 39. 

Pensions, simoniacal system of, 92. 

Perfection, religious, sbld for money, 89. 

Pobr, the, wronged by corrodies, 85. 

Pope the, is not to be counted upon to put 
down simony, 6. 

Pope, the, can commit simony, 27, by love of 
wordly pomp, 28, by inventing traditions 
for his own gain, 28, 29 ; by presenting 
curates for wordlv reasons, 3o ; usurps the 
king's duties 3i, 32, which include all tem- 
poralities, 33, 93; he shows himsclf a heretic 
by his exaggerated claims, 40; his excom- 
niunications are not to be feared, 45; his 
bulls of provision should not be obeyed, 48; 
his claim to be appointed by God like Moses 
is false, 53; he has no right to patronage 
and first fruits, 54, all claims on this point 
involve danger, 55, and infringe on the free- 
dom of the Church, 55, 56 ; he takes far more 
than the king, 57; his supreme universal 
power is a fiction, 57; he is infected with 
the leprosy of simony 61; his authoritv 
cannot legitimate unlawful payments, 63, 
64; he must not be set up as Antichrist, 
63, but should be fearlessly corrected, ib. ; 
he is set up by many above the Gospel, 04; 
should be obeyed, but onlv in so far as he 
follows Christ 65; should made satisfac- 
tion, when wrong, (io, take warning from 
Gehazi and Simon Magus, 0/, and go back 
to primitivc simplicity 67, 68, 93 ; liis prc- 
tence of being in want is a fiction, 89 ; his 
right to abrogate laws may go to extremc 
lengths, io3. 

Possessions, the, of simoniacs ought to be con- 
fiscated, and this confiscation is far juster 
than the right of conquest, 7. 

Poverty^ the, of the clergy, inculcatcd by the 
laws of the Church, 83. 

Preaching, the neccssity of, in Chrisfs Church, 
108. 

Predestinate. the, are alone thc mcmbcrs ot 

Chrisfs Church, 3o. 
Presentation. the, of any person to an otlicc, 

lhough allowable, is wrong if made in prc- 

petuity, as of any mcmber of an order chosen 

bv itself, 90. 
Pretence, the, that the clergy is iu want, 89. 
Pride is an impediment to lawful promotion, 20. 
Priests may without simonv demand a tem- 

poral stipend for their spiritual labours, ifi, 

but not more than they really need, 16, 17 ; 

lose their priesthod, if simoniacs, 18, [g. 
Priest, a, even if good, should not be prefer- 

red to a better lavman, 46. 
Promotion, if personally sought after, unlawful, 

20; to beuehces, how' imperfectly obtained, 6. 
Property got, distributed and managed by pos- 

sessioners is an occasion of simonv, ^8. 
Prostitutes are according to canon law admit- 

ted to accuse simoniacs, 110. 

Rank implies responsibility, 108. 
Heformation Ihe, of the church by thc Pope 
would be a gieat miracle, o3. 



[24 GENERAL INDEX. 



RehoboanCi reign is ihe type ot the division of 

the Church, 81. 
Religious houscs, pensions to, 92. 
Rcmedies, thiee, to simony, 93. 
Requisites, of a judge, the, 100, ioj. 
Resistance to the Pope's claims is a duty, 32. 
Responsibility, thc, of monks in matlers con- 1 

cerning simony, 106. 
Righteousness in a pope is the only titlc to a 

claim ovcr temporalitics, 3o. 
Rites of Ihe Church rendered invalid by W\- 

clif's doctrine: and lustly so, 109. 
Robbery of thc Church. au oojection against la\ 

rulc, 37. 

Rome sliould not be applied to tor benetices, 23. 
Rule, the, bv which consent to anv action is 
iudged, 98. 

Rulers, bliiidncss ol. 14: thcy are simoniacs by 
cousent to simony, 98. 

Scots thc. 32, and notc. 

Significations, mystic; a dovc is the Church, 
3: Naaman's lcprosy is simony, 9; thewhip 
with which Christ cast out fhe buyers and 
sellers signities thc cords with whicb simo- 
niacs arc bound, n; Lot's door figures 
Christ, which spiritual Sodomitcs strive 
to break open, 12; Christ entering to his i 
disciplcs, the doors bcmg closed, tigures 
that the doors should bc closed to simoniacs, 
ib. ; the sacrilicial fire going out whcn Jason 
bought thc priesthood signities the loss of 
chanty in the church through simony, i3, 
14; the whiteness of leprosy signifies hypo- 
crisv, 62; I{ehoboam's rcign signilics the 1 
division of thc Church, 81. 

Sign-wor shippers, 36, 39. 

Simon the Magician, 2, 67. 

Simony is a sin against thc Hol\ Ghost, 1; is 
a leprosy verv diflicult to cure, 1, 2; Its de- 
tinition, 2: consists in thc inordinate will 
to exchauge spiritual for temporal things, 
and may exist wilhout any external act, 2, 
3; it is implied in every mortal sin, 3; its 
common meaning is an inordinate contract 
to obtain spiritual oftice. ib.; not only by 
means of money, munus a m-nu). but 6i 
services rendered (munus ab ocsequio) and 
of intiucnce cmployed (munus a lingua), 3. 
4; it is a heresy, 4; should be pnt down 
bv secular lords, 5: is spintual sodomv, 8; 
is the most grievous sin against God's 
grace, 8, 9; exists amongst the religious in 
universities and in privatc colleges, which 
will consequently come to destruction, 10; 
is most directly against God's law, 12 : is ! 
an attenipt to "force open the door of God. 
ib.: consists not in the fact of buying and 
selling things spiritual but in its unlawful- 
ness. i5; cannot be mantained to be a buv- 
ing or selling of things spiritual. the deti- 
nition being too lax, i5. 16; is committed by 
unjust judges and perhaps by dishonest 
traders (in a wide sense) 16; is'all but uni- 
versal, 17, 18; causes great evils in the Church, 1 



18, 19; is comniitted by those who apply to 
Komc for benefices, 23; does not consist in 
thc mere exterior act, 24 ; is a heresv, because 
it is contrary to Scripture, and is the de- 
fence of, of the submission to a false doc- 
trine, 25; is the devil's net to catch men, 
26; is of old standing in England, 62; com- 
mitted very much in the endowed Orders, 
84, and seq.; is committed whenever any 
prescnt is received or given for a gift 6l 
God, 80, whenever rcligious mcn aspire to 
prelacies, 87: simonv amongst tcmporal ru- 
lers, Ch. VIII, to end. 

Sin, the, of acting against onc's conscience even 
to do right, 48; incurred whencvcr \ve sct 
asidc what is best for us, 52. 

Society. Earlv English Text, 106, nolc. 

Sodom and Gomorrhah's sin was less thau that 
of simony, 76. 

Sodomy, spiritual, 8. 

Snphisms in defence of simony, 14. 

Standard, the, of titness for anv ottice, is Cod's 
will ; if departed from, mofe and morc un- 
lit pcrsons are choscn, 47. 

Supcriors, if known to be wrong. should bc 
rebuked, 107. 

Suspension ot simoniacs froin all offices ipso 
facto. 110. 

iemporal advantage, the, ot putting down 
simoniacs; the possessions of those heretics 
should be conliscated, 7, 83. 

/ cmporal lucre, the desirc of. renders a bishop 
simoniac, 70. 

i homas Aquinas, Saint, approves thc dctinition 
of Simonv givcn in the Dccretals, 14. 

I ithes should be refused bv the people, 94: 
mav be made over to another poorer parish 
witli the consent of the people, 109. 

( nfitnets lor a charge cntails the duly ot icsig- 
ning it, 22. 

Unlawfulness, tlic, of buying and sclling things 
spiritual, and not thc fact, constitutes si- 
mony, i5. 

Unlawjulne*s of corrodies, 84. 85. 

( rban VI. Pope, appealed to that he should re- 
nouncc all richcs in this world, 67. 

Yeslments, consecration of, fees for, 78. 
Vicar, the, of Christ must live as Christ did, 54. 

War will continuc so long as simony la»ts. 9; 

because good will among inen can sprihg 

only from good will to Christ, 9. 
Whip, Ihe, with which Christ cast out tbe 

buyers and sellers in the temple, its mystic 

signification, 11. 
Whiteness of leprosv, m\stic signification ot 

the. 62. 

Wyelij defends his own definition of simony, 
14 ; his reasons, 14, i5. 

Zcal in doing one's duty can alonc atonc for 
thc unlawful receptioii ot a benefice, 21. 



Addenda. 



P. 22, 1. 14. The work to which Wyclif 
alludes is obviously De Officio Pastorali, which 
was published by Lechler, i863. There aro se- 
veral passages which may serve to elucidate 
others in De Simonia: especially Pars 2", 
c. XI, p. |5 in which Wyclit accuses bimself 
of not being faultless as concerns temporal 
possessions, and points out the means of aton- 
mg for such shortcomings. Compare De Si- 
monia, p. 21: "Omnes enim sumus in inpetra- 
cione, in accepcione, et in execucione bene- 
ficii ecclesiastici maculati . . . ." But Wvclif, 
in the present passage, seems to allude to his 
commentary on the eleclion of St. Alathias, 
Pars 2», c." IX, pp. 42, 43. I also tind a short 
commentarv on St. Paul's sketch of the virtue 
a Bishop oiight to have, Pars 1* , c. IV, p. n 

P. 42, 1. 26. There is a mistake here. Thc 
note belongs to. P. 42, 1. 26, and concerns the 
tractateDe Potestate Pape. It is not yet publish- 
ed; but fortunately it has been copied, and 
M. Patera, the clnef librarian of tlie Prague 
University, has been so k>nd as to send his 
copy for perusal. Wyclif, in tliis place, evi- 
dently alludes to Ch.'lV. of De Potestate Pape. 
towards the end, especially from 180 a 1 . 

P. 44, 1. 3o. De Rcge. There are several 
pages in De Of/icio Regis, bearing directly on 
this matter. Sec pp. 176 et seq. There, howe- 
ver, nothing is to be found respecting thc 
"cavendo tanquam venenum, etc." 

P. 59, I. 7. 1 11 De Poteslate Pape, c. X, we 
lind a lengthy account how the Pope, in ans- 
wer to complaints that nothing could be had 



in Rome without monev, pointed out that the 
causc was poverty, and asked for a fixed sub- 
sidy upon ecclesiastical revennes to be granted 
him. C. X. ff. 216 b 2 (towards the latler halfj, 
217 a l . Wyclif calls this a 'scandaloza peticio', 
and proceeds to justify his epithet at consi- 
derable length. His authority for the fact is the 
'cronica que intitulatur flores historiarum'. 

P. 68, 1. 36. De Veritate Sacre Scripture. 
This work ot Wyclif has not yet been publish- 
ed, and the] Wyclif Society considers it un- 
necessary to wait until its publication. 

P. 84, 1. 21. A corrody, according to an 
interesting and valuable communication by Mr. 
Matthew, "was a life annuity, granted bv a" con- 
vent against an immediate payment.' Thus, 
about 1327, l.ord William of Ullebourn madc 
over to the Convent of Winchester a conside- 
rable property about 10 miles from the city, in 
return for which the Convent paid him yearly 
£ 10 in money; robes, &c. to value of £ 2. 3 . b 
and certain payment tn kind (hay, oats, &c.) 
worth about 40 shillings. In i334, there is a 
note in the Convent accounts of the Iast pa\- 
ment, and 'nothing more, because he is dead'. 

In i33o, one Richard Becke pays £ 5o, in 
return for a corrody of one convenfual loaf and 
one pot of conventiial beer daily. 

Thesc corrodies may have had their rise 
in providing for the case of a person who 
wished to give his property to the convent, 
but could not leave himsclf without suppoit. 
In later times, it became a regular (but not 
always thrifty) wav of raising ready money. 
When the monasteries were suppressed, one 
of the enquiries that the commissioners had to 
make was what corrodies each had to pay." 



Errata. 



1 apparat. ad vers. n, 12 pro distincc. g lege cg. 

2 „ » - 27 „ ceteri „ h. 

3 „ „ „ 9 » » „ - 

9 not. „ 3i - C. 1. 7. t. „ C. 1. q. I. 

13 apparat. „ „ 20 , bc „ bce. 

14 - . _ 33 _ abi „ ab/i. 
14 „ „ „ 33 „ cef „ ce. 

17 „ „ 17 „ sordibus „ sord. celeri. 

18 „ „ „ 1 „ 34. mendieuni „ 1. niendicuni. 
28 „ „ „ 23 „ celeri „ //. 

28 „ . 23 „ qui om. . qui i. 

40 in calce adde notam : De l'apa af. Addenda. 

42 not. ad vers. 2'"> TractatQS De Papa delendum est. 

5i not. pro 25 lege 2<). 

O2 „ ad vers. i3 „ c. 7, C. 1 „ c. 7, C. 1. 

08 „ „ „ 7 „ Anglici „ Angliae. 

73 apparat. „ „ 9 „ al. m. dhi „ al. m. dh. 

73 not. „ „ 0 „ ib. „ 10. 

73 „ „ „ 18 „ 70 „ 71- 

81 apparat. „ „ i3 „ rei ei, rcgum e „ rei ei. regum c. 

81 „ „ , 24 lege d, querit af. 

85 „ „ „ 1 adde Eboracensem om. b. 

92 „ „ „ 7 pro spptio lege spatio. 

100 „ „ „ 20 adde a Jetro om b 

103 „ „ „ 16 pro agi in marg. lcge agi, a in marg. 

104 „ „ „ 3, 4 pro aceg lege ace. 

104 _ , „ 3, 4 „ corr. in servi lcge covr. ex servi. 

104 „ „ „ 7 „ suscept. b lege d. 

110 „ „ „ 25, 26 pro bcf lege baf. 

112 n „ 14. «5 „ Otn.fg legc o>«. g. 



The Society's book for 1896 is nowready; and the 
works for 1897 and 1898 are in the binders' hands, and 
can be sent next month to such Members as will pay 
their Subscriptions for those years. The Subscription 
for 1896 became due on Jan. 1, and should be paid at 
once to the Hon. Sec, J. W. STANDERWICK, Esq., 
GENERAL POST OFFICE, LONDON, E.C. Cheques 
to be crost, 'London and County Bank.' 



Tenth Report qf the Executive Committee, for 1896. 
(April, 1896.) 



The continued help that the Society gets from its printer, 
Mr. Carl Georg Froinnie of Vienna, combined with the 
devotion of its editors, M. Dziewicki and Prof. Loserth, aided 
by Mr. Matthew, alone enables it to produce its books in 
time, and in advance. 

The volume for 1896, comprising the third and fourth 
parts of Wyclif 's Opus EvangelicWm, edited by Prof. Loserth, 
is bound and ready for issue. 

The volumes for 1897 and 1898, De Logica II, edited by 
M. H. Dziewicki, and De Simonia, edited by Prof. Dr. 
Herzberg-Friinkel and M. H. Dziewicki, are in the binders' 
hands, and can be issued next month to any Members who 
will pay the two years' subscription in advance. 

The Society is clear of debt to the end of 1895 ; but it 
owes Mr. Fromme £350 for its three volumes of 1896-8, 
and it has about enougb in hand to pay its binders for 
covering these volumes. The Committee therefore appeul 
to Members for three years' advance subscriptions at once, 
so that a fresh start may be made, free from all liability, 
at the future years' work, 1899-1912. 

For 1899 and 1900-1, De Logica III, edited by M. H. 
Dziewicki, and Prof. Loserth's edition of De Civili Dominio 
II, III, — whose sheets Dr. Peginald L. Poole and Mr. F. D. 
Matthew see, and Dr. R. L. Poole side-notes, — have been 
some time at press, and may be finished this year. For 1902 
or 1903, M. Dziewicki has kindly undertakeu to edit the 



Miscellancous Tracts, Nos. 54-61 in Shirley'fl Catalogue, 
which were copied by Dr. Buddensieg, and were in the 
hands of Dr. Schnabel of Dresden, as editor, till his death 
three years ago. Also, for 1902 or 1903, the De Potestate, 
which has for many years been in the hands of M. Patera 
of Prag, has just been sent to Professor J. Loserth, so 
that it will probably go to press next year. For 1904, 
the Bev. Dr. Buddensieg hopes to produce his edition of 
De Vcritate; and then all "Wyclifs great Sitmma Theologiae 
will be iu type, except the De Mandatis Dei and De Statu 
Innocentiae, which Mr. F. D. Matthew will take up as soon 
as his help to other editors leaves him time for his own texts. 

The other works of Wyclif remaining unprinted and not 
likely to be included in the second volume of Misc.ellanies % 
now in charge of the Rev. J. P. Whitney, are, byShirley's Nos. : 



6. De Materia ct Forma.* 

7. De Materia (r).t 

8. De Ente, Bk. I*, Bk. II* 

9. Beplieatio de Universalibus.* 

10. De Universalibus.* 

11. De Anima.* 

13. De Fide Catbolica.* 

24. De Propbetia* 



26. De Imaginibus.t 

2S. Peccatum Mortale et Veniale.t 

32. Errare in Materia Fidei, <fcc.+ 

(45. Commentary on N. Test. ? not 

Wydifs.t) 

64. De Paupertate Cbristi.t 

(69. '( part of De Potestate Papae.) 

70. De Clavibus Ecclesiae* 



Members have, then, to keep " pegging away " till the 
work they have set themselves is done, and England's long- 
due debt to \Vyclifs memory paid. For that, money is 
wanted. "Who will give it? 

In order to increase the Society's funds, the Executive 
Committee have resolved that any Member may give the 
right to any Library or person to buy the first fourteen 
years of the Society's publications, 1882-95, at half-price 
— 19 volumes at 8 guineas and a half — provided that 
with this sum are paid the full Subscriptions for 1896, 
1897, and 1898. 

England, Europe, and the rest of the Christian world owe 
so much to the memory of "Wyclif, that support ought to be 
forthcoming for the printing of his "Works, the records of 
his thoughts and life. Two-thirds of the Society's task will 
be done by 1900. It is for our Members to see that the 
other third is finished speedily. Editors are ready and 
willing. Money alone is wanting. 

* Copied. t Not copied. 

§ Sbirley's Nos. 43, 44, 47, 48, 68, 77, 92, 94, 95. 



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The Socie/y's Publicalions for 1882 — 1898 (£l ls. each year) are : — 

1882. * I. Wyclif s Latin Polemical IVorks, vol. I, edited by Dr. R. Buddensieg. 

1883. * 2. ,, ,, ,, vol. 2, ,, ,, 

1884. 3. Wyclifs De Civili Dominio, Lib. I, edited by Reginald Lane 

Poole, M.A., Ph.D. 
,, 4. Wyclifs De Composicione Hominis, edited by Dr. Rudolf Beer. 

1885. 5. Wyclifs De Ecclesia, edited by Prof. J. Loserth, Ph.D. 

,, 6. Wyclif s Dialogus, sive Speculum Ecclesia Militantis, edited by A. W. 
Pollard, M.A. 

1886. 7. Wyclif s De Benedicta Incamacione, edited by the Rev. E. Harris, 

D.D. 

,, 8. Wychfs Sermones, Part I, edited by Prof. Loserth, Ph.D. 

1887. 9. Wyclifs Sermones, Part II, edited by Prof. Loserth, Ph.D. 

,, 10. Wyclifs De Officio Regis, edited by A. W. Pollard, M.A., and C. 
Sayle, B.A. 

1888. 11. Wyclifs Sermones, Part III, edited by Prof. Loserth, Ph.D. 
,, 12. Wyclif s De Apostasia, edited by M. II. Dziewicki. 

1889. 13. Wyclifs Sermones, Part IV and last, edited by Prof. Loserth, Ph.D. 

1890. 14. Wyclifs De Dominio Divino, edited by Reginakl L. Poole, M.A., 

Ph.D. 

1 89 1 . 15. Wyclifs Quaesliones and De Enle predicamenlali, edited by Dr. 

R. Beer. 

1892. 16. Wyclifs De Eucharistia, edited by Prof. J. Loserth, Ph.D. 

1893. 17. Wyclifs De Blasphemia, edited by M. H. Dziewicki. 

1894. 18. Wyclifs De Logica, vol. I, edited by M. H. Dziewicki. 

1S95. 19. Wyclifs Opus Evangelicum, vols. I, 2, ed. byProf. J. Loserth.Ph.D. 

1896. 20. Wyclif s Opus Evangclicum, vols. 3, 4, ed. by Prof. J. Loserth,Ph.D. 

1897. 21. Wyclifs De Logica, vol. 2, edited by M. H. Dziewicki. 

1898. 22. Wyclifs De Simonia, edited by Prof. Herzberg-Frankel, Ph.D., 

and M. H. Dziewicki. 

The Socielys Future Publications will probably be : — 

1899. Wyclifs De Civili Dominio, Lib. II, edited by Prof. J. Loserth, Ph.D. 

1900. Wyclifs De Logica, vol. 3, edited by M. H. Dziewicki. (At press.) 

1901. Wyclifs De Civili Dominio, Lib. III, edited by Prof. J. Loserth, Ph.D. 

1902. Wyclifs Miscellanies I, edited by M. H. Dziewicki (Nos. 54-61 

in Shirley's Catalogue). (Al press.) 

1903. Wyclifs De Potestate Papae, edited by Prof. J. Loserth, Ph.D. 
WycliPs De Ente, edited by M. H. Dziewicki. 

Wyclif s De Mandatis Divinis, edited by F. D. Matthew. 

Wyclif s De Statu Innocentiae, edited by F. D. Matthew. 

Wyclif s De VeritateS. Scripturae, edited by the Rev. Dr. R. Buddensieg. 

Wyclif s Miscellanies II, edited by the Rev. J. P. Whitney, M.A. (Nos. 

43, 44, 47, 48, 68, 77, 92, 94, 95, in Shirley's Catalogue). 
Wyclifs De Actibus Animae, edited by M. H. Dziewicki. 
Wyclifs Miscellaneous Phdosophical Works, edited by M. H. Dziewicki. 

And the rest of Wyclif s Latin Works. 

* The very heavy outlay for copying in these years (,£295) made the 
issue of more volumes in them impossible.